The Muslim Mughal Empire controlled large parts of India until the 1800s. Many buildings from then remain, including this mausoleum in New Delhi, built in 1754.

After Alexander withdrew from India, the Maurya Empire began to consolidate its power across the subcontinent. It reached its height in the third century bce and became the largest empire in the history of India, a title it still holds to this day. After its decline in 185 bce , India fragmented into a series of smaller kingdoms. The rise of the Gupta Empire about 500 years later in 320 ushered in a “Golden Age” of peace and cultural advancement in art, literature, astronomy, and other fields. This peace was disrupted in the 11th century, with a series of inva- sions that brought Islam to India. The Turkish military leader Mahmud of Ghanzi attacked India 17 times in the early part of the 11th century. In 1175, the Afghan sultan Muhammad Ghori led campaigns into northern and central India that resulted in a strong Islamic presence in the region. Aperiod of Muslimdynasties called theDelhi Sultanate followed formore

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