Chronological History of the American Civil War

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better to do some illegal acts, rather than suffer all to be overthrown. He seemed to think there was just as much law for increasing the regular army & the Navy as for calling out the three years' men.” Wednesday, July 3, 1861 : The Memphis Argus announces, “Yesterday Tennessee was admitted into The Confederacy. By proclamation of the President the Confederate laws are extended.” Tennessee takes control of the Nashville end of the L&N Railroad, to the great dismay of Kentuckians, who are now concerned about losing the entire railroad and all its rolling stock to the Confederacy. Thursday, July 4, 1861 : Abraham Lincoln called a special session of Congress on this most sacred of American patriotic holidays, to deal with the extraordinary matter of the secession of states from the American union. He listed the actions taken by the ‘’erring sisters”, and the measures he had taken to control, correct, or at least oppose them. The similarities between this list and the one composed by the Founding Fathers noting the offenses of King George III, are striking. The most important military matter dealt with was the request by the President that the Congress authorize the raising of an army of 400,000 volunteers to prosecute a war to bring the Southern states back into the Union whether they wanted to be there are not. Simon Cameron recommended that Congress supported his idea that volunteers served for three years. Friday, July 5, 1861 : A battle at Carthage, Missouri, ended when Union troops commanded by General Sigel had to withdraw as a result of facing a much larger force. Though casualties were light (13 Union dead and 50 Confederate dead) the withdrawal was a blow to what had been a successful Union advance through Missouri. Sunday July 7, 1861 : After heading further north, Confederate privateer Jefferson Davis captures the Union schooner S. J. Waring about 150 miles east of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. The Federal ship, Resolute , picks up two mines in the Potomac River. Tuesday, July 9, 1861 , and July 16, 1861 : Rose O'Neale Greenhow passed secret messages to Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard containing critical information regarding the First Battle of Bull Run and the plans of Union General Irvin McDowell. Assisting in her conspiracy were pro-Confederate members of Congress, Union officers, and her dentist, Aaron Van Camp. Confederate President Jefferson Davis credited Greenhow's information with securing victory at Manassas for the Confederate Army over the Union Army. The battle will be known as First Bull Run to Northerners and First Manassas to Southerners will be fought on July 21, 1861. Also this same day, Circus entrepreneur P.T. Barnum is seriously injured by a runaway horse. Thursday, July 11, 1861 : Battle of Rich Mountain in Randolph County, Virginia (now West Virginia) begins. Friday, July 12, 1861 : Word comes from Cambridge, Massachusetts, of the death of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s wife, who was fatally burned when her clothing caught fire. Her husband, the famous poet, was badly burned in his efforts to save her. (Because of his facial burns, Longfellow is unable to shave, so will grow the beard which becomes his trademark.) Also on the day in the West, James Butler 'Wild Bill'

Hickok (pictured) was involved in a deadly shootout with the McCanles Gang at the Rock Creek Station, Nebraska. McCanles was known as a local bully and had earlier had an argument with Hickok over the latter "stealing" his mistress Sarah (Kate) Shull. David McCanles, his 12-year-old son (William) Monroe McCanles, and two farmhands, James Woods and James Gordon, came to the station's office to demand payment of an overdue second installment on the property, an event that is still the subject of much debate. David McCanles "called out" Wild Bill from the Station House. Wild Bill emerged onto the street, immediately drew one of his .36 caliber SA Navy revolvers, and, at a 75-yard stand-off distance, fired a single shot into McCanles's chest, killing him instantly. The two men, James Woods and James Gordon, were then killed by other members of the relay station;

one was killed by station employee J.W. Brink with a shotgun blast and the other was hacked to death with a hoe. Hickok was not reported as wounded. During the attack McCanles' son (William) Monroe was able to escape via a dry creek bed. Hickok and his accomplices, the station manager Horace Wellman,

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