galeriemichael.com—Barbizon & the Journey to Impressionism

Galerie Michael is one of the leading galleries in the world—not least because it has the courage to consistently offer its clients museum-caliber Barbizon exhibitions each year. World-renowned 19th century art expert, Petra ten-Doesschate Chu, recently commented that, “[Galerie Michael] has done much to promote the art of the Barbizon school in California. Important French naturalist paintings have also graced its walls. Michael [Schwartz] has supported Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide [NCAW] from the beginning. We shall miss him for his generosity, as well as his warmth and sense of humor.” Michael was keenly aware that the mid-19th century is unquestionably a key part of art history. It would not have been possible to jump from the Romantic Movement of the early 19th century to the Impressionist Movement a few decades later without the intervening bridge provided by the artists who gained their inspiration in the Forest of Fontainebleau alongside the small village of Barbizon. The Romantics worked on emotions and a glorification of nature and historical events. The medi- eval was held in higher regard than the classical. They venerated the lofty wherever they found it, whether in historical events or the royal and noble elements of society. As the movement’s name suggests, they only saw art through a romantic lens. Impressionists, on the other hand, based their visions not on reality, but on the impression that re- ality left in the minds of the artists. The feeling of a scene was more important than accuracy. What impression was left with the artist as a result of a momentary glimpse?

Romantic

Impressionistic

Theodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa (1818-1819) Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette (1876)

The connection, Barbizon, was possible courtesy of its central characteristic of being out of the studio and into nature, en plein air, to see precisely what was happening. Paintings moved from idealizing history and nature to honesty in depiction. Moments in time were captured with lighting. Of course, the lighting would be altered with the passage of a cloud in the sky or the simplest movement of the Earth in relationship with the Sun. Barbizon artists began as rebels and ended as heroes, fighting the academic tradition in order to cap - ture these fleeting, ephemeral moments in time, rather than highly-staged artificial and, in comparison, contrived art. They were outcasts who were constantly rejected by the artistic governors who wished only to protect their positions and the status quo they ruled. Barbizon artists went outdoors, and celebrated each vista they were able to capture. Rather than cre- ating a scene in a studio, they recorded a scene in nature. From one moment to the next, the lighting could change, and so the painting would be entirely different from day to day. They viewed landscapes as primary subjects, not just backdrop filler material that was the dogma of the Establishment. They re-established a poetic or spiritual connection to art. They revered nature, which was viewed as be- ing both sublime and spiritual. Their portrayals were simultaneously both honest and emotional. They could see for themselves exactly what nature was showing them through direct observation. Shapes also changed with the momentary passage of time. They were not restricted by any idealized form. Furthermore, they had escaped from the harsh reality of everyday life in a big and dirty city, Paris. The short ride to Barbizon was in reality a move into a whole new universe, and a whole new state of being. The daily grind surrounding them in Paris had given way to the simplicity of working in a timeless envi- ronment that had existed for eons. Trees, clouds, winds, birds and flowers had replaced factories and filth. Now they could venerate peasants rather than royals and nobles. They could, and did, replace the rigid guardians of the arts with their own free spirits. The simplicity of life was boiled down to the essence—honest work, simple food, and uncomplicated day followed by an untroubled sleep.

Julien Dupré spent his career showcasing the simple lives of the peasants. The simplest as- pects of life were the very essence of life— whether making hay, milking cows, tending sheep, feeding geese or returning home from the fields. His simplicity was profound in an era that was moving rapidly from agrarianism into industrialization, from the land to the cities, and from simple to complex.

Julien Dupré, Les Glaneuses Page 14

Jules Breton, La Glaneuse, 1853-1858

Frederick Morgan, Gleaners, 1879

Page 8

Page 64

In this world, academic pretention and falseness were gone forever.

Change started slowly, but it was impossible to hold back. With the 1848 French Revolution, the Salon de Paris became liberalized and consequently the number of rejected Barbizon works was reduced. However, the established academic body still publicly and vociferously expressed their diametrical opposition to these new trends that were spearheaded by the Barbizon painters who were primarily active between 1830-1870. The academic body’s continuing denigration of the Bar- bizon painter’s avant-garde techniques compelled the official Paris Salon to again reject many of these “highly-controversial” paintings. In response, the Barbizon painters began to hold their own independent Salons. Their art, and their movement, then became the cornerstone of Impressionism. For these were the artists who successfully threw off the academic shackles that held back artistic progress. They rejected the Establishment which fostered an environment that led to stagnation just so it could maintain its power structure by enforcing and reinforcing archaic and rigid artistic norms.

Barbizon leaders, like Rousseau, and Dupré were instrumental in laying the groundwork that would evolve into Modern Art. Their informality in painting art for the pure joy of immortalizing a fleeting moment that would never be repeated is precisely what laid the foundation for Impressionism— highly colorful works that reflected the artist’s scenic impression. Without the advancements of the Barbizon School, Impressionism would not have occurred—certainly not when it occurred. Indeed, a number of artists who are directly linked to Impressionism were products of the Barbi- zon School. For example, one of the pre-eminent Impressionist artists, Pierre Auguste Renoir, be- gan his career as a Barbizon artist in the Forest of Fontainebleau, painting under the mentorship of the Barbizon legend, Narcisse Diaz de la Peña. Claude Monet, similarly, crafted masterpieces in the Barbizon style.

Pierre Auguste Renoir, The Painter Jules Le Coeur Walking His Dogs in the Forest of Fontainebleau (1866)

Claude Monet, Two figures in a landscape (1866)

The reality of this bridge can be clearly seen in nearly identical scenes that are portrayed from two neighboring perspectives—Barbizon, as depicted by Daugbigny and Impressionism, depicted by van Gogh.

Charles François Daubigny, The Harvest (undated)

Vincent van Gogh, Wheatfields under Thunderclouds ( 1890)

It can be said that every artistic development in the latter 19th and entire 20th centuries owes a debt of gratitude to the rebels who heroically inhabited the Forest of Fontainebleau. Which is why so many top museums in the world showcase Barbizon works, including the Louvre, The Hermitage, The Rijksmuseum, The National Gallery, the Musée D’Orsay, Victorian and Albert, the Met, among countless others. It is also why the world’s top galleries, like Galerie Michael, feature leading Barbi- zon and other pre-Impressionistic artists like Frederick Morgan, Benjamin Williams Leader, Daniel Ridgway Knight, Julien Dupré, Charles François Daubigny, Jean François Raffaëlli, Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña, Henry John Yeend-King, Auguste Bonheur, among others. We welcome you to view our current exhibition, Barbizon & the Journey to Impressionism. Please celebrate this momentous period in art history with us—either in person on Rodeo Drive or virtually, anywhere in the world! History awaits you!

Frederick MORGAN (1847-1927) Gleaners, 1879 Oil on canvas Signed and dated lower right; inscribed ‘No 2. “Gleaners”/Fred Morgan/1 Cathcart Road/S.W.’ on a label attached to the frame Provenance: Thomas Agnew & Sons; Armitage Collection; Private Collection This work is a smaller version of the 1880 work of the same title, shown at the Royal Academy exhibit of that year (RA 1880, no. 603), now in the collection of Museums Sheffield. Morgan produced an additional version of this composition, with the figures reversed, also dated 1880. 30 11/16 x 19 7/8 in. (78 x 50.5 cm) 915700

Frederick MORGAN (1847-1927) Frederick Morgan was born in London to the British artist John Morgan (1823-1886). He showed a keen interest in art and began studying with his father at an early age. At the age of 19, Fred exhibited his first painting, ‘The Leaders of the Singing,’ at the Royal Academy. Morgan was also an active member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters, showing consistently at the major London galleries to wide acclaim. His most notable association was with the Royal Academy where he exhibited fifty works during the course of his career. Significant works by Morgan were also shown at the Royal Society of Artists- Birmingham, The Fine Art Society, Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts, Walker Art Gallery-Liverpool, Manchester City Art Gallery, The Royal Society of British Artists and The Royal Institute of Oil Painters. Morgan was also represented by the noted English gallery of Arthur Tooth & Sons. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Towneley Hall Art Gallery and Museum, UK; • Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, UK; • Russell-Cotes Museum, UK; • Museums Sheffield, UK; • Blackburn Museum and Art Gallery, UK

Daniel Ridgway KNIGHT (1839-1924) Midday’s Pause Oil on canvas laid on panel Signed and annotated “Ridgway Knight Paris” lower right 36 1/2 x 29 in. (92.7 x 73.7 cm) 700186

Daniel Ridgway KNIGHT (1839-1924) In order to perfectly capture the spirit of the countryside, Knight renounced modern conveniences and com- pletely immersed himself in country life. He acquainted himself with the locals, who became models for his paintings, allowing him to recreate intimate moments that represent the closeness of the country people. His Rolleboise home had a picturesque terrace overlooking the Seine, which is likely the setting of this piece. Knight has paid close attention to every detail: the wild and colorful blooms and the reflections of the trees in the river. An impeccable masterpiece, worthy of a museum collection. Daniel Ridgway Knight was an expatriate ”en plein air” painter who spent most of his career living in France. He studied first at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art and later at L’École des Beaux-Arts, Paris. His paintings often depicted idealized peasant women in a crisp academic style, with intricate attention to detail. Born in Philadelphia to Quaker parents, Knight overcame the culturally restrictive Quaker life, studying in Pennsylvania before traveling to Paris in 1861. There, he worked under Charles Gleyre (1806-1874) along with other artists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) and Alfred Sisley (1839-1899). He returned to Philadelphia in 1863 to serve in the Civil War, remaining there for the following eight years. During this time Knight supported himself by painting portraits and genre pictures. In 1871, his Philadelphia patrons sent him back to France, where he succeeded so well at painting in the European style that he remained abroad for the rest of his life. In 1872, Knight began studying under the realist painter Jean-Louis Ernest Meissonier (1815-1891). Although unaccustomed to teaching, Meissonier made an exception with Knight, whom he influenced greatly. In 1875, Meissonier assisted Knight in obtaining entry to the prestigious Paris Salon, helping to ensure a favorable judgment of Knight’s entries in the Salon’s annual juried exhibitions. Knight soon moved out of Paris to Rol- leboise, a charming village in the Île-de-France region. Here, he began to execute the peasant subjects for which he became so well known. Like many of his contemporaries, the artist was fascinated with the pastoral qualities and simplistic nature of life outside France’s urban centers and his paintings celebrate and idealize a peasant’s way of life. Working toward more natural lighting, a style which dominated painting styles at the time, Knight even built a glass house in his garden, permitting him to work in natural light the entire year. Although Knight’s paintings are picturesque, he avoided an overly sentimental approach. His people carry on their daily tasks, and one can develop an understanding of their character from his sensitive renditions. The lush foliage and landscapes in Knight’s paintings convey the beauty of the fertile French countryside. Knight’s technique was to intensify certain colors in the foreground of his composition, contrasting them against gray skies and subdued backgrounds, which conveyed a heightened sense of reality. The transition from one form to another was accomplished through the exact use of color rather than through an emphasis on shadow and light. Knight’s skillful use of lighting gradations frequently conveyed definite moods. The artist continued to explore the nuances of this style until his death in 1924. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Picker Art Gallery, Colgate University; • The Strong Museum, Rochester, New York; • Hudson River Museum, New York; • Detroit Museum of Art; Haggin Museum, Stockton; • Musées Nationaux, Paris; • Newark Museum, New Jersey; • Parrish Art Museum, New York

Benjamin Williams LEADER (1831-1923) The Stream from the Hills, 1884 Oil on canvas Signed and dated lower left Provenance: Grogan & Company, Boston; Richard Green, London; Private Collection, London 24 x 36 1/4 in. (61 x 92.1 cm) Framed dimensions: 30 1/2 x 42 1/2 in. 915304

Benjamin Williams LEADER (1831-1923) As shown in “The Stream from the Hills,” Leader has mastered the natural effects of light, particularly the amber luminosity of the late afternoon sun, which became his hallmark. Born Benjamin Leader Williams in Worcester, England, Leader is known as one of the United Kingdom’s greatest landscape artists. His father knew and was a great admirer of John Constable, RA (1776-1837) and was a keen amateur artist himself. Benjamin changed his name to Williams Leader, to distinguish him- self from the legion of artists called Williams. Leader attended the Royal Grammar School, studying in the evenings at Worcester School of Design. In 1854, following a number of years working for his father, he enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools. During his first year at the RA Schools, Leader had a painting in the Summer Exhibition, and, more importantly, sold it. From the outset, Leader’s interest was in landscapes. His early work, in its detailed painting and bright colors showing the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites. Leader was masterly at painting landscapes and riverscapes with incredible detail yet an innate softness, creating an ephemeral moment. He experimented with different methods throughout his career to “achieve the effects of natural light and shade over his landscapes, rather than the harsh artificial luminosity from the use of bright colors alone.” (Ruth Wood, Benjamin Williams Lead - er, RA 1831-1923: His Life and Paintings, Woodbridge (Suffolk, England), c 1998. p. 26). Leader was a typically industrious artist of the second half of the 19th century, a confirmed sufferer from the Victorian work ethic. He felt that his residence in Worcester made it more difficult to secure recognition by the Royal Academy. In truth he was very successful, but that success was always more marked with the public than the critics. In 1883 Leader became ARA, and in 1898, at the age of sixty-seven, a full Academician. In 1888 he had moved to Surrey, a beautiful county close to London, and as a result much favored by painters. In 1914 he became a Freeman of the City of Worcester. Leader exhibited three paintings at the Royal Academy in 1922, at the age of ninety-one years. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Aberdeen Art Gallery, Scotland;

• Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery, UK; • Blackburn Museum and Art Gallery, UK; • National Museums Liverpool, UK; • Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service, UK; • Reading Museum, UK; • Salford Museum and Art Gallery, UK; • The Tate, London; • Victoria and Albert Museum, London; • National Gallery of Victoria, Australia; • Worcester City Art Gallery & Museum, UK

Julien DUPRÉ (1851-1910) Les Glaneuses Oil on canvas Signed lower left Provenance:

Pitet aîné, Paris, November 27, 1890 as “Glaneuses”; M. Knoedler, New York City, New York, no. 7017; Fleming Smith, New York City, New York, June 30, 1892; Private Collection, United States This painting will be included in the forthcoming Julien Dupré catalogue raisonné to be published by Rehs Galleries. 25 5/8 x 31 7/8 in. (65.1 x 81 cm) 700185

Julien DUPRÉ (1851-1910) Julien Dupré was a French artist working in the last half of the 19th century. He came onto the art scene af - ter the Barbizon movement was well-established, but his artistry represents the very heart and essence of the Barbizon movement. While he grew up in Paris, and did not move to the area around the small village of Barbizon, he connected powerfully with the agrarian peasant life. His mindset, if not his physical location, was what made him a Barbizon artist. That meant that he rejected the industrialization occurring in the main cities of the world, and certainly Paris. While farms gave way to factories, Dupré’s creativity did the opposite. While others glamorized the city life, he focused on the simple life. The academics of old thought little of the little people, instead fo- cusing on the upper edges of the august, pompous, and beautiful society—royalty, nobility, intellectuals and acceptable society in general. Artists went to school to be steeped in the beauty of the beautiful—in an incestuous circle of satisfaction. But then came the Barbizon artists to upset the entire Establishment. They left their studios in favor of the real world. Barbizon artists went outdoors, and celebrated everything they could drink in. Beauty was now nature. Scenes were not set, they were captured. Beautiful people were not the rich and famous, but the simple and poor—the bottom of acceptable society whose hard work made acceptable society possible. Their simplicity was what was profoundly exquisite. They arose each day to a hearty meal, worked the entire day, then returned for a dinner and retired to a well-earned and restful night of sleep, only to do the same thing the next day. Life was anything but complex. People were almost indistinguishable from their beasts of burden, yet they were venerated by the Barbizon school. Julien Dupré spent his career showcasing the simplest aspects of peasant life—whether making hay, milk- ing cows, tending sheep, feeding geese or returning home from the fields. His simplicity was profound. In the work Les Glaneuses (The Gleaners), he invested the peasant woman with a heroic aura through an idealization of form. Here, it is the vigorous action of hard work that is noble, not the upper crust of society. This is one of the finest examples of Dupré’s painting. It embraces all elements of Barbizon paintings with the transition to the Impressionist tradition. A painting of this quality and subject matters has not been available in many years. The very essence of Barbizon is captured in this one work of art. It is a singular moment in time that captures the reality and honesty of life and labor, while showcasing the peasant and the simplicity of an agrarian lifestyle. Museums featuring works by this artist include: • Musée d’Orsay, Paris; • Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York;

• Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; • Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris; • Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, Maine; • St. Louis Art Museum, Missouri; • Fine Arts Museum, San Francisco; • Huntington Museum of Art, Huntington, West Virginia

Daniel Ridgway KNIGHT (1839-1924) Picking Flowers Oil on canvas Signed and inscribed ‘Paris’ lower right This work has been authenticated and will be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné on the artist. Provenance: Mr. and Mrs. A. L. Derby, Kansas (acquired circa 1910); Richard Green Gallery, London;

Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Picker Art Gallery, Colgate University; • The Strong Museum, Rochester, New York; • Hudson River Museum, New York; • Detroit Museum of Art;

Private Collection, London 26 x 32 in. (66 x 81.3 cm) Framed dimensions: 35 1/8 x 41 5/8 in. 915130

• Haggin Museum, Stockton; • Musées Nationaux, Paris; • Newark Museum, New Jersey; • Parrish Art Museum, New York

Daniel Ridgway KNIGHT (1839-1924) In order to perfectly capture the spirit of the countryside, Knight renounced modern conveniences and com- pletely immersed himself in country life. He acquainted himself with the locals, who became models for his paintings, allowing him to recreate intimate moments that represent the closeness of the country people, as depicted in ”Picking Flowers.” His Rolleboise home had a picturesque terrace overlooking the Seine, which is likely the setting of this piece. Knight has paid close attention to every detail: the wild and colorful blooms, the reflections of the trees in the river, and the subtleties of the light hitting the clouds. An impeccable mas - terpiece, worthy of a museum collection. Daniel Ridgway Knight was an expatriate ”en plein air” painter who spent most of his career living in France. He studied first at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art and later at L’École des Beaux-Arts, Paris. His paintings often depicted idealized peasant women in a crisp academic style, with intricate attention to detail. Born in Philadelphia to Quaker parents, Knight overcame the culturally restrictive Quaker life, studying in Pennsylvania before traveling to Paris in 1861. There, he worked under Charles Gleyre (1806-1874) along with other artists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) and Alfred Sisley (1839-1899). He returned to Philadelphia in 1863 to serve in the Civil War, remaining there for the following eight years. During this time Knight supported himself by painting portraits and genre pictures. In 1871, his Philadelphia patrons sent him back to France, where he succeeded so well at painting in the European style that he remained abroad for the rest of his life. In 1872, Knight began studying under the realist painter Jean-Louis Ernest Meissonier (1815-1891). Al- though unaccustomed to teaching, Meissonier made an exception with Knight, whom he influenced greatly. In 1875, Meissonier assisted Knight in obtaining entry to the prestigious Paris Salon, helping to ensure a favorable judgment of Knight’s entries in the Salon’s annual juried exhibitions. Knight soon moved out of Paris to Rolleboise, a charming village in the Île-de-France region. Here, he began to execute the peasant subjects for which he became so well known. Like many of his contemporaries, the artist was fascinated with the pastoral qualities and simplistic nature of life outside France’s urban centers and his paintings celebrate and idealize a peasant’s way of life. Working toward more natural lighting, a style which dominated painting styles at the time, Knight even built a glass house in his garden, permitting him to work in natural light the entire year. Although Knight’s paintings picturesque, he avoided an overly sentimental approach. His people carry on their daily tasks, and one can develop an understanding of their character from his sensitive renditions. The lush foliage and landscapes in Knight’s paintings convey the beauty of the fertile French countryside. Knight’s technique was to intensify certain colors in the foreground of his composition, contrasting them against gray skies and subdued backgrounds, which conveyed a heightened sense of reality. The transition from one form to another was accomplished through the exact use of color rather than through an emphasis on shadow and light. Knight’s skillful use of lighting gradations frequently conveyed definite moods. The artist continued to explore the nuances of this style until his death in 1924.

Charles François DAUBIGNY (1817-1878) Lune montante sur un paysage fluvial Oil on canvas Signed lower left Provenance: The Caroll Gallery, London (active from 1911-1924); Private Collection 15 x 27 in. (38 x 68.5 cm) Framed dimensions: 23 x 34 1/2 in. 915664

Charles François DAUBIGNY (1817-1878) Charles-François Daubigny was a French painter whose landscapes introduced into the naturalism of the mid-19th century an overriding concern for the accurate analysis and depiction of natural light through the use of color, greatly influencing the Impressionist painters of the late 19th century. Daubigny’s earli- est artistic experiences included restoring paintings at the Louvre under the direction of François Marius Granet (1775-1849). His training was largely informal, later studying at the atelier of the artist Paul Dela - roche (1797-1856). Daubigny’s earliest successes, as well as a means of financial support, were his etchings and illustrations. After winning his first Salon prize in 1848, the French government commissioned an etching from him. Daubigny’s first love, however, was landscape painting and his fascination with water was evident judging from his Salon entries of the late 1840s and early 50s. Known for his spontaneity and broad painterly brush- strokes, his work was often criticized for its sketchy quality. Daubigny, unlike many of his contemporaries with whom he is closely associated, spent little time in the region of Barbizon. He traveled extensively in France, as well as to Spain and England. In 1852, Daubigny met Corot, and a long and enduring friendship, which included many painting excursions together throughout France and Switzerland, began. It was at Auvers in 1857 that Daubigny launched his studio boat, from which he would produce his most memorable and popular paintings of the Oise. From this time forward, a difference could be seen in Daub- igny’s work. His ability to capture the simple beauty of the countryside was unchanged, but his brushstroke became shorter and more confident. The present work brilliantly portrays this technique, with rich coloring and mastery over light and color, and resonates with the immediacy of that direct experience outdoors. Daubigny’s position as a respected painter and prominent member of the artistic community was clearly recognized when in 1865, he was elected a member of the Salon jury. In this role, he was one of few who recognized the talents of a new generation of younger artists, and his influence was key in the accep- tance of works by Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley and Edgar Degas. While Daubigny never settled in Barbizon, he was always associated with members of the group because his work showed the same concerns towards nature. His technique is more varied than other Barbizon painters, but he showed a similar intensity which makes him a link between the older generation and the new Impressionists. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; • Musée du Louvre, Paris; • National Gallery, Washington, DC; • Frick Collection, New York; • Musée d’Orsay, Paris; • Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena; • National Gallery, London; • Tate Museum, London; • High Museum of Art, Atlanta

Jean-François RAFFAËLLI (1850-1924) Saint-Germain-des-Prés Oil and pastel on canvas Signed lower right

This work will be included in the online Raffaëlli catalogue critique being prepared by Galerie Brame & Lorenceau. A near-identical view of the same dimensions is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, accession number: 08.123. A different view of this same site is depicted in a painting in the Singer Museum, Laren, The Netherlands (about 1910; oil on cardboard, 65 x 83 cm). Label verso: ‘Frédéric Petit, 95, Rue Anipère, 95 Paris’ 28 x 31 7/8 in. (71.1 x 81 cm) 915642

Jean-François RAFFAËLLI (1850-1924) Jean-François Raffaëlli was a portrait painter, landscape artist, genre painter, engraver, lithographer and sculptor, best known as the painter of ragpickers and Parisian industrial suburbs. Raffaëlli stud- ied under Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904) and made his debut at the Paris Salon of 1870. At first he painted genre pictures, then in 1879 began doing picturesque views of quaint Paris neighborhoods. A voyage to Brittany in 1876 revealed to him the efficiency, compared to genre scenes, of realistic themes treated with restraint. Raffaëlli’s importance in 19th century art comes from his unique portrayals of the industrial suburban landscape of Paris and its inhabitants. His works display a segment of humanity hidden from public view and largely overlooked by other artists. Through an associate of the Impressionists and a friend of Edgar Degas, Raffaëlli was invited to participate in the 1880 and 1881 Impressionist shows, despite having little affinity with the movement, producing in - stead a powerfully stark and realistic painting style. His work aroused the attention of critics who showered Raffaëlli with much attention and praise. Raffaëlli concentrated on painting the Paris suburbs, the villages and landscapes along the Seine River. He also painted the animals of the countryside, the haunts of the working class, the beggars, the ragpickers, the factories and the landmarks around Paris. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; • Musée d’Órsay, Paris; • Musée du Petit Palais, Paris; • Musée Rodin, Paris; • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston;

• National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; • Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris; • Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nice; • Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux; • Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA; • Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA

Benjamin Williams LEADER (1831-1923) Landscape with Cottages by a Duck Pond, 1901 Oil on canvas Signed and dated lower left 20 1/8 x 30 1/4 in. (51.1 x 76.8 cm) Framed dimensions: 25 1/2 x 35 3/4 in. 915640

Benjamin Williams LEADER (1831-1923) As shown in “Landscape with Cottages by a Duck Pond,” Leader has mastered the natural effects of light, particularly the dark, tumultuous skies above. Born Benjamin Leader Williams in Worcester, England, Leader is known as one of the United Kingdom’s greatest landscape artists. His father knew and was a great admirer of John Constable, RA (1776-1837) and was a keen amateur artist himself. Benjamin changed his name to Williams Leader, to distinguish himself from the legion of artists called Williams. Leader attended the Royal Grammar School, studying in the evenings at Worcester School of Design. In 1854, following a number of years working for his father, he enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools. During his first year at the RA Schools, Leader had a painting in the Summer Exhibition, and, more importantly, sold it. From the outset, Leader’s interest was in landscapes. His early work, in its detailed painting and bright colors showing the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites. Leader was masterly at painting landscapes and riv - erscapes with incredible detail yet an innate softness, creating an ephemeral moment. He experimented with different methods throughout his career to “achieve the effects of natural light and shade over his land- scapes, rather than the harsh artificial luminosity from the use of bright colors alone.” (Ruth Wood, Benjamin Williams Leader, RA 1831-1923: His Life and Paintings, Woodbridge (Suffolk, England), c 1998. p. 26). Leader was a typically industrious artist of the second half of the 19th century, a confirmed sufferer from the Victorian work ethic. He felt that his residence in Worcester made it more difficult to secure recognition by the Royal Academy. In truth he was very successful, but that success was always more marked with the public than the critics. In 1883 Leader became ARA, and in 1898, at the age of sixty-seven, a full Academician. In 1888 he had moved to Surrey, a beautiful county close to London, and as a result much favored by painters. In 1914 he became a Freeman of the City of Worcester. Leader exhibited three paintings at the Royal Academy in 1922, at the age of ninety-one years. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Aberdeen Art Gallery, Scotland;

• Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery, UK; • Blackburn Museum and Art Gallery, UK; • National Museums Liverpool, UK; • Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service, UK; • Reading Museum, UK; • Salford Museum and Art Gallery, UK; • The Tate, London; • Victoria and Albert Museum, London; • National Gallery of Victoria, Australia; • Worcester City Art Gallery & Museum, UK

Hippolyte Camille DELPY (1842-1910) Paysage de la rivière, 1872 Oil on panel Signed and dated lower right 13 x 22 in. (33 x 55.9 cm) Framed dimensions: 22 5/8 x 31 1/4 in. 915328

Hippolyte Camille DELPY (1842-1910) Hippolyte Camille Delpy was a student of Charles-François Daubigny (1817-1878), one of the mem - bers of the Barbizon school. It was Daubigny, a friend of the family, who took the young Delpy along with him on his strolls. The child saw Daubigny paint and admired his creations, and from that point on, his only aspiration as a child was to become a painter. In Paris, Daubigny introduced his young pupil to Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796-1875). It was a moment of intense emotion, when Corot admitted the young Delpy into his studio. In 1869, Delpy began to exhibit at the Paris Salon. He extensively traveled throughout the provinces, visiting Corot in Ville d’Avray, and Daubigny in Auvers-sur-Oise. In 1874, he married Louise Berthe Cyboulle. During their marriage, she was a source of incompara- ble happiness to him. The paintings he did during this period reflect this happiness, and many of his works are filled with light and harmony, as shown in the present work. It was at this time that Delpy met Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) and Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) at Auvers, and they had a great impact on Delpy’s use of color. Although he remained faithful to the technique of Daubigny’s, Delpy brought a more vigorous touch and a greater intensity of color to his work. Delpy’s first gallery exhibition was at the ”Galerie des Artistes Modernes” in Paris, and it was success- ful. He also exhibited in the ”Exposition International,” with De Nittis, Whistler, Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, Renoir and Morisot. To find Delpy in this company clearly shows the esteem with which he was held. The Barbizon School had stated that to the classical theory of harmony between tones and values must be added the notion of color. Under the influence of the Impressionists, Delpy realized the important role of color, which he used to achieve a brighter truth in his paintings. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Walters Art Museum, Baltimore; • Winnipeg Art Gallery, Manitoba, Phoenix Art Museum, AZ;

• Musée des Beaux-Arts de Béziers, France; • Musée des Beaux-Arts de Louviers, France .

Narcisse Virgile DIAZ DE LA PEÑA (1807-1876) Paysage avec flaque d’eau au premier plan, circa 1860 Oil on panel Signed lower left Provenance: Sale, Sedelmeyer, Paris, 1877, lot 36; Collection of M. de Nicolai, Paris Literature: Pierre and Roland Miquel, Narcisse Diaz de la Peña: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, Paris, 2006, p. 85, no. 544, catalogued (not illustrated) 10 1/4 x 13 7/8 in. (26 x 35.2 cm) 915621

Narcisse Virgile DIAZ DE LA PEÑA (1807-1876) Diaz was a French painter of Spanish origins. He first worked as a porcelain painter but shortly after started training with the artist François Souchon (1787-1857). He soon became the friend of some of the most famous exponents of the Barbizon school such as Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), Théodore Rous - seau (1812-1867) and Paul Huet (1803-1869). Diaz’s work as a colorist and his ability to render light merged with the founders of the Barbizon school, and he became known as one of the “Men of 1830.” In 1835, Diaz began to explore the Fontainebleau forest of France, where he encountered other artists associated with the Barbizon school. Diaz specialized in views of the interior of the forest. His pictures were distinguished by his mastery of color and were compared by one critic to a “pile of jewels.” For Diaz and the other artists of the Barbizon school, perhaps the most fundamental aspect of their practice was working “en plein air.” Not only did painting en plein air provide an opportunity to observe light effects directly, but it also provided an engagement with nature that would ensure the artistic in- dependence of their vision. To viewers as well, a painting executed en plein air would have seemed to bring them one step closer to nature. A regular exhibitor at the Salon, in 1848 Diaz won a first class medal and in 1849 he received the Le- gion d’Honneur. Diaz reached the height of his fame in 1855 at the Exposition Universelle. Prior to that, he was elected a member of the Salon jury, winning many Medals. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include:

• Musée d’Orsay, Paris; • Musée du Louvre, Paris;

• Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux; • Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; • Fitzwilliam Museum at the University of Cambridge, UK; • Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University; • Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg; • Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California; • Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY; • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; • National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.; • Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena; • Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; • Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Narcisse Virgile DIAZ DE LA PEÑA (1807-1876) Gorges d’Apremont, un chien et un garçon marchant sur un sentier serpentant dans la clairière, c. 1845-1847

Oil on canvas Signed lower right 15 x 18 1/4 in. (38.1 x 46.4 cm) Framed dimensions: 18 3/4 x 21 3/4 in. 915670

Provenance: The artist; Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, on consignment from the above; The artist, returned by the above; Arthur Stevens, Brussels, acquired directly from the above; Édouard Pierre Rombaut Kums (1811-1891), Antwerp, acquired directly from the above, October 27, 1872; Musée Kums, Antwerp, by bequest upon the death of the above; Sale, J. & A. Le Roy, Antwerp, May 17-18 1898, lot 8, as “Les Gorges d’Apremont”; Paul Dutoict, Brussels, acquired at the above sale; Charles de Hèle, Brussels; Sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, May 10, 1901, lot 16, as “La Forêt”; Arnold & Tripp, Paris, acquired at the above sale; Anonymous sale, Christie’s, South Kensington, June 21, 2002, lot 7, as “Paysage avec un paysan dans un bois”; Acquired at the above sale by the previous owner. Literature: A. Kums, Musée Kums: Catalogue de la collection de tableaux anciens et modernes et des objets d’art et d’antiquités, Antwerp, 1891, p. 3, no. 17, as “La Forêt de Fontainebleau”; ‘In the Sale Room,’ The Connoisseur, vol. 1, September-December 1901, p. 123, as “La Forêt”; ‘Mouvement des arts,’ La chronique des arts et de la curiosité: supplément à La gazette des beaux-arts, no. 36, 28 November 1901, p. 296, as “La Forêt”; H. Mireur, Dictionnaire des ventes d’art, vol. II, Paris, 1911, p. 518, as “La Forêt”; E. Bénézit, Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs & graveurs, vol. 2, Paris, 1924, p. 102, as “Les Gorges d’Apremont”; P. and R. Miquel, Narcisse Diaz de la Peña: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, Paris, 2006, vol. II, p. 163, no. 1065, illustrated.

Henry John YEEND-KING (1855-1924) At the Water’s Edge Oil on canvas Signed lower right 36 1/4 x 24 1/8 in. (92.1 x 61.3 cm) Framed dimensions: 42 5/8 x 30 1/2 in. 915398

Henry John YEEND-KING (1855-1924) Henry Yeend-King was an important Victorian genre and landscape painter, as well as a skilled water - colorist. Born in London, he studied under the Victorian artist William Bromley (1835 - 1888), and then in Paris under Léon Bonnat (1833-1922) and Fernand Cormon (1845-1924). His academic training in Paris, along with the influence of French Realists and Impressionists, helped to shape Yeend-King’s fully ma - ture style of carefully modeled figures, “en plein air” technique and bold colors. Although Yeend-King was born and lived in London, his heart lay in the countryside. The sense of sin - cerity and serenity in his painted countryside scenes reflect his infatuation with the rustic yet picturesque landscape. Yeend-King hardly ever painted scenes of the heavily industrialized cities. The subjects of his paintings usually are of farm girls (often he used his daughter as the model) at work in the fields or on the farm, similar to Jules Dupré’s work (1811-1889). Yeend-King also tended to paint women at rest in landscapes or cottage gardens where he reflected the juxtaposition between hard work and leisure in daily rituals, of which the present work is strong example. Yeend-King exhibited his canvases rather often throughout his career, including at Suffolk Street in 1874 and at the Royal Academy from 1879 onwards. In addition, he took part in exhibitions in both Munich and Berlin, and was awarded a Bronze Medal in Paris in 1889 at the Exposition Universelle. Throughout the course of his career as a painter, Yeend-King exhibited 87 paintings at the Royal Academy, 115 at the Society of British Artists, 38 at the New Watercolour Society, 92 at the Royal British Academy, 102 at the Royal Institute of Oil Painters, 161 at the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours, 29 at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, 53 at Dowdeswell Galleries, and 13 at the Birmingham Royal Society of Artists. In 1879, Yeend-King was elected to the Royal Society of British Artists and in 1886 he was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolour, which he later became Vice-President. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Tate Gallery, London; • The Royal Collection, London; • Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum, UK; • Leeds Art Gallery & Museums, UK; • Brampton Museum, UK; • Christchurch Art Gallery, New Zealand

Henry John YEEND-KING (1855-1924) Two Women on a Terrace

Oil on canvas Signed lower left

40 1/8 x 30 1/2 in. (101.9 x 77.5 cm) Framed dimensions: 46 1/2 x 36 3/8 in. 915517

Henry John YEEND-KING (1855-1924) View at Hambleden, Near Henley

Oil on canvas Signed lower right Annotated verso: ‘Hambledon (n Henley) Bucks’ 30 x 25 in. (76.2 x 63.5 cm) Framed dimensions: 40 1/4 x 35 1/8 in. 915644

FRENCH SCHOOL (19th Century) Portrait de la jeune femme à la robe blanche Oil on canvas Monogrammed ‘M’ lower right 28 7/8 x 23 in. (73.3 x 58.4 cm) Framed dimensions: 41 x 35 1/2 in. 915577

William Robert SYMONDS (1851-1934) Charlie, son of F. Shaw, Esq., 1900 Oil on canvas Signed and dated lower right; signed and titled on artist’s label affixed to the stretcher Provenance: The family of the sitter; By descent to the previous owner; Private Collection, UK Exhibition history:

Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • British Museum, London; • The Wallace Collection, London; • National Trust, Tyntesfield; • Queen’s University, Belfast; • National Trust for Scotland, Newhailes; • Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery, Carlisle, England

London, Royal Academy, 1901, no. 883 58 1/24 x 38 3/4 in. (147.4 x 98.4 cm) Framed dimensions: 66 1/4 x 47 1/4 in. 915641

Camille PISSARRO (1830-1903) La paysanne et ses moutons

Ink on paper Signed lower center Preparatory study. This is one of many preparatory studies of peasants that Pissarro made for his paintings. 3 7/8 x 2 5/8 in. (visible) 915722

Camille PISSARRO (1830-1903) Le berger musicien et ses chevres

Ink on paper Signed lower center Preparatory study. This is one of many preparatory studies of peasants that Pissarro made for his paintings. 3 7/8 x 2 5/8 in. (visible) 915723

Jean Baptiste Camille COROT (1796-1875) Souvenir de Toscane, circa 1845 Etching on watermarked paper Literature:

Delteil, Loys. Le peintre-graveur illustre. 31 vols. Paris: Published by the author, 1906-1926. New York: Collectors Editions, Da Capo Press, 1969. Vol. 30 (Albert Besnard) is by Louis Godefroy. D. 1 8 1/4 x 10 1/2 in. (21 x 26.7 cm) 902180

Henri FANTIN-LATOUR (1836-1904) Vénus et l’Amour, 1895 Lithograph on Chine appliqué paper Signed in pencil lower right Published by L’estampe Moderne, Paris. Second state of 2. From the edition of 132. With wide margins. Hédiard 124 7 x 9 in. (17.78 x 22.86 cm) 904871

Henri FANTIN-LATOUR (1836-1904) Harold en Italie: Dans les montagnes, 1884 Lithograph on Chine appliqué paper Signed lower right Second state of two. From the edition of 25. With full margins. A very rare impression, seldom found outside of a museum printroom. Literature: Edward Lucie-Smith, “Henri Fantin-Latour” (New York: Rizzoli, 1977), no. 115 Hédiard 49 23 1/2 x 17 1/2 inches (59.7 x 44.5 cm) 904872

Henri FANTIN-LATOUR (1836-1904) Untitled (Nu vu de derrière), 1897 Lithograph on wove paper

Frontispiece for Gustave Geffroy’s “La Vie Artistique” Cinquième série. Editior: H. Floury, Paris. Created after Fantin-Latour’s “Étude de femme nue vue de dos,” 1873, oil on canvas. (Madame Fantin-Latour, Catalogue de l’Oeuvre Complet de Henri Fantin-Latour, Paris, 1936, p. 74, no. 653.) 5 3/8 x 3 1/2 in. (13.7 x 8.9 cm) 907173

Jean Ferdinand CHAIGNEAU (1830-1906) Femme Gardant des Moutons, 19th century

Etching on paper Signed in the plate 19 1/2 x 13 in. (49.5 x 33 cm) 908826

Jean Ferdinand CHAIGNEAU (1830-1906) Pâturage Normand, 1886 Etching on paper Literature: Marie-Thérèse Gazeau-Caille: Hommage a Ferdinand Chaigneau: 1830-1906, ex. cat., Mairie de Barbizon, 1985, no. 171, p. 107. 11 3/4 x 17 in. (29.8 x 43.2 cm) 908827

Narcisse Virgile DIAZ DE LA PEÑA (1807-1876) Diaz was a French painter of Spanish origins. He first worked as a porcelain painter but shortly after started training with the artist François Souchon (1787-1857). He soon became the friend of some of the most famous exponents of the Barbizon school such as Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), Théodore Rous - seau (1812-1867) and Paul Huet (1803-1869). He regularly exhibited landscapes and genre scenes at the Paris Salon from 1831 to 1859. In 1835, Diaz began to explore the Fontainebleau forest of France, where he encountered other artists associated with the Barbizon school. Diaz specialized in views of the interior of the forest. His pictures were distinguished by his mastery of color and were compared by one critic to a “pile of jewels.” In “Croisée de chemins et bûcheronne” (Crossroads and woodcutter), he explores a range of rich russets, ochres, greens and browns. Diaz’s late landscapes are distinctive for their rich pigments and translucent glazes. Diaz applies heavy impasto, his visible brushwork and attention to the landscape recalling 18th century precedents while simultaneously providing an influence on later Impressionist painters with his looser brushstrokes and freer style. This painting is a fine example of Diaz’s mature style. The luminous palette and brushwork is typical of the Barbizon school, whose exponents share a deep interest in light effects they render through the decomposition of the color scheme. For Diaz and the other artists of the Barbizon school, perhaps the most fundamental aspect of their practice was working “en plein air.” Not only did painting en plein air provide an opportunity to observe light effects directly, but it also provided an engagement with nature that would ensure the artistic independence of their vision. To viewers as well, a painting executed en plein air would have seemed to bring them one step closer to nature. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Musée d’Orsay, Paris; Musée du Louvre, Paris;

• Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux; • Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; • Fitzwilliam Museum at the University of Cambridge, UK; • Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University; • Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg; • Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California; • Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY; • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; • National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.; • Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena; • Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; • Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Narcisse Virgile DIAZ DE LA PEÑA (1807-1876) Premières Tentations, 1857 Oil on canvas Signed and dated lower left Provenance: Sale, Sotheby’s, New York, 11 November 11 1925, lot 63; Collection of EP Albee (the playwright best known for ”Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?”); Kunsthaus Bühler, Stuttgart, Germany Literature: Pierre and Roland Miquel, Narcisse Diaz de la Peña: Catalogue raisonné de l’œuvre peint, Paris, 2006, p. 472, no. 2881, catalogued & illustrated

23 1/2 x 28 5/8 in. (59.7 x 72.7 cm) Framed dimensions: 35 x 40 1/2 in. 914977

Narcisse Virgile DIAZ DE LA PEÑA (1807-1876) Diaz de la Peña’s brightly colored images of figures may have been prompted in part by the Rococo patterns he encountered at the beginning of his career. Following in the tradition of Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863), Diaz became “the principal colorist of his generation,” and his mastery over rendering nude figures was envied by his peers within the Barbizon School. The present work is a richly decorative im- age, filled with jeweled tones, and a virtuoso demonstration of Diaz’s mastery of two genres: landscape and figure painting. Like the artist’s other pictures composed in the spirit of l’art pour l’art (art for art’s sake), the painting is designed to dazzle the eye and set the mind to dreaming. In impeccable condition, it is a true representation of Diaz’s mastery of the medium. Diaz was a French painter of Spanish origins. He first worked as a porcelain painter but shortly after started training with the artist François Souchon (1787-1857). He soon became the friend of some of the most famous exponents of the Barbizon school such as Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), Théodore Rous - seau (1812-1867) and Paul Huet (1803-1869). Diaz regularly exhibited landscapes and genre scenes at the Salon from 1831 to 1859. At the end of his life, he was admired by the new generation of artists who were about to form the Impressionist movement. “Premières Tentations” (First Temptations) is a fine example of Diaz’s mature style. The luminous palette and brushwork is typical of the Barbizon school, whose exponents share a deep interest in light effects

they render through the decomposition of the color scheme. Museum collections featuring works by this artist include: • Musée d’Orsay, Paris; Musée du Louvre, Paris; • Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux; • Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; • Fitzwilliam Museum at the University of Cambridge, UK;

• Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University; • Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg; • Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California; • Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY; • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; • National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.; • Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena; • Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; • Victoria and Albert Museum, London

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