Canada (Toronto)

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Toronto, Canada - airpano

Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. It is located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. Toronto, with a population of 2.6 million, is at the heart of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) which contains million people. The city is the anchor of the Golden Horseshoe region,

which wraps around Lake Ontario from Toronto to Niagara Falls and totals over 8.5 million residents, approximately a quarter of Canada's entire population. Toronto is the fourth largest city and fifth largest urban agglomeration in North America. Toronto is sometimes referred to as The New York City of Canada because of the general feel of the city is similar to that of New York City, and because Toronto has been a popular destination for immigrants. Spawned out of post-glacial alluvial deposits and bluffs, the area was populated at different times by Iroquois and later Wyandot (Huron) peoples. The settlement by Europeans started with the French building a seldom occupied fort near today's Exhibition

grounds in the mid- 1700s, then grew out of a backwoods English trading post established as York in 1793 (reverting to the current name Toronto in 1834). Later in the 19th century, it grew to become the cultural and economic focus of Canada. Owing largely to the country's liberal immigration policies starting in the 1960s, and the region's strong economy, Toronto has, in recent decades, been transformed into one of the most culturally and ethnically diverse cities in the world. More than 80 ethnic communities are represented, and over half of the city's residents were born outside Canada.

Districts Old Toronto (Downtown, West End,

East End, Midtown, Islands) Downtown Toronto is the heart of this urban core, with Yonge Street running almost directly in the middle of this district.

Etobicoke Etobicoke is largely composed of

industrial factories and suburban homes. The area is home to Sherway Gardens, Woodbine Racetrack, and St George's Golf Course.

York York is formerly a separate municipality. It is one of the most ethnically diverse areas of Toronto.

East York East York was formerly a semi-

autonomous borough. It is largely residential, with some commercial and parkland areas.

North York North York is home to Parc Downsview Park, Canada's first national urban park, Downsview Airport and the North York Performing Arts Centre. Scarborough Scarborough is largely suburban, but retains much of its own character and flavour. Because of the topography of the Bluffs, the Rouge Valley, and other creeks and minor tributaries, Scarborough is said to be the greenest and leafiest part of Toronto.

Mississauga , located to the immediate

west of Toronto, is a large suburb. Travellers should note that Pearson Airport is technically in Mississauga. Accordingly, some airport-adjacent hotels will have a Mississauga address, and public transport in Mississauga is a separate system from Toronto's, with a separate fee structure. In 1998, the cities of Toronto, Scarborough, North York, Etobicoke, and York and the Borough of East York amalgamated to form the current City of Toronto. This is also known as Metropolitan Toronto or "the 416" after its area code (although now there are some new area codes, the majority of landline phone numbers in the Toronto area are still "416"). The city has a population of over 2.6 million people, of Understand

which more than half were born outside Canada: a fact immediately obvious to any visitor, as the city has many vibrant bustling neighbourhoods with street signs in several languages. Toronto and its surrounding suburbs are collectively known as the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Outlying suburbs are also known as "the 905" after their area code, although technically this code is also used in both Hamilton and the Niagara Region, stretching to the border within Niagara Falls. The entire area including Toronto is known as the "Golden Horseshoe" and has a population of over 8 million people. Distances between cities in the area can be great as it sprawls along, outward and even wraps around the western end of Lake Ontario. Public transit is not

always effective enough for a quick or seamless trip and many suburban residents rely on motor vehicles to get around. A popular urban myth has it that the United Nations rated Toronto as "the most multicultural city in the world." While the UN and its agencies are not in the habit of rating cities, it remains a fact that Canada is a nation of immigrants, and Toronto demonstrates this abundantly. A UN agency lists Toronto as second only to Miami as the city with the most foreign-born residents, but Toronto's residents represent far more cultural and language groups, which is arguably a better measure of multi- culturalism. Most immigrants either pass through Toronto on their way to other parts of the country or stay in Toronto

permanently. Many people born abroad consider themselves, and are considered, to be as Canadian as native born Canadians, and asserting or behaving as though otherwise is considered offensive, especially so in Toronto. This contributes to the overall cultural mosaic that is Toronto today. Within Toronto, most ethnic groups will work their way into the fabric of Canadian society but some still retain their distinct ways such as language, dress (if only for special occasions), custom, and food. As a result of this cultural mosaic, Toronto is home to many ethnic festivals throughout the year. Toronto also boasts several radio stations that broadcast in various languages and at least two multicultural television channels. The

City of Toronto officially deals in 16 different languages, while the public transit agency Toronto Transit Commission offers a help line in 70 languages. Even large department stores such as The Bay in downtown Toronto proudly advertise service in nine languages. The lingua franca of Toronto, however, remains English. Toronto's climate on the whole is on the cool side and variable conditions can be expected. Downtown temperatures average -3.8°C (25°F) in January, but the extreme cold experienced further north typically lasts less than a week at a time. Despite this, come prepared. Winters are still cold and mostly cloudy, at sometimes snowy and uncomfortably Climate

windy and at other times, damp. At times, severe storms can impact flights into and out of the city, as well as slow down transportation and activities in the city for a day or two. The city experiences warm and humid summers with an average high of 27°C (80°F) and a low of 18°C (65°F) in July/August, with many muggy evenings, but rarely extreme heat. The historical annual average of the temperature exceeding 30°C (86°F) is 12 days, but this number has roughly doubled over the last decade. The sun shines more often than not in the summer, but brief thunderstorms occur from time to time, usually lasting less than an hour and bringing heavy rains.

The best times to visit for the weather

are late spring/early summer or early fall, with comfortably cool nights and less crowds. Mid-summer is the peak tourist season, but visitors will find that Toronto's vibrancy extends throughout the winter with outdoor ice rinks and bundled up clubgoers. Air conditioning and heating are standard in Toronto's public buildings.  Ontario Travel Information Centre, 20 Dundas St W ( at Yonge inside the Atrium on Bay; Subway: Dundas ), ☎ +1 416 314-5899 ( ontariotravel.toronto@ontario.ca ) , [1] . M-Sa 10AM-6PM, Su noon-5PM Sports teams & arenas Toronto has several major league sports teams: Visitor information

Nathan Phillips Square - Paolo Costa Baldi. (CC BY-SA 3.0).

 Ontario Travel Information Centre , 20 Dundas St W ( at Yonge inside the Atrium on Bay; Subway: Dundas ), ☎ +1 416 314-5899 ( ontariotravel.toronto@ontario.ca ), [1] . M-Sa 10AM-6PM, Su noon-5PM.  Sports teams & arenas Toronto has several major league sports teams:  Toronto Argonauts [2] - Canadian Football League, play at BMO Field.

 Toronto Blue Jays [3] - Major League Baseball, play at Rogers Centre.  Toronto Maple Leafs [4] - National Hockey League, play at the Air Canada Centre.  Toronto Raptors [5] - National Basketball Association, play at the Air Canada Centre.  Toronto Rock [6] - National Lacrosse League, play at the Air Canada Centre.  Toronto FC [7] - Major League Soccer, play at BMO Field.  Toronto Marlies [8] - American Hockey League (Toronto Maple Leafs farm team). Play at the Ricoh Coliseum.  Ontario Blues [9] - Canadian Rugby Championship. Play at Fletcher's Fields.  The Air Canada Centre , 40 Bay St, [10] . Sometimes referred to as "The

Hangar".  The Rogers Centre , 1 Blue Jays Way, [11] ). Often referred to by its original "SkyDome" name.  The Buffalo Bills , [12] . The National Football League is under contract to play one regular-season (home) game at the Rogers Centre through to the 2017 season. The contract also calls for one preseason home game in even-numbered years. Get in Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ ) [13] is located 28km (17 miles) northwest of downtown and is served by most major airlines. This is Canada’s largest and busiest airport and is the main hub for Air Canada and WestJet. There are By plane

two terminals: Terminal 1 hosts Air Canada and other Star Alliance airlines, while Terminal 3 hosts SkyTeam and Oneworld alliance airlines, along with WestJet, Air Transat, and other unaffiliated airlines. Free WiFi internet access is available throughout both terminals. There is a free Terminal LINK monorail that runs 24/7 which connects you to Terminal 1, Terminal 3 (incl. the Sheraton Gateway Hotel), and Viscount Station (incl. the Value Park garage, Value Park lot, and the ALT hotel). In Terminal 1, it is located on level 5 of the parking garage. In Terminal 3, it is located in the pedestrian bridge. Once you’ve arrived, your ground transportation options include car rentals

(all the majors), public transit (UP Express, TTC, Brampton Transit, MiWay, Go Transit), out-of-town van services, taxis, and limousines. See below for ground transportation details:  UP (Union Pearson) Express , [14] is a modern express train that takes you to downtown Toronto in 25 minutes, every 15 minutes. It runs from 5:30am to 1:00am daily and is picked up at Terminal 1 next to the Terminal LINK train. Seats are not assigned and are available on a first come first serve basis. Amenities include power outlets, luggage racks, and WiFi. Stops along the route are the Weston GO station (Weston), Bloor GO station (Dovercourt-Wallace Emerson-Junction), and downtown's Union station (Canada's busiest rail

hub). This train connects with other public transit systems in Toronto. You can access GO Transit. Weston has direct access to TTC buses as no TTC subway or streetcar route go near it. Bloor and Union have direct access to TTC subways, buses, and streetcars. UP Express tickets are not valid on GO Transit or TTC services. Fare varies depending on your travel distance and age and is lower with a prepaid Presto (transit) card. Tickets can be purchased online, on your mobile device, and at vending machines or service counters at the station. eTickets will be emailed to you, which you can then print to present on the train or display it on your mobile device. Tickets purchased on the train cost an extra

C$2.00 (credit card only). Tickets can be used any day until they expire. Visit the UP Express website for operating times and route maps.  TTC (Toronto Transit Commission) , [15] is the main local public transit system in Toronto and operates three bus routes from Terminals 1 and 3. The 192 Airport Rocket bus offers express service to Kipling station (Bloor-Danforth subway line 2) in Toronto's west end. Luggage racks are available. Transit time is approx. 25 minutes. The 52A Lawrence West bus drives east to Lawrence West station (Yonge- University subway line 1), and continues east to Lawrence station (Yonge-University subway line 1), stopping at bus stops along the route. Transit time is

approx. 55 minutes to Lawrence West station and 1hr 5min. to Lawrence Station. The 300A Bloor-Danforth bus provides overnight service southbound to Burnhamthorpe Road (at Hwy 427), then east along Bloor Street West and Danforth Avenue until Warden Avenue, stopping at bus stops along the route. Transit time to Bloor Street West & Yonge Street (Yonge-University subway line 1) is approx. 45 minutes. C$3.25 (C$2.90 with a prepaid Presto card) for adults. Seniors and students pay C$2.00 (C$1.95 with a prepaid Presto card). Children under 12 ride free. Fare is paid in the bus. If connecting onto another TTC bus, streetcar, or the subway, ask the driver for a paper transfer so you don't pay the fare

again at the transfer point. The transfer is valid at transfer points on the day of issue for a one way, continuous trip. Visit the TTC website for operating times and route maps.  GO Transit , [16] is the main interregional bus service in Ontario and operates two bus routes from Terminal 1. Route 34 travels east to the Finch GO bus terminal in North York; transit time is approx. 30 minutes. Bus stops include the Yorkdale bus terminal and the North York bus stop (Sheppard Ave at Yonge Street). Route 40 travels east to the Richmond Hill Centre bus terminal in Richmond Hill; transit time is approx. 25 minutes, and west to the Hamilton GO Centre train and bus station in Hamilton; transit time is

approx 1hr. Bus stops include Square One (Mississauga) and Trafalgar Road at Hwy 407 (Oakville). Fare varies depending on your travel distance and age and is paid to the driver in cash or by using a prepaid Presto (transit) card, which lowers the fare. The bus connects with the Toronto, Mississauga, and Hamilton public transit systems, however you'll have to pay extra to ride them. Visit the GO Transit website for operating times and route maps.  MiWay [17] is the main local public transit system in Mississauga and operates three bus routes from the airport. Route 7 - Airport departs from Terminal 1 (ground level). Heading north, its final stop is the Westwood Mall bus terminal; transit time is

approx. 25 minutes. Heading south then west, its final stop is the City Centre bus terminal (Square One); transit time is approx. 35 minutes. Route 107 - Malton Express departs from the Viscount monorail station. Heading north, its final stop is the Humber College North Campus; transit time is approx. 25 minutes. Heading south then west, its final stop is the City Centre bus terminal (Square One); transit time is approx. 25 minutes. Route 24 - Northwest departs from the Viscount monorail station. Heading north, its final stop is the Westwood Mall bus terminal; transit time is approx. 25 minutes. Heading south, its final stop is the Skymark Hub; transit time is approx. 10 minutes. C$3.50 (C$1.65 - C$2.90

depending on your age with a prepaid Presto card) for adults, students, and children. Seniors pay C$1.00 (C$1.90 with a prepaid Presto card). Fare is paid in the bus. If connecting onto another MiWay, TTC, Brampton Transit, York Region Transit (VIVA), Oakville Transit, Burlington Transit, or Hamilton Street Railway bus, ask the driver for a paper transfer so you don't pay the fare again at the transfer point. The transfer is valid at transfer points for 2hrs for a one way, continuous trip. Visit the MiWay website for operating times and route maps.  Brampton Transit [18] is the main local public transit system in Brampton and operates one bus route from the airport. Route 115 -

Toronto, Canada - airpano

Airport Express departs from Terminal 1 (ground level). Heading north, its final stop is the Bramalea bus terminal; transit time is approx. 25 minutes. C$3.75 (C$2.50 - C$2.80 depending on your age with a prepaid Presto card) for adults, students, and children. Seniors pay C$1.00 (C$1.55 with a prepaid Presto card). Fare is

paid in the bus. If connecting onto another Brampton Transit, MiWay, York Region Transit (VIVA), Oakville Transit, Burlington Transit, Hamilton Street Railway, or Durham Region Transit bus, ask the driver for a paper transfer so you don't pay the fare again at the transfer point. The transfer is valid at transfer points for 2hrs for a one way, continuous trip. Visit the Brampton Transit website for operating times and route maps.  Taxis and Airport Limousines [19] can take you wherever you want to go. You can pick them up on the arrivals level of any terminal. To be safe, avoid hiring drivers soliciting inside the terminals or asking you to follow them to the parking garage or any other location. All vehicles are

fully licensed to ensure they meet specific safety requirements and that you are charged fair and consistent rates. Within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), rates are predetermined based on the time and distance to your destination. Fares to destinations outside the GTA cost more. C$53 for a taxi to downtown. C$58 for a limousine to downtown. You can pay in cash or with a credit/debit card. Visit the airport's website for current taxi and limo tariff maps. Any area that is not listed on the map will be charged C$1.45/km for taxis, or C$1.55/km for limos. You should ask the driver to confirm the fare from the tariff chart before leaving the terminal.

Billy Bishop Toronto City Center

Airport , (IATA: YTZ), [20] , ( commonly known as "The Island Airport" by locals ), handles short-haul regional flights only. Its main tenant is Porter Airlines [21] , a low-cost carrier that operates flights using turboprop planes to many cities in eastern Canada (Halifax, Moncton, Mont Tremblant, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Sault Ste. Marie, St. John's, Sudbury, Thunder Bay, Timmins, Windsor) and the northeast United States (Boston, Burlington, Chicago/Midway, Myrtle Beach, New York/Newark, Pittsburgh, Washington/Dulles). Air Canada [22] provides service to Montreal. One of the main benefits of flying into this airport is its proximity to the downtown core. Upon landing, you can be downtown within ten minutes. An accessible pedestrian tunnel

connects the airport terminal to the mainland. Ferry service is also available. It is just 121 m (397 ft) and the world's shortest regularly- scheduled ferry route. It operates between TCCA and the mainland every 15 minutes, 6:45AM- 10:07PM. Don't worry, you don't have to buy tickets or anything, you just look for the line (there are separate pedestrian and car lines) and board when directed to do so. If you are renting a vehicle at YTZ, National and Avis are on the mainland, while Hertz is actually on the island meaning you will get to experience driving on and off the ferry. Once on the mainland, a free shuttle bus connects the terminal with the Fairmont Royal York Hotel, across the street from Union Station.

TTC Streetcars are available a short

walk north from the mainland ferry terminal. Route 511 Bathurst provides service north along Bathurst, to Bathurst subway station. Route 509 Harbourfront travels east along the waterfront (Queen's Quay) to Union Station. Both routes end a short distance to the west at Exhibition Place. However, the most convenient connection to TTC Subway and GO Transit services are via the free shuttle to Union Station. Hamilton International Airport , (IATA: YHM), [23] , located about 80 km from downtown Toronto and Niagara Falls, is served by WestJet and CanJet. This airport is served by the ((Hamilton Street Railway)) from the the Hamilton GO Station (36 Hunter Street East) where you can catch a GO commuter bus to Union Station in downtown Toronto

($9.50 one-way). Buses run every 30 minutes. A taxi from downtown Hamilton to the airport is about $25. For frugal travellers coming from the United States, Buffalo-Niagara International Airport , (IATA: BUF), [24] , is another option. Flights to Buffalo tend to be significantly cheaper than to Pearson. Megabus , [25] , has varying prices and requires early booking. They run from the Buffalo Airport to Toronto. The trip takes 3 hours, including the border crossing. Rental cars are available at the airport if you prefer to do the drive yourself. Buffalo Airport Limo

[26] offers a flat rate of $175 to downtown Toronto from BUF.

By bus

Intercity bus

The main bus terminal in Toronto, the Toronto Coach Terminal (also known as Bay Street Terminal or the Metro Toronto Coach Terminal), is used for intercity coach travel and is served by Greyhound, Coach Canada, New York Trailways, and Ontario Northland. The bus terminal's main entrance is on Bay Street immediately north of Dundas and the terminal's departures building takes up the northern half of the block bounded by Bay Street, Dundas Street, Edward Street, and Elizabeth Street; the arrivals building is located immediately across Elizabeth Street from the departures building. The departures building is connected by the underground PATH walkway system to Dundas subway station on the Yonge line via the

Atrium on Bay shopping centre. The terminal is also several blocks east of St Patrick subway station on the University- Spadina line. Unlike Union Station, the bus terminal has lockers in which people may store luggage. The cost is $5 for 24 hours and you must get a token from one of the token machines located next to the lockers. The lockers are located in the hallway connecting the departures building with the arrivals building. Storing items in lockers overnight is not advisable as break-ins are common at night. Certain items too large to fit in a locker may be stored in the information booth at an extra cost. The bus terminal in Toronto is very poorly designed, forcing passengers to queue in a space that is little more than

a shed with walls on two sides, as a result passengers queueing are forced to inhale the diesel exhaust fumes from the coaches as well as endure the cold winters and hot summers. In addition, there are often queues so long for the commuter coaches that they block other coaches from reaching their platforms. Platforms are also poorly marked, and it is not difficult to queue up for the wrong bus. Do not hesitate to ask anyone for help . Most people in the terminal have plenty of experience with it and understand how difficult it is to navigate. Arrive at the terminal at least 30 minutes before your coach is scheduled to depart. You can avoid the hassle of having to purchase tickets at the terminal; it is generally faster to buy tickets online if possible. If

you must purchase tickets at the terminal, be wary of peak travel

periods, as the line can take up to 20 minutes. But be aware that Greyhound tickets purchased at the terminal can be used at any time (although they may have blackout periods) while tickets purchased online force you to reserve on a certain bus.  Greyhound , [27] , provides a large number of intercity services, their primary routes from Toronto include: New York City via Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse; Ottawa; and Chicago via London, Windsor and Detroit.  Greyhound Quicklink , [28] , is a

subsidiary of Greyhound that provides commuter services between Toronto and cities

immediately outside the range of GO transit. Services run to Kitchener, Guelph, Barrie, Peterborough, St. Catharines, and Niagara Falls.  Ontario Northland , [29] , provides service from the northern parts of Ontario.  Shuttle , [30] , transports groups of people throughout all Ontario as well as Buffalo and Montreal.  Coach Canada , [31] , runs buses from Toronto to Montreal (7hrs, $10- $55) via Kingston (3hrs); and New York City (10.5hrs) via Niagara Falls (1.5hrs, $25.15) and Buffalo (2.5hrs, $27.20). Coach Canada buses to Montreal and Greyhound buses to Peterborough and Ottawa also stop at the Scarborough Centre bus

TTC CLRV Broadview Ave. - David Wilson. (CC BY 2.0).

station to the east of central Toronto, this station lies on the Scarborough RT mass transit line. Greyhound buses to Kitchener, Guelph, St. Catharines, Niagara Falls, Buffalo, and New York and Coach Canada buses to Buffalo and New York also stop near Union

Station, either in front of the York Street entrance to the Royal York Hotel or on University Avenue north of Wellington Street. Two new, heavily-discounted services between Toronto and New York City now operate from the sidewalk in front of the Royal York Hotel, across the street from Union Station. Both advertise electrical connections at each seat, Wi-Fi, movies, and more legroom than traditional buses. If purchased far enough in advance, tickets can be found for $1 although in reality, most seats range from $15 to $50.  Megabus , [32] , provides service from New York City, Buffalo, Buffalo-Niagara Airport, Philadelphia, Syracuse and

Rochester to the sidewalk in front of the Royal York Hotel. Megabus runs two buses a day from the Royal York, as well as two buses a day from the bus terminal, buses from the bus terminal run to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York, while buses from the Royal York run to Penn Station in New York. Megabus also provides service twice daily from Washington, D.C.  Ne-On , [33] , is a service operated jointly by Greyhound USA and New York Trailways that runs two buses a day from the Royal York Hotel to the New Yorker Hotel in New York.  Commuter bus GO Transit, [34] , runs the commuter transit network in the Greater Toronto Area. Their bus services are designed to

supplement their commuter trains, most of which run only during rush hour. When the trains are not running, GO runs buses on the same route. Most GO buses run to the Union Station Bus Terminal, adjacent to Union Railway Station. GO Transit also operates services to bus stations at several subway stations, including: Yorkdale Mall, Finch, York Mills and Scarborough Centre. All scheduled passenger trains in Toronto run into and out of Union Station [35] , which is located at 65 Front Street, between Bay and York Streets. Opened in 1927, Toronto's Union Station is generally considered to By train

be one of the grandest, most impressive train stations in North America; with an enormous great hall, the ceiling rising to a height equivalent to seven stories. Despite this impressive hall, most of the activity in the station takes place in the underground concourses which link the commuter rail platforms with the subway station. The great hall is still used for purchasing intercity rail tickets with a row of ticket booths and several ticket machines. The train station is served by a subway station with the same name, accessible from the GO concourse. The main intercity concourse is accessed from the great hall, but all commuter rail platforms are accessed from the underground GO Transit concourse, as is the Union

Station Bus Terminal across the street. The GO Transit concourse is accessed by taking any one of the three large staircases in the great hall or directly from the subway. Union Station is undergoing a significant renovation and heritage restoration, scheduled to conclude in 2017. While work is in progress, some areas may be inacessible. Detours are in effect between the subway station and the concourses. Follow posted signs or ask a fellow traveller for directions. Most intercity rail travel in Canada is provided by VIA Rail , [36] . Union Station is one of VIA Rail's main hubs and connects several of their lines. Railway lines operated by VIA Rail out of Union Station include:

 Corridor — This is VIA's busiest line

running from Windsor and Sarnia in the southwest to Quebec City in the northeast. Regular trains run from Toronto directly to Montreal, Ottawa, London, Kingston, Windsor, and Montreal and Toronto and Ottawa and Toronto are VIA's busiest and most frequent, they also have the largest discounts if booked well in advance. There are two classes of service, business and economy. Business class includes meals and alcoholic beverages. Sarnia as well as stations in between. The lines between

 Maple Leaf —This service is run jointly by VIA and U.S. passenger rail company, Amtrak, [37] . Trains on this line run between Toronto and New York City once a day in

each direction stopping at Albany and Buffalo as well as many smaller stations. Trains between Toronto and New York are extremely slow and very expensive, the coach services listed above generally take several hours less and cost several times less than the train. There are also more frequent trains that run on this line from Toronto to Niagara Falls.  The Canadian —Trains on this line run the transcontinental route from Toronto to Vancouver three times a week each way, stopping at a large number of smaller stations on the way. Cities that this train passes through include: Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Edmonton, Jasper and Kamloops. The full journey takes

about three days. This is one of the most expensive rail journeys in North America and is many times more expensive than flying. However, Via rail runs 'express deals' 2-3 weeks before travel that can reduce the price on this route by 75 percent. The trains contain both sleeper berths and cabins, as well as reclining economy seating. Three meals per day are cooked in the train's dining car. These are included in sleeper fares and are available for purchase for economy passengers.  Commuter train —Services in the Greater Toronto Area are operated exclusively by GO Transit [38] , who run all of their trains from Union Station. Their trains serve mainly

the sprawling suburbs around the city and most of the train lines run only during rush hour; at other times of the day, they are replaced by bus services. Most of these buses originate from Union Station Bus Terminal across Bay Street from the railway station; there is an overhead walkway from the GO Train concourse to the bus terminal. Travel times Ottawa 3hrs 57min, Montreal 4hrs 37min. Winnipeg 34hrs, Saskatoon 46hrs, Edmonton 56hrs, and Vancouver 83hrs.

By car

Major highways leading into Toronto are the QEW, the 404, the 401, the 400, and the 427. Toronto is in the enviable position of being the largest

city in Canada, so it's relatively easy to find a sign pointing you in the right direction. Be advised that traffic on incoming highways can be extremely heavy. In the downtown core there are many turn restrictions, particularly from main thoroughfares to other main thoroughfares (e.g. Yonge to Dundas Streets). The main streets in Toronto are laid out in a grid pattern that makes it one of the easiest cities to get around in by car. Getting from point to point anywhere in the city can be achieved with only a few turns. Parking in the downtown core can be expensive and hard to find, but is plentiful and inexpensive or free throughout the rest of the city. Canada drives on the right.

Transit bylaws

Toronto follows some bylaws related to the transit system that often confuse or surprise visiting drivers:  If a bus is signalling intent to merge into traffic from a stop, you must yield to the bus.  If a streetcar in front of you and travelling in your direction has its doors open, you cannot pass the open doors. However, if a traffic island (it'll look like a raised median with a transit shelter on top) separates the streetcar from your lane, you may pass with caution.  Occasionally the rightmost travel lane on certain streets (most notably on Bay Street between Front and Bloor Sts.) is reserved from 7AM- 7PM for transit vehicles, taxis and

Skydome Rogers Center - Commons:User:Binche. (CC BY-SA 3.0).

bicycles only; you can enter these lanes only to make a right turn at the next cross street. If you do decide to travel as through-traffic in these lanes, you may be liable to a fine (an often hefty one).

Additionally, drivers are advised that Torontonians generally take their

obligation to give a wide berth to emergency vehicles quite seriously: if you hear sirens or see lights, pull over to the side of the road safely but quickly. The trip to the Toronto Islands from the downtown core (Bay St and Queen's Quay) is a pleasant 15 minute ferry ride, with frequent summer service and the best views of the Toronto skyline. There are also guided sailing vessels that take tours of the inner/outer harbour and circumvent Toronto Island By ferry

Get around

Toronto is huge, and most roads run for very long distances. Streetcar rail, subway rail, and intercity rail services are

clean and efficient but overcrowded, yet it's entirely possible to get around Toronto without a car, especially downtown. You may find it quicker and easier to drive, but be aware that traffic congestion is severe at almost any time of day, especially during rush hour. Toronto has plentiful parking garages downtown, most of which can be identified by the prominent green P signs, but they are very expensive, particularly on weekdays. Toronto is at an angle to geographic north, but most maps are drawn with respect to the shoreline. This is sometimes called Toronto North.

Transit

Toronto has a very large transit system, the third most heavily used in North

America (after New York City and Mexico City). It consists of buses, streetcars, subway lines, and the quasi- subway Scarborough Rapid Transit line. Buses and streetcars are prone to get caught in Toronto's notorious traffic during rush-hours, though some streetcar lines have dedicated lanes. Toronto's long streetcar lines, coupled with more than a decade of service cuts, have resulted in chronic "bunching", where one might wait for thirty minutes at a stop, and then 4 streetcars will arrive bunched together. In contrast to this, the subway system is quite fast and efficient; the subway lines extend well into the suburbs and have spurred a great deal of high- density, high-rise development in far-flung

neighbourhoods that would not otherwise have had any large-scale development. A prime example of this is the neighbourhood of North York, filled with high-rise development right on top of three subway stations. As a result, the subway is the easiest, fastest and most efficient way to get around the city. Unlike many cities, Toronto's subway lines have extremely frequent service, even late at night. Trains come every five minutes or better from 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 a.m. every day of the week except Sunday, when service starts at 8 a.m. The TTC operates a comprehensive network of overnight bus and streetcar routes called the Blue Night Network. Service runs at 30-minute intervals from 1:30 a.m. to 5:00 a.m. Night routes are numbered starting from 300, and stops

with all-night service have a blue 24hr badge at the top.

Cash fare for adults is $3.00 (discounted to $2.80 if you buy

several tokens at a time, minimum purchase is 3). Student and senior fare is $2.00 and children under the age of 12 are free. Be aware that some token vending machines are out of service, but do not have signs on them to indicate that. It is therefore safer to use manned ticket booths whenever possible. A day pass is available for $12. This pass allows unlimited travel on all TTC services within the City of Toronto, except for Downtown Express buses. For one person, it allows unlimited one- day travel on any day of the week, from

the beginning of service until 5:30 a.m. the next morning. On Saturday and Sunday, and statutory holidays, day passes function as a group pass. On these days, two passengers over 19 years old and up to four passengers 19 or under can travel with one TTC Day Pass. The day pass does not have to be purchased on the day of use. A weekly pass costs $40.75. It allows unlimited travel from 5:30 a.m. Monday morning, to 5:30 a.m. the following Monday. The weekly pass is transferable, meaning it can be used by more than one person but only one person may be travelling under that pass at any given time. A monthly pass, termed the Metropass, costs $141.50. This pass is also

transferable, with no pass- backs. Tokens as well as daily and weekly passes are available at subway stations, variety stores and newsstands throughout the city. Most businesses that sell passes and tokens have a TTC sticker on their front door. The TTC is planning to roll out Presto, the Ontario government's smart card system, to all subway stations and bus routes by the end of 2016. All streetcar routes will have Presto by the end of 2015, and many subway stations already have it. Fares are $2.80 per trip, equal to the token fare, and a card costs $6. Check the TTC's Presto page for an updated list of routes and stations where it can be used. [39]

Subway and Rapid Transit

There are three subway lines and one Rapid Transit (RT) line:

 The Line-1 Yonge-University- Spadina line runs in a U formation, travelling north-south along Yonge Street, bending at Union Station, then travelling north-south along University Avenue, Spadina Avenue, and Allen Road. It meets the Sheppard line at Sheppard-Yonge station and the Bloor-Danforth line at Bloor-Yonge, St. George, and Spadina stations.  The Line-2 Bloor-Danforth line runs east-west along Bloor Street and Danforth Avenue. It meets the Yonge-University line at Bloor-Yonge, St. George, and Spadina stations, and meets the Scarborough RT line

at Kennedy station. This line runs through a large number of neighbourhoods, Kennedy Station is on Eglinton in working-class Scarborough and is surrounded by large apartment blocks, it is a major transit hub for TTC buses in Scarborough and also connects with GO Transit commuter trains. The line leaves Scarborough after Warden station and the next nine stations serve a number of densely packed, ethnic neighbourhoods along the Danforth. After Broadview Station, the line crosses the Don River and the following station, Castle Frank, serves the extremely exclusive neighbourhood of Rosedale. After this, the line crosses the Rosedale ravine and enters Downtown Toronto,

the next four stations serve the expensive shopping district of Bloor- Yorkville. Following this, the line serves many small ethnic neighbourhoods centred around Bloor Street. Lansdowne and Dundas West stations serve working class neighbourhoods and Dundas West connects with GO Transit commuter trains. The next two stations serve High Park, a large park on the west side of the city and Runnymede and Jane stations serve the pleasant and relatively affluent neighbourhood of Bloor West Village. The next three stations serve the mostly middle class suburb of Etobicoke.

 The Line-3 Scarborough RT runs from the eastern end of the Bloor- Danforth line at Kennedy Station,

through central Scarborough to McCowan Station. As its name suggests, this line serves the mainly working-class suburb of Scarborough. This line's main draw for visitors is that it serves Scarborough Town Centre, one of the city's enormous regional shopping centres, at its Scarborough Centre station; this station is also a major regional transit hub and is served by a large number of TTC buses, several GO Transit commuter buses, and is a stop on Greyhound coach routes to Peterborough, Ottawa, and Coach Canada routes to Montreal and Kingston.  The Line-4 Sheppard line runs in an east-west direction along Sheppard Avenue. It meets the Yonge line at

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Sheppard-Yonge station and terminates at Don Mills Station in the east. Other TTC services are provided by buses, streetcars, the Scarborough RT line, and Wheel-Trans vans (for people with disabilities). There are also a number of Downtown Express buses that run during rush hour, for which

additional fare must be paid.

The subway hours of operation on weekdays and Saturdays are approximately 6 a.m. to 1:30 a.m., and Sundays/Public holidays approximately 8 a.m. to 1:30 am. Toronto is one of the very few cities in North America (and the only city in Canada) to retain its streetcars. Most routes still run with older, inaccessible vehicles, but new low-floor vehicles with wheelchair ramps, air conditioning, and more doors are starting to arrive, as of 2015 running only on the 509 and 510 routes, mixed with the legacy vehicles. [40] Many streetcar routes operate on proof- of-payment rules, meaning that Streetcars

passengers must always keep their transfer or pass for inspection. Fare inspectors do regular patrols, and "failure to surrender fare media" carries a fine of $425. When in doubt, always ask the driver for a transfer if paying by cash or token. More information is available on the TTC's proof-of-payment page. [41]  501 runs along Queen Street for most of its route, from the eastern end of the Beaches neighbourhood, through Leslieville, the Financial District, the Queen West shopping district, Parkdale, then along the Queensway and Lake Shore Blvd through Long Branch in Etobicoke to the Long Branch GO Train station.  502 and 503 run from Kingston Road in the Beaches to the Financial

District. 502 runs along Queen Street through downtown and  503 (rush hour only) runs along King Street.  504 and 508 run along King Street. 504 runs from Broadview subway station on the Bloor- Danforth line to Dundas West subway station on the Bloor- Danforth line. 508 (rush hour only) runs from King Street and Church Street to Long Branch GO Train station. Both routes pass through the Financial District and the Theatre District.  505 runs along Dundas Street from Broadview subway station to Dundas West subway station. It runs through Chinatown.  506 runs along Gerrard, Carlton and College Streets, it runs from Main

Street subway station on the Bloor- Danforth line to High Park in West Toronto. It passes through Cabbagetown, Downtown, the University of Toronto, Kensington Market and Little Italy.  509 and 510 run from Union subway station on the Yonge- University- Spadina line in a tunnel under Bay Street to Queen's Quay, they run aboveground on Queen's Quay, through the Harbourfront to Spadina Exhibition Place. The 510 runs north along Spadina to Spadina subway station on the Bloor-Danforth line, the 510 passes through the Theatre District, the Queen West shopping district, Chinatown, Kensington Avenue. The 509 continues on Queen's Quay from Spadina to

Market and the Annex. Both 509 and 510 run within their own rights-of- way in the centre lanes of the streets and stop less frequently than regular routes.  511 runs along Bathurst for nearly all of its route, from Exhibition Place to Bathurst subway station on the Bloor- Danforth line.  512 runs along St Clair Avenue from St Clair subway station on the Yonge line to a streetcar loop just past Keele Street. 512 runs within its own right of way in the centre of St. Clair Avenue from Yonge Street to Gunns Loop, just west of Keele Street, passing through St Clair West subway station on the University-Spadina line. This route serves the neighbourhood of Deer

Park.

Caution: When getting on and off streetcars, make sure that the traffic is stopped in the lane next to the streetcar. While drivers are required by law to stop behind open streetcar doors, some drivers don't. This does not apply when there is a safety island between you and the traffic lane(s). Pickpocketing on the TTC is rare, but stay aware of your surroundings in crowded rush hour situations and avoid keeping valuables in outside pockets. All but two (Routes 99 and 171) of the TTC's bus and streetcar routes have a subway station somewhere on the loop, and while many routes will take you into the station and beyond the ticket barrier, Transfers

some of them (especially downtown) will take you only to the outside of the station. In this case, you can enter the station by presenting a valid transfer. If you don't have one, you need to pay another cash fare. Transfers are free, but should be obtained at the first vehicle or station you enter on your journey. If your journey starts on a bus or streetcar, ask for one as you pay your fare (simply saying "Transfer, please" to the operator will suffice). If you start at a subway station, look for a red machine just beyond the ticket booth with a digital time clock on its face. Press the gold button and collect your transfer. A transfer may also be used to pass from a bus or streetcar to another bus or

streetcar moving in a perpendicular direction - for example, from a northbound bus to an eastbound streetcar. But in doing so, make sure to transfer at the first intersection possible (i.e. do not get out at an intersection, walk east for a block, and transfer there). The areas that surround Toronto— Mississauga, Brampton, York Region, Durham Region, Oakville, Burlington, Milton, Hamilton—have their own transit systems. There are no free transfer privileges between the TTC and these other transit systems. To use both the TTC and another system, two fares must usually be paid (though see GTA Pass below). In many places, these networks do overlap, so you can transfer easily. Connecting public transit services

Prices are similar to prices for the TTC. Generally bus services outside Toronto city limits are fairly infrequent, except for a few busy routes (e.g. Mississauga Transit route 1, 19, 26, Brampton 501, 502, 511 or Viva Blue, Purple). A weekly GTA Pass (Greater Toronto Area Pass) is available for $54. It is valid on the TTC and the transit systems in Mississauga, Brampton, York Region, but not Durham Region or Halton Region. This pass is also transferable, although only one rider may use it at a time. If you are travelling through the fare-zone boundary in York Region with a GTA pass, you will have to pay an additional $1. The regional transportation agency, 'Metrolinx', operates the PRESTO

farecard system which allow users to pay transit fares throughout the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (with the exception of the TTC, where only select subway stations currently accept the card). Although fares and transfer rules are set individually by each transit operator, using the card generally provides a discount from the cash fare and discounted or free transfers between certain systems. Cards cost $6 and are not refundable, but visitors making significant use of GO Transit, or several GTA transit systems might find some cost savings and convenience over using cash or tickets.

GO Transit

A system of regional trains and buses ,

GO Transit [43] , connects Toronto to its surrounding areas. The majority of these services, especially trains, are oriented to weekday commuters travelling to and from downtown Toronto. GO Transit charges fares by distance. Trains are large and comfortable, and the vast majority run only during rush hours. The main exception is on the Lakeshore Line between Aldershot and Oshawa, via Union Station, which runs every 30-60 minutes during off peak times. The GO bus network is much more extensive and fills in for trains in the off-peak hours, but beware that buses may get delayed due to traffic congestion. The vast majority of tourist destinations are reachable by TTC, although you might want to use the GO to get to the Zoo, or to the homes of family members or friends in the Greater

Toronto Area.

Discounts on the fares for connecting transit services are available under certain conditions, if you are travelling to or from a GO Transit rail station. The GTA Pass is not valid on GO Transit. NOTE: in many cases, a GO bus will not stop unless the passengers-to-be indicate waiting to be picked up, even if they are standing at a designated stop. Users must flag the bus down, usually just by raising their hand or ticket in the air as the bus approaches. That is because GO stops often share stops with other municipal transit systems. Also, GO Trains operate on the Proof-of-Payment system; passengers must possess a valid ticket for the entire length of their journey before boarding a train. Tickets cannot be purchased on board, and

Royal Ontario Museum - The City of Toronto. (CC BY 2.0).

there are no gates or staff before boarding to ensure you have a fare for a particular train. GO Transit enforcement officers conduct random inspections of tickets, issuing expensive fines to anyone without the correct fare. Enforcement officers have likely heard every possible excuse from passengers who

regularly try to avoid paying a fare, and are often unforgiving of any (even legitimate) reason you might give. If using a Presto card on the GO bus or train, be sure to tap your Presto card both at the beginning and end of your trip. Each GO train runs with a three- person crew. There are two engineers, who are responsible for operations, as well as the Customer Service Ambassador, who is responsible for passenger service (opening/closing doors, making station announcements, answering questions, dealing with emergencies, etc.) The CSA is stationed in the Accessibility car (the 5th car behind the locomotive), and introduces him/herself during his/her opening spiel. If you are unfamiliar with

the system, it is recommended that you remain close to them.

Taxis

Taxis are plentiful and safe, but not cheap. As with most big cities, driving a car downtown can be annoying; parking is often hard to find and expensive, and traffic along certain streets can make vehicle travel slower than mass transit. However, travelling longer distances, when not close to subway lines is often significantly faster by car or taxi. There are many casual cyclists out all the time and cycling is fast: door to door, in all of downtown Toronto, a bike beats a car or transit nearly every time. There is a lack of clear understanding about regulations regarding bicycles and By bicycle

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