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with communities should be collaborating with leaders in the technology industry, government officials, labor associations, community groups, and civil liberty organizations for answers. Now is the time for law enforcement executives to create com- munity oversight committees to develop protocols for adopting a Virtual Partner into police work. Although AI can be considered controversial in society and even more so with government over- sight, a Virtual Partner can successfully be incorporated into law enforcement operations with partnerships to create regulations and oversight responsibility. References Final report of the President’s task force on 21st century policing . May 2015. Retrieved from https://www.themarshallproject.org/documents/2082979-final- report-of-the-presidents-task-force-on Coady, N. Counterterrorism and Threat Awareness Manager. California Highway Patrol. Personal communication. (916) 843-3000. Comey, J. (February 12, 2015). F ormer FBI Director James D. Comey on Law Enforcement and Race . Speech given by James Comey at Georgetown University. Retrieved from https://www.c-span.org/video/?c4528067/user-clip-james-comey- full-speech Healy, J. (November 26, 2014). Ferguson, still tense, grows calmer. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/27/us/michael-brown- darren-wilson-ferguson-protests.html?action=click&contentCollection=U.S.®io n=Footer&module=WhatsNext&version=WhatsNext&contentID=WhatsNext&modul eDetail=undefined&pgtype=Multimedia Kofman, A. (April 30, 2017). Taser will use police body camera “To An- ticipate Criminal Activity” . The Intercept. Retrieved from https://theintercept. com/2017/04/30/taser-will-use-police-body-camera-videos-to-anticipate-criminal- activity/ Moskowitz, G. (Unknown date). Are we all inherently biased? Retrieved from: https://gcc01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww1. lehigh.edu%2Fresearch%2Fconsequence%2Fare-we-all-inherently-biased&da ta=02%7C01%7Ccking%40chp.ca.gov%7C50367d4325814142f4c908d786a45dbd% 7Cf1e2e89e71904b0f9463d7f5b09db86c%7C0%7C1%7C637125912821198638&am p;sdata=lHm17swZm%2F5NXd6hf3ipTUpkv%2BHVC%2BUNhPFppT7fwFI%3D&am p;reserved=0 Overfelt, M. (December 12, 2019). Taser-maker Axon is looking a lot more like Apple, Amazon, and so is the future of law enforcement . Technology Executive Coun- cil. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/12/taser-maker-axons-amazon- alexa-exec-is-future-of-law-enforcement.html Pereira, I. (June 1, 2020). Independent autopsy finds George Floyd died of homicide by asphyxia . ABC News. Retrieved from https://abcnews.go.com/US/ independent-autopsy-george-floyd-findings-announced/story?id=70994827 Williams, T. (July 7, 2016). Study Supports Suspicion That Police Are More Likely to Use Force on Blacks . New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes. com/2016/07/08/us/study-supports-suspicion-that-police-use-of-force-is-more- likely-for-blacks.html Importance of police-community relationships and resources for further read- ing . (July 10, 2015). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.justice. gov/crs/file/836486/download Beyond the Information Age . Wired.com. Retrieved from https://www.wired. com/insights/2014/06/beyond-information-age/

clopedia of applicable law enforcement knowledge. Also, with machine learning, safety could be provided by alerting officers to dangerous situations depicted from tone inflection and other external stimulates. These tools and technologies could mean we would never again see tragedies such as when an officer killed Philando Castile, the 32-year old African American man driving with his girlfriend and her 4-year old daughter; the Virtual Partner would intervene and “know” instantly that Castile has no violent criminal record, thus presenting far less of a danger than the officer perceived (Kofman, 2017). The Castile tragedy is one of many incidents that could have been avoided, or resolved without lethal force, all through the presence of a Virtual Partner. CONCLUSION A Virtual Partner is needed in the law enforcement profes- sion now. It could revolutionize the profession, create greater safety for the police and their citizenry, and allow the public to have a say in how police interactions take place. Technology is constantly improving the way we live and AI will next transform the law enforcement profession. Trust and confidence will resonate throughout society once human bias is reduced in the policing profession with the implementation of the Virtual Partner. The Virtual Partner will not replace human decision-making, but it will be the smartest, non-biased partner available to augment the human counterpart. Will law enforcement officials collaborate with stakehold- ers to embrace this concept? If so, better police-community relationships will be obtained by simply working smarter with AI augmenting decision-making. By embracing the Virtual Partner, agencies will be able to provide the most innovative way to partner with society and keep our communities safe. The Virtual Partner will be another tool for police officers to effectively serve the public. It will not remove human-bias entirely, but rather guide officers toward equitable treatment for all. Various social, technological, economic, environmental, and political factors must be considered before implementation and acceptance of a Virtual Partner. Law enforcement agencies wishing to establish and maintain trust and improve relations

About the Author: Chief Charles King has worked for the California Highway Patrol (CHP) for 24 years. He has worked throughout Northern California in numerous patrol, investigative, and administrative assignments. He previously commanded two Field Offices, a 9-1-1 Communications Center, and the CHP Academy. Chief King is now the CHP's financial planner, responsible for development of the annual multibillion-dollar budget, implementation of the departmental fiscal program, distribution of fiscal resources, allocation and control of expenditures, and rendering of expert advice to the Commissioner. Additional duties include oversight of the CHP’s statewide fleet and departmental facilities.

Chief King has a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration; Finance. He is a graduate of the Federal Bureau of Investigation National Academy, Session 252, and the State of California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, Command College, Session 65. Chief King is currently a student at the University of San Diego and scheduled to graduate in December 2020 with a Master’s of Science Degree in Law Enforcement and Public Safety Leadership.


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