Associate Magazine - FBINAA - Q3-2022

Continued from "Pro-Equity Policing, on page 36

Break cycles of repeat misconduct. For instances where an officer engages in repeated misconduct and is unable to meet standards, a system for decertification (as was recently enacted in California) is an important lever to prevent recycling/transferring problem officers to different communities. xliii Police leaders should also ensure citizens have access to consistent ways of reporting police misconduct to support early identification and intervention. xliv Prioritize mental health and preventative measures. Policing is a stressful and difficult profession that can lead to mental health and/or substance abuse challenges for officers. xlv Normalizing conversations about mental health opens opportunities for pre ventative intervention. The Arlington (Virginia) Police Department offers one model for early intervention. When citizens register complaints, the department connects the involved officers to supportive resources. xlvi Early evaluation of these efforts shows that normalizing mental health reduced complaints against the department and increased levels of personal awareness for indi vidual officers. xlv11 Prioritizing officer wellness offers one promising path to preventing or reducing misconduct. CONCLUSION Police executives have a chance to set the cultural and administrative tone to enact pro-equity policing. Existing research offers insights, yet gaps still exist. Many strategies lack clear defini tions and rigorous evaluation of effectiveness. Police executives can join the effort to bridge these gaps. By adopting reform efforts in conjunction with an evaluation strategy, leaders can contribute to this growing body of work and strengthen the profession as they serve their communities. References i Saletan, W. (2021, October 17). Americans don't want to defund the police. Here's what they do want. Slate Magazine . ii Blake, A. (2021, November 5). The electoral demise of 'defund the police'. The Washington Post . iii Gramlich, J. (2017). facts about crime in the US. Pew Research Center . iv DeSilver, D., Lipka, M., & Fahmy, D. (2020). 10 things we know about race and policing in the US. Pew Research . v Gramlich, 2017. vi Banks, D., Hendrix, J., Hickman, M., & Kyckelhahn, T. (2016). National sources of law enforcement employment data. US Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Program Report . vii Chalfin, A., & Kaplan, J. (2021). How many complaints against police officers can be abated by incapacitating a few “bad apples?”. Criminology & Public Policy, 20, 351-370. viii Thompson, C. (2021). Fatal police shootings of unarmed Black people reveal troubling patterns. NPR. police-shootings-of-unarmed-black-people-reveal-troubling-patterns. ix McElvain, J., & Kposowa, A. (2004). Police officer characteristics and internal affairs investigations for use of force allegations. Journal Of Criminal Justice , 32(3), 265-279. xxii Ibid. xi Todak, N., & James, L. (2018). A systematic social observation study of police de-escalation tactics. Police Quarterly , 21(4), 509-543. xii Thompson, 2021. xiii Sklansky, D. A. (2011). The persistent pull of police professionalism . Harvard Kennedy School. xiv McClellan, S. E., & Gustafson, B. G. (2012). Communicating law enforcement professionalization: Social construction of standards. Policing An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management , 35, 1, p. 104-123. xv Conley, A. D., & Gustafson, B. G. (2013). Ethics, enforcement, and the prospect of professionalism. In B. Fitch (Ed.), Law enforcement ethics: Classic and contemporary issues (pp. 159-179). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. xvi Weisburd, D., Greenspan, R., Hamilton, E., Williams, H., Bryan, K. (2020). Police attitudes toward abuse of authority: Findings from a national study. Research in Brief. NCJ 181312. xvii Mogc, B. (2020). A proposal for police reform: Require effective accountability

measures in police union contracts as a condition of tax-exempt status. The University of Chicago Law Review Online . xviii Disalvo, D. (2021). Police reformers' next step: a hard look at union contracts. Governing Magazine . xix Cunningham, J., Feir, D., Gillezeau, R. (2020). Overview of research on collective bargaining rights and law enforcement officer’s bills of rights. http://craftmedia xx Preston, C. (2020). Police education is broken. Can it be fixed? Hechinger Report . xxi Reaves, B. (2016). State And Local Law Enforcement Training Academies , 2013. Bureau of Justice Statistics NCJ 249784. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. xxii Yarbrough, B. (2020). Are California police officers trained enough and in the right things? Under state rules, a beginning barber gets twice the training of a rookie cop. Mercury News . xxiii Ibid. xxiv Lawrence, D. S., Christoff, T. E., & Escamilla, J. H. (2017). Predicting procedural justice behavior: Examining communication and personality. Policing: An International Journal , 40(1), 141-154. xxv Stickle, B. (2016). A national examination of the effect of education, training and pre employment screening on law enforcement use of force. Justice Policy Journal , 13(1), 1–15. xxvi Barret, K. (2019). To find more “good cops,” a few bit cities change their hiring process. Governing Magazine . xxvii Miles-Johnson, T. (2019). Policing diverse people: How occupational attitudes and background characteristics shape police recruits’ perceptions. SAGE Open . xxviii Chappell, A. T., & Lanza-Kaduce, L. (2010). Police academy socialization: under standing the lessons learned in a paramilitary-bureaucratic organization. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography , 39(2), 187–214. xxix Miles-Johnson, 2017. xxx Department of Public Safety Standards and Training. (2021). Basic police academy: 2021 curriculum overview. Documents/2021_Oregon_BP_Curriculum_Overview_072821.pdf. xxxi Wood, G., Tyler, T., & Papachristos, A. (2020). Procedural justice training reduces police use of force and complaints against officers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences May 2020, 117 (18) 9815-9821. xxxii Owens, E., Weisburd, D., Amendola, K., & Alpert, G. (2018). Can you build a better cop?: Experimental evidence on supervision, training, and policing in the community. Criminology & Public Policy , 17(1), 41-87. xxxiii Jawando, M. & Parsons, P. (2014, December 18). 4 ideas that could begin to reform the criminal justice system and improve police-community relations . Center for American Progress. xxxiv Tarver, S. Z., Herring, M. H., & Friend, C. A. (2020). Implementation of an interdisciplinary cultural competence training with law enforcement personnel. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work , 29, 251-269. xxxv Ibid. xxvi Rawski, S. L., & Workman-Stark, A. L. (2018). Masculinity contest cultures in policing organizations and recommendations for training interventions. Journal of Social Issues , 74(3), 607-627. xxxvii Owens et al., 2018. xxxviii Ingram, R., Terril, W., & Paoline, E. (2018). Police culture and officer behavior: Application of a multilevel framework. American Society of Criminology , 56(4), 780-811. xxxix Rawski & Workman-Stark, 2018. xl U.S. Department of Justice Community Relations Service. (2003). Principles of good policing: Avoiding violence between police and citizens . https://www. xli Stenkamp, A., Waseem, Z., Rad, A., Tan de Bibiana, J., Bradford, B., & Belur, J. (2021). Examining organizational change and procedural justice: An international cross-site evaluation of two police departments . Vera Institute of Justice. xlii Metz, I., & Kulik, C. (2008). Making public organizations more inclusive: A case study of the Victoria Police Force. Human Resource Management , 47, 369-387. xliii Mossburg, C., & Almasy, S. (2021, October 1). California police reform laws create decertification system for officer misconduct. CNN . https://www.cnn. com/2021/09/30/us/california-police-reform-laws-decertification/index.html. xliv Chalfin & Kaplan, 2021. xlv Lentz, L., Silverstone, P. H., & Krameddine, Y. I. (2020). High rates of mental health disorders in civilian employees working in police organizations. Frontiers in Psychology , 11, 1031. xlvi Stenkamp et. al., 2021. xlvii Ibid.

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