Mockup Galerie Magazine

Printmaking as an art dates back to the Chinese, who began more than 1,000 years ago. The art uses three categories in executing prints.  RELIEF: This technique has a raised surface, which receives the ink. As paper is applied, the paper accepts the ink in reverse of the host surface.  Types of Relief printing include:  Woodcut: popular in Asia for many centuries, uses water- based inks applied with a brush.  Woodblock: popular in the West, uses oil-based inks applied with a roller.  Linocut: uses linoleum instead of wood.  INTAGLIO: This technique is the opposite of Relief, in that material is removed from the host plate either through engraving or incision. As ink is applied to the plate and wiped off of the surface, the ink is left only in the crevices. As paper is pressed onto the plate surface the lines are transferred into the receiving paper.  Types of Intaglio include:  Engraving: Removes material from plate surface.

 Etching: Wax is applied to plate surface. Artist removes wax, exposing metal on plate. Acid is applied, which chemically removes a layer of the metal in exposed areas. Wax is removed. Ink is applied and wiped, leaving ink only in etched areas. When paper is pressed onto surface, image appears.  Aquatint: Similar to etching, but rather than wax coating entire surface of plate, a rosin is applied to surface only in areas

to be protected. Can even be dusted onto surface. Plate is heated, binding rosin to surface. Then the process is similar to etching.  Drypoint: Scratches metal surface with pencil-like needles. Creates furrow on plate surface, which holds ink to be transferred.  PLANOGRAPHIC: This technique uses a surface that is flat—it neither has the raised characteristics of Relief, nor the surface removal of Intaglio.  Types of Planographic printing include:

 Lithography: An image is applied to the plate using the repelling characteristics of oil and water, rather than relief on the plate. Plates therefore last a very long time. There are many variants of lithography.


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