Chronological History of the American Civil War

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promoting his candidacy. Today, he pulled another fast one. He submitted his resignation; and, President Lincoln declined to use it. In Tennessee, Federal Cavalry expedition leaves from La Grange to Panola, Mississippi, and skirmishes with Rebels at Coldwater, Mississippi. Tuesday, May 12, 1863 : A Confederate brigade under John Gregg (CSA) attacks a Union division under Major General John Logan (U.S.) in the town of Raymond, Mississippi, which is between Vicksburg and Jackson. Despite the advantage of surprise Gregg’s men were outnumbered, and had to fall back towards Jackson. The Union casualties at Raymond were 68 killed, 341 wounded, and 37 missing. The Confederate casualties were nearly double: 100 killed, 305 wounded, and 415 captured. Wednesday, May 13, 1863 : Union General Ulysses S. Grant advances his troops led by William Tecumseh Sherman and James McPherson, toward the Mississippi capital of Jackson during his bold and daring drive to take Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. Thursday, May 14, 1863 : General Joseph E. Johnston (CSA) consulted with the local commander, Brigadier General John Gregg,(CSA) and learned that only about 6,000 troops were available to defend the Jackson, the capital of Mississippi. Johnston ordered the evacuation of the city of Jackson, but Gregg was to defend the city until the evacuation was completed. By late afternoon, Major General U.S. Grant (U.S.) who had been travelling with General Sherman's corps, entered the city and celebrate their victory. Estimated Casualties: 1,136 total (U.S. 286; CS 850). Johnston's evacuation of Jackson was a tragedy because he could, by late on the 14th, have had 11,000 troops at his disposal and by the morning of the 15th, another 4,000. The fall of the former Mississippi state capitol was a blow to Confederate morale. Friday, May 15, 1863 : Sherman destroyed manufacturing centres and railroads in and around Jackson, so that when Union forces moved on, they could not be reused by those who lived in Jackson – and supported the Confederacy. It was a foretaste of what he would do in future months. Saturday, May 16, 1863 : Union forces attacked Southern forces defending Vicksburg at Champion’s Hill. The South had 22,000 men and faced a Union force of 27,000. Both sides suffered 2,000 casualties – though the Union army was better able to cope with such casualties. However, the South commander, John Pemberton (CSA), made one major error. Rather than keeping his men out in the field to face Union forces, Pemberton withdrew them to the poorly defended Vicksburg. James D. Bullock was on a mission in Europe to commission the building of warships for the Confederate government. With no immediate means to pay for these vessels, he is laughed out of England, so he was trying his luck in France. There too, he wrote to Navy Sec. Malloy (CSA) today, “..the French builders, like the English, wanted money, and were not willing to lay down the ships unless I could give them security in the shape of cotton certificates.” These were essentially bonds payable in bales of cotton instead of money. The Peoria (Illinois) Morning Mail reported: “Female Soldiers.—A Pennsylvania girl, who has been serving as a soldier in the Army of the West for ten months, says that she has discovered a great many females among the soldiers, one of whom is now a Lieutenant. She has assisted in burying three female soldiers at different times, whose sex was unknown to anyone but herself.” Sunday, May 17, 1863 : After the defeat at Champion’s Hill near Vicksburg, Mississippi, at dawn General Grant’s Union forces again attacked General Pemberton’s Confederates defences with their backs against the river at Big Black River bridge. The attack was so swift that the defenders only had time to get off one volley of shots before being overrun. The Confederates set fire to the bridges there, preventing close Union pursuit. The fleeing Confederates, who arrived in Vicksburg later that day were disorganized. The Confederates suffered 1,752 troops killed, wounded or captured, many drown trying to escape, while the Yankees had 279 casualties, they also captured 18 cannons. With the bridge out, Grant (U.S.) could no longer advance. The Galveston Weekly News reports, “ Good Idea.—The Chattanooga Rebel expressed the wish that every gallant rifleman of the South who bares his breast to the storm of battle, could be impressed with the importance of making every shot tell, in an engagement. If five out of every ten of the bullets fired at the Yankees for the last two years had taken effect, there wouldn't be a blue jacket left to tell the story. Better

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