CROI 2016 Abstract eBook
1 Program CommitteeWorkshop for New Investigators and Trainees: Session Summary Moderators: Scott M. Hammer , Columbia Univ, New York, NY, USA and J ohnW. Mellors , Univ of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Formidable progress has been made in our understanding of HIV pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention in the past 3 decades. However, much more research must be done if we are to realize the goal of ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. To address the persistent need for new ideas and innovation, the Program Committee (PC) Workshop for New Investigators and Trainees has been an annual kick-off event of the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). Its purpose is to engage young investigators in identifying the scientific questions to be answered and hurdles to be faced. This is an opportunity for PC members to interact directly with attendees and provide insights into state-of-the-art basic and clinical research areas while providing guidance and orientation for the meeting that is about to unfold. The 2016 PC Workshop New Investigators and Trainees will feature the following speakers and topics: (1) Dr Wesley Sundquist will address selected topics in molecular virology, specifically advances in understanding of HIV-1 Nef function and viral assembly and packaging; (2) Dr Richard A. Koup will discuss the state of HIV vaccine research focusing on human immune response in relation to the microbiome and the role of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies in control and prevention of HIV infection; (3) Dr Huldrych F. Günthard will describe current knowledge of HIV-1 reservoir(s) and the challenges faced in quantifying and eliminating the replication competent component; (4) Dr Sharon L. Hillier will discuss the most recent advances in HIV prevention, including the importance of developing and deploying a variety of biomedical and behavioral options and the particular challenge of reaching special populations at high risk of infection; and (5) Dr Judith S. Currier will address pathogeneses of and interventions for long-term complications of treated HIV infection, focusing on cardiovascular disease, bone metabolism, renal disease, and frailty. These concise state-of-the-art presentations by PC members are designed to inform and inspire new investigators and to maximize their CROI experience. 2 Panel Discussion on Stigma, Trauma, and Stress: Considerations for HIV Research and Programs Moderator: Morenike Ukpong-Folayan , Obafemi Awolowo Univ, ILe-lfe, Nigeria In the last several years, significant progress has been made with HIV treatment and prevention research. Access and use of research outcomes have been slow however, and so has the translation of research outcomes to policy and action within the most severely affected regions of the world. Many successes and landmark efforts in research translations have resulted through strategic partnerships established between researchers, community members and other relevant stakeholders. Community visibility in the research process can have significant impact on community ownership of research outcomes and advocacy for uptake and use of study products. The panel discussants will share lessons learned from the field of HIV research implementation, translation to policy and programs, and final uptake and use by communities; highlight the impact of stigma in the design and implementation of HIV research and its implication for uptake and use of study products; discuss the place of human rights in making decisions about research planning and implementation (lessons from hormonal contraception advocacy); and the influence of history, culture and power disparities on research management. Also, the panel will discuss the implications of stigma rights and power disparities for community recruitment in HIV research, and uptake and use of study products. The implications of these for trauma and stress of communities will also be highlighted. Facilitating Community involvement in HIV research, as well as the translation and dissemination of research findings and products, is critical to ending the epidemic. Such efforts should promote a sense of empowerment, mental health, and spiritual well-being for people infected and affected with HIV. This requires negotiating boundaries about how identities are defined and relationships are established. Stigma rights and power disparities shape these identities and influence community engagement in research uptake of research outcomes. 3 Key Considerations in Studies of Antiviral Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Jennifer Kiser , Univ of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA Clinical pharmacology determines drug efficacy and toxicity. Knowledge of structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, drug localization, and concentration-effect associations are critical for informed and improved use of drugs. New technologies and analytical approaches allow for an enhanced understanding of antiviral pharmacology. These measures, which can be readily incorporated into clinical trials, allow researchers to capitalize on opportunities to provide context to trial outcomes. This talk will focus on strategies for incorporating pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic measures into the current research agendas for HIV prevention, cure, and viral hepatitis. The application of statistics and mathematical modeling (population pharmacokinetics, physiologic-based pharmacokinetic modeling) to analysis of pharmacology data will also be discussed. 4 Using Big Data to Improve the HIV Care and Prevention Continuum Patrick Sullivan , Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA, USA This presentation will explore how big data can be used to improve the HIV care and prevention continuum. We will discuss the use of multiple data sources to depict the distribution of HIV in communities, and to illustrate how existing prevention and treatment resources relate to needs. Data from the synthesis of surveillance data, Census data, and service provider data will be illustrated, and use cases will be presented to show how synthesized data have been used to identify resource gaps and improve program impact. We will also review efforts to link data from social media and other sources to develop an “early warning” system that could identify areas in need of increased HIV prevention efforts while risk is ongoing. Examples will be provided of the types of approaches that are being evaluated, and of preliminary results of such studies. We will explore the utility of data frommedical records systems and applications in public health settings, and discuss future opportunities to utilize unstructured data to develop new knowledge. The presentation will highlight examples of current studies, will provide resources on types of data available, and will share information on how to access key existing sources of data relevant to HIV prevention and care. 5 HIV Transmission Networks and HIV Prevention in the Era of TasP and PrEP Martina Morris , Univ of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA As we move into the era of scaling up biomedical HIV prevention and care, it remains important to understand how the underlying HIV transmission network will influence the population level efficacy of these prevention efforts. The existing disparities in HIV prevalence and incidence may widen, as some communities successfully fall below the persistence threshold, while other communities struggle with declining but continuing endemic transmission. This talk will review the types of data needed for estimating the underlying patterns of network connectivity and their impact on HIV transmission and prevention dynamics. Recent advances in statistical and epidemic modeling nowmake it possible to exploit simple egocentric sampling designs that can be used in a variety of survey settings. We will give examples of how such network data is being used for HIV prevention planning purposes, and discuss priorities for future research.
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