Chronological History of the American Civil War

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churches, released a remarkable report today. Less than a year from the time the War began, they were already to the point where they were printing, shipping and distributing more than 7,000 copies per day of the New Testament to soldiers in the field. A soldier was likely to carry two items of about the same size: his Testament and a pack of playing cards. One, however, was often found dropped on the field when fighting started. There was a common belief that going to meet one’s Maker with gambling paraphernalia on one’s person did not enhance the chances of the gates of Heaven opening. In the Atlantic, the C.S.S. Sumter seizes the whaler Eben Dodge . A prisoner exchange is arranged, to trade 11 officers and 240 men from a North Carolina regiment for an equal number of Union prisoners from Richmond . Monday, December 9, 1861 : Criticism and debate surrounding military defeats compels the United States Senate to call for a Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, the first 'oversight' committee. These hearings would last for the length of the War. Hundreds of witnesses would be summoned to testify before this body over the course of the war. In some cases this proved to be an immense waste of time, with the praise and fault issued more on political grounds than military. The huge amount of testimony, these hearings received explained in greater detail than the Official Reports, the planning and execution of many operations. Colonel Douglas H. Cooper's 1,300 Confederates attacked Chief Opothleyahola (U.S.) in Oklahoma Indian Territory pushing the Indians back across the Bird Creek in Tulsa County. Indian casualties estimated by Cooper (CSA) as 500 (some accounts suggest 412). Confederate casualties were 15 killed and 37 wounded. Tuesday, December 10, 1861 : In Richmond, the state of Kentucky is admitted to the Confederacy, making it the 13th and final state; despite the overwhelming evidence that the state was about to fall to Unionist forces. Union Lieutenant James W.A. Nicholson takes the U.S.S. Isaac Smith up the Ashepoo River in South Carolina. He lands part of his crew on abandoned Otter Island and takes possession of a Confederate Fort. Wednesday, December 11, 1861 : Half of Charleston, South Carolina is destroyed by fire, including much of the business district. The cause of the fire was never determined. Thursday, December 12, 1861 : Army Command publishes a list of the deaths among General Sherman’s (U.S.) command since leaving Annapolis. There are 70 – none from fighting, most from typhoid fever, congestive fever (malaria), or pneumonia. The New York Times reports: A railroad agent brings word from Nashville that there are 3,500 sick soldiers there. Memphis Daily Appeal: "Fair Feminine Fisticuffing.—Two occupants of crinoline (a stiffened petticoat or rigid skirt-shaped structure of steel designed to support the skirts of a woman’s dress) got into a warm fight yesterday at the corner of Main and Monroe streets. Winter bonnets, talmas (hats), and dress patterns went off as easily as at a ladies' auction, until some citizens interfered and put an end to the affray. A sentimental bystander addressed them in machine poetry, remarking: “Your pretty faces should not wear such murder- threatening frowns, nor should your little hands be used to rip each other's gowns.” Friday, December 13, 1861 : Confederate forces under Col. Edward Johnson occupied the summit of Allegheny Mountain in what is now West Virginia. Union force under Brigadier General Robert Milroy attacked Johnson. The battle was inconclusive, with estimated casualties: 283 totals (US 137; CS 146.)

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