2020 Fall Edition Newsletter

generate alcohol or ferment foods. If the presence of S. Cerevisiae were absent from the culture attempts of Native artifacts, the current narrative would re main unchallenged. A control plate would be left open to the air in a generalized vicinity no closer than 75’ where concentrated sampling would take place. To confirm my hypothesis, a higher concentration of S. Cer evisiae would be present in plates swabbed with ideal sam ples from artifacts that would have been used in the past vs. the control plate. To disconfirm: No significant S. Cerevisiae would be present in concentrations that vary from the control plate. Wouldn’t it be appealing to drink a beer that came from a strain of yeast that may have been enjoyed in beverag es past, or might have been responsible for leavening the same breads that just might have been eaten by local prede cessors? Or those of Native Ancestors whose cultural land scape has been rendered barren by vast swipes of coloniza tion, broad and brutal? Or, if you could literally just sample the flavor of the region where you currently reside or hold fond memories of? 5. Significance and Conclusion Buhner, S. H. 1998. Sacred and Herbal Healing Beers: The Secrets of Ancient Fermentation. Boulder, CO: Siris. McGovern, P. E. 2017. Ancient Brews: Rediscovered & Rec reated. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co. Katz, S. 2014. The Art of Fermentation. White River Junc tion, VT: Chelsea Green. Kania, L. W. 2000. The Alaskan Bootlegger’s Bible: Makin’ beer, wine, liquers and moonshine whiskey; an old Alaskan tells how it’s done. Wasilla, AK: Happy Mountain Publica tions. 6. References

tifact that may have held liquid material at one point in time. The swab would be stored in a sealed environment until wiped across a nutrient agar plate, at which point any organisms that remained on the surface of the cotton swab would have an opportunity to grow and populate the sur face of the nutrient plate. At this time, the organism could be identified and allowed to multiply if so desired. Being able to say “I brewed this beer with the same strain that was found at this location?” I think a statement and experience like that would hold enormous benefit for both the creator of said item and the individuals that would consume it. I feel it would allow the relationship between user and the geographic area to deep en, furthering the relationship between the land and the person that lives upon it, supplying a sort of window or con nection into the past that otherwise would not exist. Even if the attempted swabs and nutrient cultures are not effective, we can state that an attempt has been made. I do not know if any similar research has been conducted before in this area. As previously stated, recognizing and respecting NAGPRA, any artifacts, history and tradition is a priority for me. The act of gently wiping a cotton swab across the surface area of an artifact, and in instances where that is not an option due to artifact fragility, placing an agar nutrient plate in close proximity to the artifact in question, in an attempt to capture any airborne remnants that may exist around the artifact would be ideal. I want to respect the honor and integrity of any and all that may be impacted by the actions that I have requested to complete this research. I would like to swab or place agar nutrient plates near arti facts of varying purpose, impact, and origin. My goal in this undertaking is to harvest a potential micro bial library of various strains of S. Cerevisiae. I intend to use these microbes in processing beverages and varied food stuffs. The greatest achievement would be having the abili ty and data to strongly suggest that Natives of the Plains re gions would have had access to and the ability to generate alcoholic or other fermented foodstuffs either on their own or through trade route practices prior to the intervention of European/Colonial invaders. If higher concentrations of like strains of S. Cerevisiae were to be cultivated via swab or nutrient plate exposure, this data would challenge the common narrative that the Great Plains Native populations lacked the knowledge or ability to

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