Chronological History of the American Civil War

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Monday, September 9, 1961 : Today on her military commission, she wrote, "I accepted the above commission as Captain in the C.S.A. when it was offered. But, I would not allow my name to be placed upon the pay roll of the army." At only 28 years old, Sally Tomkins (pictured) was among the civilians who responded by opening the home of Judge John Robertson as a hospital. After the initial crisis had passed, Confederate President Jefferson

Davis instituted regulations requiring military hospitals be under military command. However, The Robertson Hospital had done such an outstanding job, that he commissioned Tompkins as a captain so that she could continue her work. She was the only woman officially commissioned as an officer in the Confederate States Army. She refused any payment for her services. The Robertson Hospital, as it was known, treated patients continuously throughout the war,

discharging its last soldier on 13 June 1865. During its four-year existence, Robertson Hospital treated 1,333 wounded with only 73 deaths, the lowest mortality rate of any military hospital during the Civil War. This was because Sally demanded cleanliness. Tuesday, September, 10, 1861 : Skirmish at Friar’s Island (now TVA flooded) on the Tennessee River; Chattanooga is occupied by Union forces without a fight. The Confederacy appointed General Albert Sidney Johnston as commander of the Confederate Armies of the West. Wednesday, September 11, 1861 : Confederate General Robert E. Lee commences his attack on Union forces in western Virginia at Cheat Mountain. Rainy weather slows Confederate troop movement, preventing Lee's surprise attack, and enabling the Union to hold their position. The Union victory at Cheat Mountain secures the region of western Virginia for the Union and later statehood. The battle lasted 3 days with estimated casualties: 170 total (U.S. 80; CS 90.) Memphis Daily Appeal, “Wife Whipper.—George Welaner was yesterday arrested by officers Sullivan and Irby, on the charge of whipping his wife. He had a cowhide hid under his coat when the officers arrested him. He was fined $20 by Recorder Moore.” Thursday, September, 12, 1861 : The greatest fear in Washington was the possible secession of Maryland. Orders were quietly issued by Abraham Lincoln to Secretary of War Simon Cameron, for the arrest of Maryland legislators who are openly pro-South. The gentlemen were quietly arrested. They were taken for confinement to Ft. Warren in Boston Harbor. Friday, September, 13, 1861 : 1st naval battle of Civil War, Union frigate "Colorado" sinks privateer "Judah" off Pensacola, Flordia. Confederate forces continued their efforts to capture Lexington, Missouri, where 3,600 Union defenders faced 18,000 Confederate troops. Colonel Mulligan, the Union commander of Lexington, waited for reinforcements unaware that all his messages to General Fremont (US) were being read by the Confederates. He thought that if they could just hold out a few more days, the 38,000 Union reinforcements General Fremont had promised them would have time to arrive from St. Louis. Fremont, unfortunately, had not even started them marching yet. Saturday, September,14, 1861 : Hardeman County plantation owner/ planter, merchant, and civic leader, John Houston Bills (The Pillars) wrote in his diary: “Major Thomas Hardeman died in a hospital in Knoxville this morning as we learn by telegraph. We order his body here for burial.” Meanwhile, Fremont organizes 38,000 troops to relieve Mulligan at Lexington, Missouri. Confederate President Jefferson Davis receives a complaint from General Joseph E. Johnston about the ranking of Confederate generals. Johnston's hurt pride will cause friction between him and Davis during the War. Sunday, September 15, 1861 : General Charles Fremont, commander of Union forces in St. Louis, Missouri. was under pressure on two fronts. He was supposed to be organizing a march of 38,000 troops to Lexington, Missouri, where a Federal force was holding out against a siege of Sterling Price (CSA). Fremont was also under pressure from President Lincoln, who was furious about Fremont’s orders freeing all the slaves in Missouri, and Lincoln’s friend, the politician-colonel Frank Blair Jr. who was furious about a recent audit of Fremont’s books. Fremont is having a hard time explaining to Blair and others the

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