Illinois CTE Endorsement Area: Health Science Technology
Lesson Title: Infection Control Heroes
Lesson Author: Amanda Ramsden RN
ILCTE Leader and Lesson Consultant: Nance Budde RN
Lesson Created: June 2020
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In the “Infection Control Heroes” lesson, students will learn how to identify the signs & symptoms of infection. They will learn the terminology associated with infection. Identify the chains of infection and how to protect themselves from potential infections.
Responding to the immediate need of online resources, the ILCTE Innovative Curriculum Resources Project conducted a series of Professional Learning experiences. We wish to express our appreciation to the teachers for creating and sharing a lesson. This lesson is provided as a guide for online teaching. Click here to provide feedback on your implementation of this lesson.
What do you want the students to learn about this topic?
1. Explain and be able to apply infection control vocabulary and abbreviations 2. Recognize conditions that microbes need to live and grow. 3. Describe the signs and symptoms of infection. 4. Explain and create the chain of infection. 5. Apply chain of infection knowledge to indicate what can break the chain of infection. 6. Describe and demonstrate how to prevent healthcare-associated infections 7. Identify people at risk for healthcare associated infections 8. Illustrate and demonstrate the principles of medical asepsis. 9. Understand and demonstrate Standard Precautions, Transmission-Based Precautions, and Bloodborne Pathogen Standards.
Why do you think they need to know it (life skills, careers, etc.)?
● Infection control is needed in everyday life to prevent the spread of disease. ● As future healthcare workers,students need to know how to prevent expensive healthcare associated infections.
What Educational Standards are addressed?
National Health Science Standards 2.1.3 Distinguish between subjective and objective information 7.1.1 Explain principles of infection transmission. c. Recognize chain of infection d. Describe mode of transmission
7.1.2 Differentiate methods of controlling the spread and growth of pathogens. b. Standard precautions c. Isolation precautions d. Bloodborne pathogen precautions
7.2.1 Apply personal safety procedures based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) regulations.
Common Core Standards for Science and Technical Subjects Literacy.RST11-12.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. Literacy.RST11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. Five years after graduation, what should they still know about this topic? How might they be using this knowledge/skill set? ● All persons need to know how to properly wash their hands to prevent the spread of disease. ● People need to recognize and understand the spread of disease through knowledge of a disease’s chain of infection 5. Evaluate: What do we need to see to be convinced that they know it? 1.Use the following as a pre & post lesson assessment for knowledge. 1) If a nurse aide needs to wear a gown to care for a patient in isolation, the nurse aide should:
a. wear the same gown to care for the next patient. b. tak e the gown off before leaving the patient’s room.
c. remove the gown in the dirty utility room. d. leave the gown untied to take it off quickly. 2) Which is a sign of an infection? a. A bruise b. Redness in a body part c. A bleeding wound d. Warm, dry, intact skin 3) You have blood on your hand. What should you do? a. Wash your hands with soap and water b. Rinse your hands c. Wash your hands with a disinfectant d. Use an alcohol-based sanitizer 4) Blood Borne Pathogen Standards involves microbes spread through: a. Blood and OPIMS (other potentially infectious materials) b. Only Blood c. Droplets d. Close contact 5) A mask: a. Can be reused b. Is clean on the inside c. Is contaminated when moist
d. Should be loose fitting
6) Isolation precautions
a. Treat communicable disease b. Destroy pathogens c. Keep pathogens within a certain area d. Destroy all microbes 7) Why would you use a face shield or goggles? a. When using standard precautions b. When you might get splashed in the eyes c. If you have an eye infection d. When doing a sterile procedure 2. Evaluate posters or research papers for inclusion of all items listed. 3. Evaluate chains of infections created for correct chain sequencing and chain identification.
What class(s) or discipline(s) would be the most likely to do this lesson?
CNA and Intro to Health or any other Health Science career pathway.
What grade level do you feel would be most appropriate?
Middle School - for younger students’ activities can be pulled out as needed Secondary and Post-Secondary students
1. Engage (15 minutes): How will students get interested and excited about learning this material?
1. Choose a picture like the one above, post it for the students to see. Have the students journal by answering these questions: a. What do you think this is? b. Describe what you think it feels like? c. Describe what it looks like? d.What do you think it feels like for the patient? e. What questions do you have? A teacher may also use a K-W- L chart so that they could assess the students’ knowledge after the competition of the unit. Other options could include: Think, pair, share. Answer : This is an infected IV site. The students’ answers may include redness, skin is peeling, yellow spot in the center (slough), the patient may be in pain, etc.
Online choices: can be a discussion opener on a zoom meeting or as an asynchronous learning opportunity
2. Explore (20-40 minutes):
What activities can be completed so that they experience and/or discover the material we want them to learn?
Part I: 1. Explore this lesson’s vocabulary - using an activity set up by the teacher.
Here is the vocabulary : antisepsis, asepsis, carrier, communicable disease, contamination, cross-contamination, disinfection, healthcare associated infection (HAI), infection, medical asepsis, microbe, non-pathogen, pathogen, PPE, TB, HIV/AIDS, OPIM, MRSA Suggested activities for learning vocabulary in the classroom: Headbands – split students in teams of 3-4, put vocabulary on note cards, have one student select a card, do not look at it but show it to the group. The other students offer clues to the first student so the first student can guess the term. Once the first student guesses the term, the subsequent students follow the same pattern – taking a term, not looking at it, show it to the group and try to guess the term based upon the clues given. Suggested online activities: Develop a Quizlet to assist with terminology for students who need repetitive review and Quizlet can be a matching game. Can use Pear Deck or plain google sliders and have students create a slide(s) for terminology. A matching game can be developed using this link:https://www.turtlediary.com/reading- worksheet-generator/matching-lists.html A crossword puzzle game can be developed using this link:https://worksheets.theteacherscorner.net/make-your-own/crossword/ 1. In small groups, research the chain of infection. Be prepared to discuss the following: a. Identify & describe each infection link of the chain. b. Describe anything that can “break” a link in the infection chain. 2. Students will watch this full video on the chain of infection associated with Ebola. (7.24) Ebola 3. Be prepared to answer the following questions - this video can be rewatched if necessary: a. What was the source of the infection? b. Who was the reservoir? c. What was the portal of exit? d. What was the method of transmission Part II: Activity Choices: #1 Infection chain
e. What was the portal of entry? f. Who was the susceptible host?
For classroom: give students six different colored pieces of construction paper
Have them watch the video and stop at each spot on the video that correlates to a link on the chain of infection. They may staple or tape the links together. You may need to do this more than once. Answer: (source (Ebola), Reservoir (bat), Portal of Exit (blood from bat when cut up), Method of Transmission (blood fr om bat on grandfather’s fingers and rubbed into eyes), Portal of Entry (eyes), susceptible host (grandfather). They may also choose source (Ebola), Reservoir (grandfather), Portal of Exit (stool, vomit, etc.,), Method of Transmission (hand to mouth), Portal of Entry (mouth or eyes), susceptible host (mother).
For the online version: Can be done at home using the same method, if students do not have colored paper, they can use different colored markers, crayons, etc.
Activity Choice: #2 Design your own infection or trace COVID-19 1. Research COVID-19. Trace this infection through the chain of infection. Students can create their own Zombie Apocalypse or SuperBug. a. Using your research information, fill in the links of the COVID-19 infection by drawing and describing each link in your own terms through pictures or words.
Online activity: this activity can be done at home or online without any adaptation
Activity Choice #3: Spread the disease (AKA “Glitter Herpes”) 1. You will pass around a ball from your teacher. You are going to pass this ball around to other students. Be prepared to answer these questions after this activity: a. Did you get the “herpes” infection on your hands? b. Where else were the “herpes” germs?
c. Did anyone NOT get the “herpes” germs on themself? How? d. If everyone in the class got the “herpes” germs on them, WHY? e. How did it spread? f. Where could the chain of infection be broken?
Coat a ball with glow germ (may need more than one ball). Have the students pass it around and handle the ball. When the students are done turn off the lights and use a black light to see where the germs have spread. Reinforce the infection chain. Ask students to identify the links associated with passing the glow germ ball around the class. 2. After finishing passing the ball around, when your teacher asks you, go wash your hands. a. What did you learn about handwashing? b. Did you personally do a good enough hand washing job to eliminate all the “herpes” germs? If yes, great! If not, why not?
c. Your suggestions for improvement to protect yourself? Ask students again to show their hands under the black light.
Online: Can mail students a small bit of glitter and ask them how the glitter spreads throughout the house —my students call this “Glitter Herpes.” Even a week later, unless they clean everyday fastidiously the glitter will find a way to hang around — just like a disease.
Activity Choice: #4: Save the World! and a Mad Dash for Groceries! 1. You will play the following 2 games: https://martin-jacob.itch.io/can-you-save-the-world https://wammoh.itch.io/corona-grocery-dash
a. How did you feel when there were only a few people on the street and lots of masks? b. What did you feel when there were only a few masks but lots of people? c. Relate this to the chain of infection. Can be played in class or at home
Part III: Activity Choice: #5 Handwashing 1. See Stop the Bleed Handwashing lesson for activities. Activity Choice: #6
Activity Choice: #6 PPE donning and doffing CNA Students need donning and doffing for essential skills, please follow IDPH rubrics. See Stop the Bleed Handwashing lesson and proper gloving techniques for the classroom. 1. Watch this video (4:32) and be prepared to answer the following questions, you may need to do a little research: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cCzwH7d4Ags a. When would you need to wear an isolation gown? b. Can you reuse a mask? c. What are the different kinds of isolation? d. Does every infection require you to wear gloves? If yes, why? If not, why? e. Are some infections not contagious? If not, why? If yes, why? f. What’s the big deal about handwashing?
Online teaching: gloves and masks may need to be sent to students, but gowns can be improvised with a bathrobe or button up shirt
3. Explain (10 minutes):
What questions can they answer if they are beginning to understand this material? 1) What are the links in the infection chain? (infectious agent-reservoir-portal of exit-mode of transmission-portal of entry-host (susceptible)) 2) What is the most important and cheapest weapon against spreading infections? (handwashing) 3) How does social distance reduce the risk for transmission of disease? (the greater the space between people the less likely the microbes can travel that far)
4. Elaborate/Extend (20-40 minutes):
What situation can we set up so that students can build on their new knowledge to learn more? How can students use the knowledge/skill gained in this lesson to apply in other situations, for example in the “real world” or in other classes?
Activity Choice: #1 Case studies and reflection (this can be done individually or in small groups) An introduction to the students could be: If you were the CNA what would you do? Or How does this case study relate to something that you saw in the news or in your life? 1. Read the following scenarios and be prepared with your answers: The nursing center that you are working at has an outbreak of the flu. How do you think that you could stop the spread of infection? Answers : students can construct a chain of infection for the spread of flu in the nursing center, this is also a good time to start talking about or reinforcing handwashing 2. You see a nurse walk out of a resident’s room and she does not wash her hands. What do you say to her? Answer: Politely remind her that she did not wash her hands or ask her if the room needs more soap or paper towels 3. Your resident has a wound on their heels because their shoes were too tight. What do you do? Answer: Tell the nurse and use descriptive words that include size, where the wound is located, and an objective description (redness, swelling, drainage, fever) Any small real-life experience can be brought in. If students are in the clinical settings, this can be group discussion talking about infection control measures that they observe while on this rotation. . Activity Choice: # 2 Research Paper or Poster - this can be done individually or in small groups 1. “Pick a Contamination” - you will now pick a contagious disease from your teacher’s list. You will design a poster using these guidelines: a. you can use printed pictures & words b. you can use just words c. you can use other media after talking with your teacher and getting her approval d. Causes and Length of incubation for your infection (look up incubation definition and then apply to your disease) e. Signs and Symptoms of your infection (be sure you distinguish between a sign or a symptom - research so you can differentiate. f. Research subjective signs vs objective signs. g. Type (or types) of transmission-based precautions needed. h. Treatment(s). i. Possible portal of entries and portal of exits of infectious agent. j. Possible reservoirs. k. Possible modes of transmission. l. How common is your infectious disease? For online learning this can be done as an asynchronous learning on a discussion board.
Zika Malaria Cholera Herpes Measles Ringworm COVID-19 Hepatitis A
Online – can complete on ThingLink, Prezi, or Pear Deck
Activity Choice: #3 Clean up!
Place various items in front of students and ask them how to properly clean them. For CNA in the classroom items can include an over bed table, urinals, bedpans, commodes, telephones, and any other high touch surfaces. The idea is to teach about: sterile vs clean, and cleaning from clean to dirty, and controlling portals of entry and exits. On line: at home students can discuss cleaning toys, tables, counters, bathtubs/showers, even stuffed animals. It could be demonstrated as a video, asynchronous learning or shared only with the teacher. To reduce social stigma this could also be done as “if I w ere to clean ___________, I would do” written projects by writing out the steps needed for cleaning something.
How might this lesson be adapted to varying abilities? ● Each activity has several methods to achieve objectives through visual, auditory, or kinesthetic learners. If not listed most can be easily adapted. ● Please remember some students will require a couple of days to finish a research project with an art component. ● For IEP students please consider approaching this lesson in chunks.
Essential Employability Skills:
There are four essential employability skills: https://employabilityskills.org/wp- content/uploads/2020/03/Illinois-Essential-Handout.pdf ● Personal Ethic: integrity, respect, perseverance, positive attitude ● Work Ethic: dependability, professionalism
● Teamwork: critical thinking, effective and cooperative work ● Communication: active listening, clear communication
For this lesson, the focus is on Personal Ethic (integrity) & Work Ethics (professionalism), Teamwork (critical thinking) and Communication (verbal and non-verbal).
How it is addressed:
Personal Ethic Perseverance
Students will need to use time management strategies to complete longer projects that are researched based or may require repeated evaluation to stay on task.
Engage: Step #1
Communication Active Listening Clear Communication
Students need to listen to classmates’ perspectives and feedback on technique. They also need to follow instructions to complete activities and then be able to apply their knowledge to explaining steps and producing a project.
Engage: Step #1 Explore: Part II, Activity #1, Steps 1 & 2 Explore: Part II, Activity #2, Step 1
Teamwork Critical Thinking
Students need to use prior learned knowledge to clean up correctly, finish a research paper and consider how it applies to their future position as healthcare workers
Elaborate: Activity # 1, 2 & 3
What tools, materials, documents, etc. are needed to teach this lesson?
Computer access ThingLink or other LMS Poster paper Markers, scissors, colored paper, stapler or tape Gloves - Sm - Med - Lrg - XLrge (be sure they are nitrile vinyl gloves and not latex gloves due to latex allergy) Masks Isolation gown or button up shirt Soap and water Ball(s) Glo-germ or lotion with glitter Stamps for mailing and envelopes Black light