Chronological History of the American Civil War

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other sources are united it was given as “Emilie.” So today, some historians think she never signed it. Emilie was very uncomfortable at the White House and the sisters’ children quarreled over, who was the President of the country—Jefferson Davis or Abraham Lincoln. Emilie’s presence drew criticism to herself and the President; she remained an unrepentant rebel. At Bean’s Station, Tennessee, Federal forces probe General Longstreet’s (CSA) lines near his winter camp. After several days of heavy skirmishing, Longstreet strikes the Union line, driving Brigadier General James Shackleford (U.S.) back about 1.5 miles before he made a stand. Union forces withdrew that evening. Longstreet had stopped the Union advance on him, but had not broken them. Tuesday, December 15, 1863 : General Longstreet (CSA) set out to attack the Union forces again the next morning, but as he approached them at Blain’s Cross Roads, he found them well entrenched. Longstreet withdrew and the Federals soon left the area. The lack of money and supplies available to the Confederacy was all too clear to Brigadier General E. P. Alexander, part of Longstreet’s command, when he noticed men marching in their bare feet as there were no replacements for broken shoes. Longstreet ordered his men to exchange their footwear with the boots worn by captured Union soldiers. The Confederate victory resulted in estimated casualties of this battle were 700 Union and 900 Confederate. Wednesday, December 16, 1863 : In Dalton, Georgia, General J. E. Johnston (CSA) was appointed commander of the Army of Tennessee leaving Lieut. General Leonidas Polk in command of the Army of Mississippi. General Bragg went to Richmond and became the military adviser to President Jefferson Davis. Thursday, December 17, 1863 : Near Halifax, Nova Scotia, American warships catch up with Steamer Chesapeake (U.S.) that was seized by Confederates disguised as passengers. Most of the Rebels escape with help from locals. A few of the crew were tried but were found not guilty on a technicality. At Sangster’s Station, Virginia, the Federals were caught off guard, when the telegraph operator was too drunk to notice the attack. The Federal cavalry present could not understand English, and its officer couldn’t speak German to give commands. Friday, December 18, 1863 : Union troops were suffering the same hardships as those in the South. Union troops at Knoxville had no winter clothing, and they slept under their ponchos as no tents had been sent there. Both North and South had more casualties as a result of ill-health and disease as opposed to actual combat. Missouri was ready for still another Union leader after losing some battles. President Lincoln believes General Schofield must be relieved of command of Department of Missouri; the next sacrificial lamb, Lincoln proposed, perhaps should be the long-suffering General Rosecrans. Saturday, December 19, 1863 : President Lincoln asks General Grant (U.S.) if, “without embarrassment,” could General Milroy (U.S.) be assigned “a place.” General Milroy was most noted for his defeat at the Second Battle of Winchester in June,1863, which led into the Battle of Gettysburg. Milroy escaped with his staff, but over 3,000 of his men were captured, as were all of his artillery pieces and 300 supply wagons. Trying to place officers that had a less than honorable war record was hard even for the President to do. Sunday, December 20, 1863 : General Joseph Eggleston Johnston (CSA) receives a letter from President Jefferson Davis. It was not to congratulate him on his recent promotion, but rather one of condolences. “The difficulties of your new position,” Davis wrote, “are realized, and the Government will make every possible effort to aid you...” What Davis did not need to write, because Johnston, like every other Confederate commander, already knew was that there was precious little that Richmond could do to aid the effort in the West. The effort of sending Longstreet’s corps of the Army of Northern Virginia to Tennessee had been a failure. Confederate commerce raider C.S.S. Alabama enters Singapore in United Kingdom’s southern Asian island nation, of Malaysia. Just her presence in the Far East paralyzes all U.S. shipping in the area. Neutral merchants soon take over carrying all trade to the U.S. Monday, December 21, 1863 : Warfare in wintertime was relatively rare, due in large part to the ease with which inclement weather could make movement of large forces impossible. Common sense on the other hand required continual patrols around the areas where the forces were encamped. Sometimes a

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