Chemical Technology July 2015





REGULAR FEATURES 3 Comment by John Butler-Adam, Editor-in-Chief, the ‘South African Journal of Science’ 36 Et cetera/ Sudoku 107/Solution to Sudoku 106 COVER STORY 4 Real measurement benefits from VEGA’s ceramic pressure transmitters VEGA’s dry, oil-free ceramic cell technology CERTEC ® is a real alternative for a wide range of measurements, offering major benefits to users. NANOTECHNOLOGY 6 In pursuit of the perfect blood Mad Max is captured and forced into slavery as a ‘blood bag’ in “Fury Road”, the latest episode in the ongoing post-apocalypse saga. He is there to provide an endless source of fresh blood transfusions to ensure the health of the War Boys as they main- tain the authority of the villainous Imortan Joe. by Gavin Chait Contents


WATER TREATMENT 22 Organic compounds in produced waters from shale gas wells

The quality of shale gas produced waters, as well as frac flowback waters, is a current environmental concern and disposal problem for producers. Re-use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing is being encouraged; however, knowledge of the organic impurities is important in determining the method of treatment. by Samuel J Maguire-Boyle, Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas and Andrew R Barron, Department of Chemistry, Department of Materials Science and Nanoengineering, Rice University, Houston and Energy Safety Research Institute, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Wales, UK

Transparency You Can See Average circulation (Jan – March 2015) 3 700

28 Focus on water treatment

CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION 32 Making biogas measurements manageable

Chemical Technology is endorsed by The South African Institution of Chemical Engineers

Measuring biogas flow has long been a problem area in process measuring technology. Parameters such as high water and CO 2 content make for a demanding medium and a difficult measuring task. A new generation of ultrasonic flowmeters makes biogas measurements stable and manageable.

9 Focus on nanotechnology

35 Focus on control & instrumentation

PLANT MAINTENANCE, SAFETY, HEALTH & QUALITY 10 Layers of protection and safety integrity

and the Southern African Association of Energy Efficiency

In industry there are hazards which can lead to loss of life and property. To avoid these consequences, it is essential to prevent them from happening in the first place or, as a last resort, mitigate their effects by means of protection. If prevention is included in the term protection, then one may visualise an installation with various layers of protection around it. by Daniel J E Rademeyer, ISHECON, Johannesburg, South Africa

DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this journal are not neces- sarily those of the editor or the publisher. Generic images courtesy of

17 Focus on plant maintenance, safety, health & quality

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