BARBIZON Master paintings from the 19th Century & BEYOND G A L E R I E M I C H A E L
BARBIZON Master paintings from the 19th Century & BEYOND
EXHIBITION OPENING Saturday, November 11, 2017 LOCATION Galerie Michael
224 North Rodeo Drive Beverly Hills, CA 90210
COVER: MARTIN, Henri, 1860-1943 | La Muse du peintre | Oil on canvas | 57 1/2 x 35 1/4 in. | 914439 THIS PAGE: LHERMITTE, Léon Augustin, 1844-1925 | La Belle Journée, circa 1900 | Oil on canvas 25 3/4 x 33 1/4 in. | 914438 BACK COVER: BORDIGNON, Noé, 1841-1920 La primavera della vita, circa 1905 Oil on canvas 57 x 34 in. 913991
CHAIGNEAU, Jean Ferdinand, 1830-1906 Bergére aux moutons , 19th century Oil on panel
Signed lower left 10 9/16 x 8 5/8 in. 914451
Chaigneau’s works - in oils, watercolors and engravings - were recognized as early as the 1890’s as an original contribution to the development of Impressionism, especially for his handling of the effects of light.
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Featuring over fifty paintings, Galerie Michael takes great pride in presenting Barbizon & Beyond to our patrons and friends. Here you can view the early plein-air experiments of Georges Michel, the humble yet heroic shepherds of Charles Jacque, the luminous waterways of Johan Barthold Jongkind, and the ethereal figures of Henri Martin, among others. Strongly influenced by 17th century Dutch landscapes and outdoor painters like John Constable and Richard Bonington of the English Landscape Painting tradition, the Barbizon School was an important step in the development of French landscape art, moving away from Romanticism towards Realism. Barbizon artists sought to capture the actual light of the countryside and the actual colors they saw. Put another way, they painted with their eyes and not their heads. Their principal technique was plein- air painting. Unlike prior artists, who might make a few brief sketches outdoors but then retreat to their studios to begin painting, Barbizon members spent much more of their time painting directly from nature. This immersion in their surroundings led to a focus on the details of rural life, its seasons and above all, its changing light and colors. The Barbizon School influenced painters in other parts of France, as well as countries all around Europe and the Americas. Many artists flocked to Paris from all over the world to study this kind of new art movement. This special collection of paintings offers works of historical significance, beauty, substance and value that have few rivals in today’s market. The scope of the exhibition is intentionally broadened to include works by known artists, as well as lesser-known painters of the period, which are worthy of serious consideration. These artists offer us a moment’s grace in a peaceful setting, and are truly paintings to live with and appreciate for a lifetime. We invite you to our gallery to witness the full exhibition, including the works not included in the catalogue. Together, the paintings demonstrate Barbizon and its influential place in
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The Enduring Nineteenth Century
The title of this essay is doubly meaningful. On the one hand, it speaks to the enduring appeal of the nineteenth-century: its culture and its art. Today, one to two hundred years later, we continue to find beauty and relevance in the music of Ludwig van Beethoven, Frédéric Chopin, and Giacomo Puccini; the novels of Charles Dickens and Victor Hugo, or the art of Édouard Manet and Auguste Rodin, to name only a random few. Indeed, much of nineteenth-century art has become part of twenty-first-century popular culture. Oliver! and Les Miz are long-running musicals as well as movies. Beethoven’s Ode to Joy was played after Emmanuel Macron’s victory in the 2017 French presidential elections; and Manet’s Déjeuner sur l’herbe has inspired a wealth of contemporary art works, from Lyle Ashton Harris’s Ready-Made (2001) to Mickalene Thomas Le déjeuner sur l’herbe: Les Trois Femmes Noires (2010).1 On the other hand (and pertinent to this exhibition in Galerie Michael), the title of this essay alludes to the observation that, culturally speaking, the nineteenth-century did not end in 1900 but endured well beyond, certainly until the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Cultural historians often speak of the “long nineteenth-century,” referring to a period that began with the French Revolution in 1789 and ended with World War I. The term suggests that cultural epochs don’t follow the human categorization of historical time into neat hundred- year periods but more often are defined by important historical events. The enduring power and validity of “nineteenth- century art” beyond 1900 is clearly seen in this exhibition, which features a number of paintings that chronologically speaking belong to the twentieth-century, but continue the nineteenth-century tradition. Indeed, only a few of these works, specifically those by Georges d’Espagnat, show evidence of an interest in the new trends in art of twentieth-century modernism represented by a Henri Matisse or Pablo Picasso.
This brings us to the question, what defines the nineteenth- century tradition? To answer this question we need to understand one of the crucial aspects of nineteenth-century painting, namely its new status as a marketable commodity. This is not meant in a negative sense, rather, to convey that the art of the nineteenth-century differed essentially from the art of the past, which was nearly always a product of patronage. Before the French Revolution, most art was commissioned. The main patrons of art were kings, wealthy aristocrats and the church. They commissioned huge allegorical or mythological paintings for their palaces, altar pieces for churches, large-scale portraits, sculptural tombs, and other works meant to glorify and impress. Middle and lower classes had little access to art, except in church. There were no museums, no art exhibitions or art galleries, where “ordinary” people would have access to art.2 All this changed after the French Revolution, when royal power was eliminated or severely curtailed; when the aristocracy, in several countries, was deprived from its main revenue—its land; and when the church lost much of its influence, power and assets. A new class came to the fore, the middle class or bourgeoisie, which owed its political power to the French and subsequent political revolutions and its financial power to the Industrial Revolution, which boosted manufacturing and trade to previously unthinkable levels. The new, wealthy middle class of bankers, merchants and manufacturers built large comfortable homes or, after the middle of the nineteenth- century, bought spacious apartments in newly constructed apartment buildings, and decorated these with paintings as well as sculptures. With the exception of portraits, which they commissioned directly from artists, the new middle class art buyer sought out works at the large exhibitions of the day— the Salons in Paris, the Royal academy exhibitions in London (Henry Hetherington The Farmer’s Daughter, for example,
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was exhibited at this exhibition in 1873), or the periodic large exhibitions in Amsterdam, Antwerp, Dresden, Munich or St. Petersburg, to name only a few. After the middle of the nineteenth-century, middle class collectors also bought art from contemporary art dealers, like Georges Petit or Brame and Lorenceau in Paris, Thomas Agnew & Sons in London and Liverpool, or VonHonrath and Van Baerle in Berlin, all of whom at one time or another owned works that are in this exhibition. Artists in the nineteenth-century produced works that met the demands of the new middle class market for paintings suitable for the middle class home: landscapes, scenes from daily life and still lifes - subjects that were relaxing, pleasurable, and, on occasion amusing (like Johan (“Mari”) ten Kate’s Mischief at Mealtime) or thought-provoking (like Raffaelli’s Chiffonnier). Also characteristic of nineteenth- century art was “recognizability.” Nineteenth-century paintings are truthful; they reflect contemporary reality, or, in the case of paintings on literary and historical subjects, they represent a carefully researched reconstructed historical reality (Virginie Demont-Breton, Le Fils est au loin). Though most members of the nineteenth-century art-buying middle class made modest purchases—just enough paintings to fill the main rooms of their home, a number collected more assiduously, building substantial art collections. The works in these collections often came to fill the new museums of the nineteenth-century, particularly in America. The holdings of nineteenth-century paintings in such museums as the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Philadelphia Museum are almost entirely composed of paintings donated by private collectors like the Philadelphia corporate lawyer John Graver Johnson, who donated his collection to the Philadelphia Museum of Art, or
Catharine LorillardWolfe, who gave large part of her collections to the Metropolitan Museum. While some of the paintings these philanthropists donated are still among the famous treasures of these museums today, others lost their allure and status in the course of the twentieth-century. Some were even deaccessioned, like Ludwig’s Knaus’s Peace, which, donated to the Metropolitan Museum by the New York collector Jacob H. Schiff in 1888, was deaccessioned in 1956. Ironically, many of the works that were deaccessioned in the mid-twentieth century have been reevaluated in the twenty-first. This is particularly true for academic paintings (Jean-Léon Gérôme, Knaus) and for the second generation of Realist painters, like Jules Bastien- Lepage and L’Hermitte, both represented in this exhibition. The present exhibition comprises landscape paintings by artists of the well-known Barbizon School in France (Jean-Ferdinand Chaigneau and his son Paul, Narcisse Díaz, and Charles Jacque); figure paintings by first- and second-generation Realists (the latter also called “Naturalists”) like Rosa Bonheur, Bastien- Lepage, and Raffaëlli; academic compositions by the likes of Clovis Didier (France) or Knaus (Germany); landscapes by proto-Impressionists and Impressionist followers like Johan- Barthold Jongkind, Léon Joubert, and Frank Boggs, and genre scenes by early Modernists like D’Espagnat. In its entirety, it gives a perfect impression of the kind of paintings one would have found in the homes of the European and American well- to-do middle class of the turn of the nineteenth century. Petra ten-Doesschate Chu Professor of Art History and Museum Studies Seton Hall University
Endnotes 1. These and other re-interpretations of Manet’s paintings were on view in an exhibition called Lunch with Olympia at the Yale Art School’s 32 Edgewood Avenue Gallery in New Haven in 2013.
2. An exception must be made for seventeenth-century Holland and Belgium, where a powerful middle class of merchants, bankers, and manufacturers built large homes, which they decorated with small pictures—landscapes, scenes of daily life, portraits, still lifes, painted by the likes of Rembrandt, Vermeer, or Ruisdael.
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MICHEL, Georges, 1763-1843 Personnage et son troupeau Oil on paper mounted on canvas Accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Michel Rodrigue. 20 x 24 in. 914426 Georges Michel was a French landscape painter. Although he exhibited at the Paris Salon, he failed to achieve recognition during his lifetime and earned his living by working as a restorer.
An important precursor of the Barbizon school, most of Michel’s work concentrates on rural landscapes in the area around Paris. He was influenced by Dutch landscape painters, and worked in oil and watercolor with equal facility. Michel’s paintings are dramatic, filled with unrest, accented by the heaviness of the skies and contrasts of light and dark, as shown in the current piece. He was forgotten for decades after his death; the first large exhibition of his work was presented by the Parisian Jean Charpentier hotel in 1927. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York • Portland Art Museum, Oregon
• Vanderbilt University Gallery, Nashville • Strasbourg Musée des Beaux-Arts, France • Victoria and Albert Museum, London
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ORTMANS, François Auguste, 1827-1884 La vie champêtre près du moulin Oil on canvas
Born in Paris, Ortmans was a lover of nature, which he observed attentively and in detail. After having attended the École des Beaux-Arts, Ortmans received lessons from Theodore Rousseau and debuted at the Salon in 1850 with ‘Vue prise a Friedrichs-Rich, Allemange.’ Ortmans reappeared at the Salon of 1857 with ‘Approche d’une tempête dans la forêt de Fontainebleau’ and ‘Forêt allemande, automne.’ Ortmans’ evocations of landscapes, although always rendered with care, were always in a Romantic style. Until the end of his life he regularly exhibited scenes of the Fontainebleau Forest,
Signed lower right 31 7/8 x 39 1/4 in. 914448
from which he derived his greatest inspiration. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: Hamburg Kunsthalle, Germany Musée d’Orsay, Paris Musée des Beaux-arts, Bordeaux
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Although orphaned at a young age and losing a leg in a childhood accident, Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña’s life and art are the incarnation of a bubbling, charming spirit. Like so many of the artists in the 19th century, he began as a porcelain painter, and later trained with the painter Souchon. Diaz’s brightly colored images of beautiful girls in fancy dress may have been prompted in part by the rococo patterns he encountered at the beginning of his career. Following in the tradition of Delacroix, Diaz became “the principal colorist of his generation.” The present work is a richly decorative image and a virtuoso demonstration of Diaz’s mastery of two genres: landscape and figure painting. The refinement of the subjects is characteristic of Diaz’s mature Romantic style, as are the dappling brushwork and the softness it imparts to figures and foliage. Like the artist’s other pictures composed in the spirit of l’art pour l’art (art for art’s sake), the painting is designed to dazzle the eye and set the mind to dreaming. Diaz was an early and influential member of the Barbizon group. He committed himself seriously to painting after 1830, inspired in particular by the vibrant brushwork and Romantic themes of Delacroix and by the works of the Barbizon landscapist Rousseau, with whom he was closely associated after 1837. Between 1831 and 1859 Diaz exhibited regularly at the Salon in Paris. He was awarded three Salon gold medals for painting, and, in 1851, was named a Knight of the Legion of
Honor. With the Salon of 1848, the Barbizon School of painters became a definite, recognized movement, dominating French landscape painting through the late 1860’s. By the 1870’s, his works became the fashion and have increased in value from year to year. Barbizon painters such as Diaz are remarkable not just for their versatility and capacity to paint landscapes of breath- taking beauty and originality but also because of their ability to turn to other genres such as portraits and still-lifes, as well as anecdotal genre paintings of gypsies and vagabonds. This tells us much about Barbizon painters’ place in nineteenth century France. Many, like the peasants they painted, came from humble backgrounds. Despite their astonishing skill, few had a sophisticated art education or privileged access to lucrative government commissions. Instead they responded to the tastes of the art-buying public and it is in this context that we find Diaz, painting magnificent landscapes but also exquisite paintings of the female figure. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • The Louvre, Paris
• Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York • National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC • Museum of Berlin, Germany • Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena • Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston
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DIAZ DE LA PEÑA, Narcisse Virgile, 1807-1876 Fainéante en forêt Oil on panel Signed lower left Accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Michel Rodrigue. 9 x 11 1/2 in. 914424
DIAZ DE LA PEÑA, Narcisse Virgile, 1807-1876 Scene de genre: Bohemienne et deux enfants en foret , circa 1860 Oil on panel Signed lower left Provenance: Sotheby’s, Park-Bernet, New York, January 25th 1980, lot 213; Christie’s, New York, October 26th 1988, lot 26 Literature: P. and R. Miquel, Narcisse Diaz de la Peña: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, Paris, 2006, p. 309, no. 1922 (illustrated) 13 15/16 x 10 1/2 in. 914312
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DIAZ DE LA PEÑA, Narcisse Virgile, 1807-1876 Trois Bohémiennes et trois enfants (Mme Diaz et Marie), 1874 Oil on panel Signed and dated lower left The two figures on the left of the composition depict the artist’s wife and their daughter, Marie.
Provenance: Anonymous sale, Sotheby’s, New York, April 20, 1926, lot 435; Clapp & Graham, New York Literature: P. and R. Miquel, Narcisse Diaz de la Peña: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, Paris, 2006, p. 332, no. 2041 (illustrated) 31 1/2 x 23 in. 913835
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DIAZ DE LA PEÑA, Narcisse Virgile, 1807-1876 Portrait of Marie, the artist’s daughter, 1866 Oil on panel Signed and dated lower left Provenance: Aaron Healy, 1891; Collection Warren; Anonymous Sale, New York, 8-9 January 1903, lot 24; Julius French, New York; Anonymous Sale, New York, 21 January 1921, lot 130;
R.C. Vose; Vose Galleries, Boston Literature:
P. and R. Miquel, Narcisse Diaz de la Peña: Catalogue raisonné de l’œuvre peint, Paris, 2006, vol. II, p. 440, no. 2689 (illustrated) This work is a portrait of Diaz’s daughter, Marie, lovingly executed in Diaz’s personal style conveying the sweet but reserved nature of the child. The jewel tones found in her dress and flowers have echoes of pre-Impressionism, and Diaz can be considered an important link to this new style of art. 15 7/8 x 12 3/4 in. 914444
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BONHEUR, Rosa, 1822-1899 Agriculture en Nièvre Oil on canvas
Signed lower left 26 1/2 x 39 1/4 in. 914227
Marie-Rosalie Bonheur had the great good fortune of being born to an artistic family. Her father, an artist and art teacher, gave art lessons to Rosa, as well as her brothers and sisters, all of whom later became artists. Rosa Bonheur exhibited at the Paris Salon for the first time in 1841. Her fascination with, and meticulous rendering of animals fit in perfectly with Realism and popular trends in nature studies. Within a decade, Rosa’s work reached great popularity. Her brisk sales were partly due to the fact that everyone had heard of her: she earned a living as an artist, won awards, smoked in public, wore overalls (needing a special license to do so), and visited slaughterhouses to study animal anatomy. Before long, Rosa was laden with honors, accumulating medals from exhibitions all over the world. She was the first woman to earn France’s esteemed Légion d’honneur. In 1853 two of her paintings, ‘Ploughing in Nivernais’ (Musée d’Orsay, Paris) and ‘The Horse Fair’ (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; another version National Gallery, London), were tremendously successful and were reproduced internationally in numerous artistic reviews. Between 1845 and 1850, Rosa traveled through France in search of picturesque motifs, visiting the Auvergne and the Nivernais, as well as the Landes and the Pyrenees, where she returned every year from 1849 to 1853. Her work reflected the longing of the townspeople for peace and stability, which was then only to be found in the countryside where man and beast lived in harmony together. Art dealers and private collectors sought her work. The demand for her compositions became so great that after 1855 Bonheur no longer participated in the Salon exhibitions in France, preferring instead to independently devote her career to her newly found private patrons. Her close friendship with Queen Victoria of England also won her many aristocratic collectors in England and Scotland. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York • Musée d’Orsay, Paris
• National Gallery, London • Art Institute of Chicago • Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg • Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. • Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston
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CHAIGNEAU, Jean Ferdinand, 1830-1906 Berger et son troupeau Oil on canvas Signed lower left 20 x 24 in. 914425
Chaigneau’s works were recognized as early as the 1890’s as an original contribution to the development of Impressionism, especially for his handling of the effects of light. Chaigneau exhibited at the Paris Salon as early as 1848, winning awards in 1855, 1889 and 1900, as well as exhibiting at the International Exposition held at Santiago in 1875, the World’s Colombian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, at Barcelona in 1880 and 1888, and at the Societé des Amis des Arts, Bordeaux, from 1851-1903. Chaigneau was effectively the last surviving member of the Barbizon group, who sought to elevate landscape and animal painting to a position of importance in French painting, representing an unidealized representation of the landscape in which they took refuge. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Musée d’Orsay, Paris • Musée municipal de l’Ecole de Barbizon • Musée de Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux • Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York • Art Institute of Chicago • The Victoria and Albert Museum, London • National Gallery of Art, London
Chaigneau attended the École des Beaux-Arts as a pupil of Picot and Brascassat. He moved to Barbizon in 1858 and began orienting his art toward nature, after coming into contact with Millet and other artists living and working in Barbizon. His landscape subjects also included scenes from Bordelais, the Landes and Normandy in addition to scenes from the forest of Fontainebleau. Beginning in the late 1860’s, under the artistic influence of the Barbizon artist Jacque, Chaigneau developed his well-known fondness for painting flocks of sheep, which he had observed in the Chailly Valley region near Barbizon. His success in this genre earned him the affectionate nickname of “the Raphael of Sheep.”
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BASTIEN-LEPAGE, Jules, 1848-1884 Travelers, 1882 Watercolor and gouache on paper
His paintings became an immense attraction, and the Legion of Honour granted him official honors in 1879. A desire to extend the possibilities of painting beyond their existing levels accounts for Bastien-Lepage’s relationship to Impressionism. For this reason, Émile Zola characterized Bastien-Lepage’s procedure as an oscillation between the sensations of Impressionism and the draftsmanship of the Academic school: ‘impressionnisme corrigé, adouci, mis à la porte de la foule’ (‘Impressionism, corrected, softened and thrown out to the crowd’). Zola also considered Bastien- Lepage “the grandson of Courbet and of Millet.” One of the leading lights of naturalism, Bastien-Lepage was highly influential in spreading a taste for plein-air painting, not only in France, but also in Britain and in other European countries. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Musée d’Orsay, Paris • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Signed lower left 24 1/4 x 31 1/2 in. 914149
Bastien-Lepage began to paint rural themes in 1876, and his honest and simple approach to depicting peasant life showed the harsh yet honest lives of country people without idealization. He was one of the leading lights of naturalism, first receiving academic training in Alexander Cabanel’s studio. Critics often anticipated the work of Bastien-Lepage, impressed with his realism of rural life and grand tradition, whilst using lighter colors and dynamic compositions in the style of the new Impressionists. He served as a primary source of inspiration for Vincent Van Gogh. The sentimentality of Bastien-Lepage’s themes, coupled with its allusion to revered paintings of an earlier generation, delighted Salon audiences.
• Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio • Scottish National Gallery, Scotland
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LHERMITTE, Léon Augustin, 1844-1925 La Belle Journée, circa 1900 Oil on canvas Signed lower left Provenance:
generation of the French peintres du paysan, contemporaries of the Impressionists. These groups shared an interest in natural light and atmospheric effect. He also found a great deal of inspiration in the first Barbizon peasant painter, Millet. Lhermitte became the last in an illustrious group of artists dedicated to such genres, and worked in the tradition until his death in 1925. Lhermitte studied at the École Impériale de Dessin, which stressed drawing and illustration techniques over painting, and promoted working outdoors. This training contributed significantly to Lhermitte’s development of a distinctive personal style of loose, crayon-like marks in both paintings and pastels. During the 1880s, Lhermitte became a leading force in the revival of pastel techniques. It was during this time he submitted his first entry to the Salon in 1884. Lhermitte continued to exhibit charcoal drawings, pastels and paintings regularly, winning his first medal in 1874. Other prizes and honors came to him throughout his long career, including the Grand Prix at the Exhibition Universelle in 1889, the Diplome d’Honneur in 1890 and the Leigon of Honor. Lhermitte was also a founding member of the Société Nationale des Beaux- Arts. Van Gogh was a great admirer of Lhermitte’s. He wrote: “Lhermitte is the absolute master of the figure, he does what he likes with it – proceeding neither from the color nor the local tone but rather from the light – as Rembrandt did – there is an astonishing mastery in everything he does, above all excelling in modeling, he perfectly satisfies all that honesty demands.” Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include:
Anonymous Sale, Goupil, Paris, April 1902, no. 27579; Madame Delaroche, Lyon, 1902; Kaufmann Collection, Paris; Wallis & Son (”The French Gallery”), London, 1906; Marie Louise Paterson; Anonymous Sale, Sotheby’s, New York, March 1938, lot 39; F. Schnittjer & Son; Anonymous Sale, Sotheby’s, New York, January 1943, lot 20; Private Collection Exhibition History: Paris, Salon, 1902, no. 771; The Brooklyn Museum, 1920 (lent by Marie Louise Paterson) Literature: Mary Michele Hamel, A French Artist: Léon Lhermitte: 1844-1925, Ph.D. dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis, 1974, C255, no. 252; Monique Le Pelley Fonteny, Léon Augustin Lhermitte: 1844- 1925: Catalogue raisonné, Paris, 1991, p. 140, no. 183, illustrated (as Painter of peasant scenes, Lhermitte combined the subject matter of Millet with the palette of the Impressionists and added a picturesque charm, which brought him resounding international success. One of the most prolific 19th century painters, Lhermitte contributed significantly to the evolution of Realist tradition. Like Millet, Lhermitte recorded the purity of rustic life. Léon Augustin Lhermitte was born in 1844 and grew up northeast of Paris. The rich agricultural landscape of this area became the heart of most all his work. In the rivers and the activities they supported, Lhermitte found both themes had a timeless appeal – young men fishing, women washing their family linens and light-filled settings of shimmering reflections and misty atmospheres. Lhermitte belonged to the second location unknown) 25 3/4 x 33 1/4 in. 914438
• Art Institute of Chicago • Detroit Institute of Arts
• Fine Art Museum of San Francisco • Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg • The Louvre, Paris • Musée d’Orsay, Paris • National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
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LHERMITTE, Léon Augustin, 1844-1925 La bénédicité au Chaussin près de Vichy, 1897 Pastel on paper laid on canvas Signed and dated lower left In 1897 Lhermitte also painted an oil of this subject, which he later exhibited at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris. Provenance: Boussod, Valadon & Cie, Paris, no. 18254; Sale: Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, Collection of John Balli of London, May 22, 1913; Private collection, France Exhibition history: Exposition des Pastellistes, Paris, 1897, no. 89 Literature: M. Le Pelley Fonteny, Léon Augustin Lhermitte, 1844-1925: Catalogue Raisonné, Paris, 1991, p. 227, no. 368, illustrated 19 3/4 x 27 1/2 in. 914415
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LHERMITTE, Léon Augustin, 1844-1925 Les dentellières des Vosges, 1888 Pastel on paper laid on linen Signed lower left Provenance: Benjamin Stein; Sale: American Art Association, New York, March 18, 1912, cat. no. 78; Schiller & Bodo, New York Exhibition history: Hamel M.M., 1974, C 163; James Francis Trezza, “Nineteenth Century and Impressionist Master Works,” May 2001 Literature: M. Le Pelley Fonteny, Léon Augustin Lhermitte, 1844-1925: Catalogue Raisonné, Paris, 1991, p. 291, no. 773 15 3/4 x 20 1/4 in. 914416
A superb draftsman, painter and pastelliste, Lhermitte was a well-known painter of peasant life. This is an excellent example of his work, and demonstrates his influence on later generations of artists. Three women sit around a stool in a simple country interior, weaving lace. One of the women is elderly and her cheeks and eyes are heavy with age. The other two weavers have the rough features often associated with peasants in the 19th century. Lhermitte did not idealize his figures with beautiful faces and clean clothing; rather, he imbued them with an iconic quality through his use of light. The sun has set and only a narrow arc of orange appears on the horizon. A pale, gray light shines from the rear of the composition highlighting the profiles of the weavers and leaving much of their figures in the shadow. The backlit effect lends the scene a mystical quality, a sense of gravity and seriousness that made Lhermitte stand out among his contemporaries.
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Born in Paris, Jean-François Raffaëlli began to paint at the age of twenty. His importance in 19th century art comes from his unique portrayals of the industrial suburban landscape of Paris and its inhabitants. Raffaëlli’s first teacher was the highly acclaimed painter and instructor Gérôme, and Raffaëlli soon began entering works to the Salon, beginning in 1870. During that exhibition, the critics and writers took note of him, specifically Émile Zola, who called him the “painter of the Paris suburbs.” Ironically his formal training actually came after he won acclaim in 1870 and even then he only studied formally for three months in 1871. Raffaëlli’s works display a segment of humanity hidden from public view and largely overlooked by other artists. He depicted downtrodden or work-weary figures, carefully individualized in their accustomed milieu. Unlike previous 19th century artists who depicted the Parisian industrial suburbs and its inhabitant only occasionally, Raffaëlli focused upon this subject matter for a substantial part of his career. His style was clearly different from most of the Impressionist painters yet he was invited to participate in the 1880 and 1881 Salons, due to the sponsorship of Edgar Degas. Although his works in the Impressionist salons garnered the positive attention of critics, Raffaëlli didn’t fare as well with his fellow artists. Gaugin and Guillamin issued a public declaration that if Raffaëlli were included in l882’s exhibition, they would not show their work. Raffaëlli’s subject matter is equally as interesting today as it was during his lifetime. His philosophical bent and naturalistic tendencies can be interpreted to show a highly evolved and quite futuristic thinker. His observations of the absinthe drinkers and chiffonnières are still extremely poignant today. Raffaëlli keenly observed life in the suburbs of Paris where he had taken residence, documenting various aspects of a changing reality. He keenly portrayed the underside of the prosperity gained from the industrial revolution. During the 1890’s, at the height of his career, his works enjoyed even greater acceptance and brought him increased prosperity, evidenced by his light-hearted scenes of Parisian monuments and boulevards. Raffaëlli died in 1924 after a long and illustrious career. His paintings hang today in major museums throughout the world, reminding us of his tremendous originality.
RAFFAËLLI, Jean-François, 1850-1924 La Promenade, 1877 Oil on panel Signed and dated lower right
Galerie Brame & Lorenceau has confirmed the authenticity of this work, and it will be included in their computerized Raffaëlli catalogue critique, now in preparation. 4 x 6 1/4 in. 914446
Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York • Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nice • Musée d’Órsay, Paris • National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. • Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco
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RAFFAËLLI, Jean-François, 1850-1924 Le pont des Arts depuis les quais, Paris Oil on panel Signed lower left
Galerie Brame & Lorenceau has confirmed the authenticity of this work, and it will be included in their computerized Raffaëlli catalogue critique, now in preparation. 7 7/8 x 9 7/8 in. 914432
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RAFFAËLLI, Jean-François, 1850-1924 Le chiffonier, circa 1900 Oil on panel Signed lower right This work is accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Galerie Brame & Lorenceau, and is registered in their archives. Literature: Arsène Alexandre, Jean-François-Raffaëlli, Floury Editeur, Paris, 1909, p. 63; B. Schinman Fields, Jean-François-Raffaëlli (1850-1924): The Naturalist Artist, Ann Arbor, Columbia University, 1979, p. 428 fig 39 9 7/8 x 4 3/8 in. 914313
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DIDIER, Clovis-François-Auguste, 1858-? The Hammock Oil on canvas Signed lower left Provenance: From the Collection of Sir Rod Stewart CBE 51 3/8 x 35 1/8 in. 914445
Clovis Didier was a pupil of Jean-Leon Gérôme, whose academic style of painting and subject matter remained a strong influence in Didier’s work throughout his career. He was a successful genre painter and exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from 1880. He also exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français, and became a member of the group in 1899. He specialized in scenes of domestic bourgeois life. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • The Musée de l’Assist ance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, France • Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Florida • Teylers Museum, Netherlands
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LAUGÉE, Georges François Paul, 1853-1937 A l’heure de traire Oil on canvas Signed lower left Exhibition history: Paris, Salon, 1892, no. 1000 Literature:
A true son of his father, Désiré Laugée, Georges entered the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1871 where he studied under Pils and Henri Lehmann until 1876. He exhibited at the Salon from 1877, receiving a third-class medal in 1881. He was awarded a bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle of 1889 in Paris and a silver medal at the Exposition Universelle of 1900. Laugée’s main subjects were scenes of peasant life, such as ‘The Harvesters’ Meal’; or ‘The Gleaner’, in the tradition of the Barbizon School. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • The Louvre, Paris • Musée de Picardie, Amiens • Musée des Beaux-Arts, Boulogne-sur-mer • Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen • Musée des Civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée, Marseilles
Catalogue illustré du Salon de 1892, p.91 (sketch illustrated) In 1904 this work, titled ‘Milking Time’, was included in the Cyr Graded Art Readers, Book Two, by Ellen M. Cyr, who developed a series of textbooks intended to introduce grade school students in Boston to art history. 33 1/2 x 23 3/4 in. 914221
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BOGGS, Frank, 1855-1926 Les Quais de Seine à Paris Oil on canvas Signed lower left Exhibition history: Frank Boggs, Galerie Barbizon, Paris, n°21 (sticker verso) 24 x 28 3/4 in. 914429
Boggs was a master of cloudy skies in landscape paintings, but was more strongly attracted to the soft light of misty mornings and rainy afternoons than the brilliant sunlight of his Impressionist peers. Contemporary American critics tended to view Boggs as an Impressionist, especially when he exhibited in New York early in his career. But although his brush became loose and free and his palette lightened as he matured, the artist never completely adopted Impressionistic method. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Brooklyn Museum, New York • Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C. • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Born in Springfield, Ohio in 1855, Francis Myers Boggs was an active artist in France who later became naturalized to the country. Boggs was renowned for his urban landscapes, seascapes, watercolors and as an etcher. Boggs was a student at the School of Fine Art in Paris. In Paris, he regularly exhibited at the Salon of French Artists, where he received many distinctions including honors and nominations. He received the Medal of Honor at the Universal Exposition in 1889.
• Museum of Fine Arts, Boston • Museum of Nantes, France • Santa Barbara Museum of Art
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JACQUE, Charles Émile, 1813-1894 Berger et son troupeau à Barbizon Oil on canvas Signed lower left
Jacque would submit his work to the Salon starting in 1833 and receive three third-class medals between 1850-1864. The following years proved to be a busy period for Jacque, as his success brought him recognition and acceptance. Jacque was honored with the Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur in 1867 and was also elected to the jury for the 1867 Exposition Universelle. Jacque’s last Salon exhibition was 1894. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Art Institute of Chicago • Ashmolean Museum, England • Harvard University Art Museums, MA • The Louvre, Paris • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston • Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena • Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam • Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, MA
Accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Vincent Marillier. Also accompanied by a note from Jacque, ”Souvenir d’un 14 Juillet à l’ami Diaz”. 32 1/2 x 26 in. 914428 From 1845 Jacque turned more and more to painting. It was at about this period that he discovered Barbizon and its surroundings. Enchanted, he settled there in 1849. Painting almost exclusively in the environs of Fontainebleau, Jacque made increasing numbers of animal studies at local farms, and became known for his bucolic subjects, such as henhouses, pigsties and flocks of sheep in pasture. He was a firm believer in the importance of gaining an intimate knowledge of his subject matter, well beyond simple observation.
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DEMONT-BRETON, Virginie, 1859-1935 Le Fils est au loin Oil on canvas Signed lower left Provenance: By descent in the artist’s family Exhibition history: Salon de la Sociéte des Artistes Français, Paris, 1914, n°619 39 x 53 in. 914430 The daughter and student of Jules Breton, Virginie Élodie Marie Thérèse Demont-Breton was a prolific and gifted painter in her own right. Like her father she was frequently honored at the Salon and was awarded a gold medal at the Universal Exposition of 1883. She also served as President of the Union of Women Painters and Sculptors, and was decorated by France with the Legion of Honor in 1934. Demont-Breton preferred subjects were the fishing villages of the Brittany coast. Originally, she painted portraits and historical scenes, but after moving to Wissant, switched to painting the fishermen and their families in a Realistic style. In 1889, Vincent van Gogh painted his own version of one of her works, ‘L’Homme Est en Mer.’ Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Amiens Museum, France • The Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam • Lille Museum, France • Museum of Modern Art, New York • Petit Palais, Paris
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MARTIN, Henri, 1860-1943 La Muse du peintre, circa 1900 Oil on canvas Signed lower left
Back in Paris, Martin received the gold medal at the Salon in 1889 and became a member of the Legion of Honour. He painted some unusually large pictures for the Neo- lmpressionists and won great acclaim when he exhibited them at a one-man show at the Mancini Gallery in 1895. Martin also won the Grand Prize at the World Fair in 1900. As his prestige and popularity grew, he was commissioned to paint some important murals for the city hall in Paris in 1895 and for the Capitol in Toulouse in 1903-1906. During this busy period in his career, Martin also became good friends with the sculptor Auguste Rodin. Though a well-established and commended artist, Martin remained shy and introvert throughout his life. By the turn of the century, he found that he no longer enjoyed living in Paris, eventually buying a home overlooking Labastide-du- vert, near Cahors. In this relaxed and tranquil setting Martin began painting the countryside around his home almost exclusively and found a style and technique with which he was comfortable. The colorful and light filled canvases he produced at this time are widely considered to be amongst his most successful works. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Art Institute of Chicago • Musée d’Orsay, Paris • Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.
Painted circa 1900, this work is the culmination in a series of allegorical figures and muses that Martin produced in the 1890s. Henri Martin was particularly fond of the theme of the muse in the form of a beautiful young woman ‘visiting’ the artist. He first explored the subject in 1885 in the painting ‘Le Philosophe ou L’Inspiration du poète.’ The authenticity of this work has been confirmed by Cyrille Martin. Provenance: Collection Périnet, Paris Literature: Anderson Galleries & Hammer Galleries ed., Eden Close at Hand: The Paintings of Henri Martin 1860-1943, Beverly Hills, 2005, p. 66 57 1/2 x 35 1/4 in. 914439 Henri-Jean Guillaume Martin was born in Toulouse in 1860. He studied art formally under Garipuy at the École des Beaux- Arts in Toulouse and while there he also studied with Eugene Delacroix. In 1879 Martin moved to Paris and worked in the studio of Jean-Paul Laurens. He received his first medal at the Paris Salon in 1883 at the age of 23 and went on to hold his first exhibition there three years later. In the early years of his career Martin was awarded a scholarship which took him to Italy. This journey was to have a profound effect upon his artistic development. Before visiting Italy, Martin’s early style was largely based upon a classical, cold and correct technique which focused on the idealized historical characters and events popularized by the Paris Salon. In Italy however, Martin discovered the beauty of color and light, both in nature and in the works of the great masters, such as Giotto and Masaccio. Inspired by what he saw, he abandoned the academic style of his earlier works and adopted a style that utilized radically short brush strokes and divided the picture into a mass of small and visible strokes. In many ways this technique is reminiscent of the works of Georges Seurat.
• Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana • Musée des Augustins, Toulouse, France • Musée des Beau-Arts de Bordeaux, France • San Diego Museum of Art
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D’ESPAGNAT, Georges, 1870-1950 Le Repos, circa 1900 Oil on canvas Initialed upper left
D’Espagnat helped found the Salon d’Automne as it developed in 1903 and, a year later, served as its vice president. From 1905-1914, d’Espagnat spent much of his time developing his own personal painterly style and traveling. In 1908 he took part in an important still-life exhibition at the Paris Durand- Ruel Gallery with fellow painters Monet, Cézanne, Pissaro, Renoir and Sisley. He again exhibited in foreign countries, achieving a very successful show in St. Petersburg in 1912. During his long career and posthumously, d’Espagnat had numerous exhibitions in Paris, many of them at the Galerie Durand-Ruel. He continued to exhibit in Paris at the Gallery Marcel Berheim and the Gallery Druet as well as exhibiting abroad in Philadelphia, 1923 and in Brussels, 1929. D’Espagnat was appointed professor and head of the studios at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1936, a post he held until 1940. His more famous exhibitions during this time were his 1931 exposition in New York with Albert André and his 1934 one-man show in London at the Wildenstein Gallery. He was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor as well. In 1945, d’Espagnat, succeeding Maurice Denis, became the president of La Société des Amis d’Eugène Delacroix, a position he held up into his death. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston • Musée Royal des Beaux-Arts, Brussels • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
‘Le Repos’ probably dates to the early 1900s when D’Espagnat was particularly influenced by Renoir and other late Impressionists. The patterned interior, flatness and dark outlines reflect works by contemporary Initimist painters Vuillard and Bonnard. The softness and dreamy, restful pose of the woman alludes to Renoir’s figures. 36 1/2 x 29 in 914306 Georges d’Espagnat was a Post-Impressionist painter, muralist, illustrator and theater designer. After moving to Paris at the age of 18 to study painting, he became involved with prominent Impressionist painters of the time, exhibiting his work at the Salon des Refusés and the Salon des Indépendants in Paris. D’Espagnat depicted everyday Parisian life, female figures, landscapes, and still lifes, in a painterly style of additive brushstrokes with a unique treatment of color, resembling the Fauves. D’Espagnat was influential in the art circles of his time - notably with Henri Matisse, Paul Gauguin, Pablo Picasso, Camille Pissaro and Marc Chagall. From 1900-1910 he visited Renoir on numerous occasions in the Cote d’Azur; their friendship and artistic exchange is well-documented. D’Espagnat first submitted his work to the Palais des Arts Décoratifs and Salon des Réfusés in 1891. The following year he began exhibiting at the Salon des Indépendants, where his participation became regular. D’Espagnat participated at the expositions held in 1894 and 1895 by the Impressionists and Symbolists at Le Barc de Boutteville. In 1895, he held his first one-man show at Le Barc de Boutteville, showing 51 paintings, 26 drawings, 2 lithographs and 12 engravings. His admiration for the Impressionists and his close friendship with Albert Andre, Pierre Bonnard, Maurice Denis, Louis Valtat, Paul Signac and Edouard Vuillard deepened and enhanced his love for bright and intimate interior scenes as well as landscapes.
• The Art Institute, Chicago • Pushkin Museum, Moscow • Musée d’Orsay, Paris • National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
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D’ESPAGNAT, Georges, 1870-1950 Mère et deux enfants Oil on canvas Initialed lower right Mr. Jean-Dominique Jacquemond has confirmed the authenticity of this work, and it will be included in the Catalogue Raisonné of the artist’s work. 32 1/4 x 25 3/4 in. 914378
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MORGAN RBA, John, 1823-1886 The Lion and the Lamb Oil on canvas Signed Exhibited: London, Royal Society of British Artists, 1861, no. 360; Liverpool, Liverpool Academy, 1861, no. 981
While the model for the man has not appeared before in Morgan’s work, the young girl is likely the artist’s youngest daughter, Lilian Henrietta Morgan. The picture was painted when Morgan had his studio at Church Yard, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire. Morgan was a successful English genre artist, first studying at the School of Design, London and later training in Paris under Thomas Couture. A member of the Society of British Artists, his work was influenced by Thomas Webster and William Powell Frith. His son Frederick Morgan was an equally popular artist. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Yale Center for British Art, New Haven • Portland Art Museum, Oregon
According to Terry Parker, this painting was a rediscovery at the time of its sale in 2008, as no record of it having been at auction before had been found. 36 1/4 x 28 in. 914305 The painting is most likely ‘The Lion and the Lamb’, exhibited at both the Royal Society of British Artists and the Liverpool Academy in 1861. The protective ‘lion’ of an old man, probably a pirate judging by his bandanna, is guarding his ‘lamb’.
• Museum and Art Gallery, Blackburn • Cheekwood Museum of Art, Nashville
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YEEND-KING, Henry John, 1855-1924 Resting by the Coast Oil on canvas Signed lower right 28 x 22 in. 914433
Yeend-King exhibited his canvases rather often including at Suffolk Street in 1874 and at the Royal Academy from in 1879. In addition, he took part in exhibitions in both Munich and Berlin, and was awarded a bronze medal in Paris in 1889 at the Exposition Universelle. Throughout the course of his career as a painter, Yeend-King exhibited 87 paintings at the Royal Academy, 115 at the Society of British Artists, 38 at the New Watercolor Society, 92 at the Royal British Academy, 102 at the Royal Institute of Oil Painters, 161 at the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolors, 29 at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, 53 at Dowdeswell Galleries, and 13 at the Birmingham Royal Society of Artists. In 1879, Yeend-King was elected to the Royal Society of British Artists and in 1886 he was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolor, which he later became Vice-President. Museum collections featuring this artist’s work include: • Tate Gallery, London • The Royal Collection, London • Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum, UK • Leeds Art Gallery & Museums, UK • Brampton Museum, UK
Yeend-King was an important Victorian genre and landscape painter as well as a skilled watercolorist. Born in London, he studied under the Victorian artist, William Bromley, and then in Paris under Leon Bonnat and Fernand Cormon. His academic training in Paris, along with the influence of French Realists and Impressionists, helped to shape Yeend-King’s fully mature style of carefully modeled figures, en plein air technique and bold colors. Although Yeend-King was born and lived in London, his heart lay in the countryside. The sense of sincerity and serenity in his painted countryside scenes reflect his infatuation with the rustic yet picturesque landscape. Yeend-King hardly ever painted scenes of the heavily industrialized cities. The subjects of his paintings usually are of farm girls (often he used his daughter as the model) at work in the fields or on the farm, similar to the French Realist, Jules Dupré’s work. Yeend-King also tended to paint women at rest in landscapes or cottage gardens whereas he reflected the juxtaposition between hard work and leisure in the daily rituals.
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