Chronological History of the American Civil War

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Wednesday, March 19, 1862 : The South puts into place a plan to stop the North taking two vital rail lines – the Chattanooga to Georgia and the Corinth to Memphis lines. If the North took either line, they would have an easier route into the South’s heartland. The Confederates defend Island #10 from Union Flag Officer Foote's flotilla. Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. reopens after a $10,000.00 renovation. Thursday, March 20, 1862 : Union Major, General Benjamin Butler assumes control of the troops that will assault New Orleans and southern Louisiana. In Strasburg, Virginia, Union troops pull back toward Winchester as Confederate General 'Stonewall' Jackson's troops advance. In South Carolina, General Burnside's (U.S.) troops move unopposed from New Bern to Washington, North Carolina. Mrs. Lincoln, confined to her room since death of Willie, is almost back to normal health. Friday, March 21, 1862 : Despite heavy firing, Union Flag Officer Foote's flotilla is still unable to penetrate Confederate defenses on Island #10. General Halleck (U.S.) commends Foote's efforts. U.S. Forces begin reconnaissance against Cumberland Gap with several skirmishes there. Saturday, March 22, 1862 : As Confederate General 'Stonewall' Jackson and his troops advance toward Strasburg, Virginia, Union soldiers skirmish with them near Kernstown, Virginia. In Liverpool, England, the C.S.S. Florida , “disguised” as the British ship Oreto , departs. It is the first warship built in Britain for the Confederacy. Sunday, March 23, 1862 : The Battle of Winchester, Virginia was fought (in the South this was known as the Battle of Kernstown). Confederate General Jackson's 2,700 men clash with a Union force of 11,000. Outnumbered, Jackson's troops retreat to Newton. Lincoln sends men to pursue Jackson and orders General McDowell's troops to remain to defend Washington. This divide in Union forces weakens the Peninsular campaign and marks the beginning of the Shenandoah campaign. The South took heavy casualties with 270 killed and as many as 1,000 missing. The North suffered 103 killed with 400 wounded and missing. A large Unionist force gathered at Camp Shiloh and made ready for an attack on Corinth, Mississippi. As the Confederates expected such an attack, their forces in Corinth were being increased. Monday, March 24, 1862 : Confederate General 'Stonewall' Jackson orders his men to retreat to Mt. Jackson, Virginia. This would be Stonewall’s first and only defeat in the war. The last of Confederate General Johnston's men arrive at Corinth, Mississippi from Murfreesboro, having been delayed by rough roads. The emancipation issue still hotly debated, Lincoln writes that 'we should urge it persuasively, and not menacingly, upon the South.' President Lincoln also writes to New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley regarding Lincoln's recent call to Congress for a resolution to encourage the "abolishment of slavery." Lincoln proposes that the government "compensate for the inconveniences public and private, produced by such change of system." He writes, "I am a little uneasy about the abolishment of slavery in this District, not but I would be glad to see it abolished, but as to the time and manner of doing it. . . . I would like the bill to have the three main features—gradual—compensation—and vote of the people." Tuesday, March 25, 1862 : Mary Ann “Mother” Bickerdyke, 44, of Galesburg, Illinois, today started a campaign to get proper laundry equipment for hospitals, emphasizing the

money that would be saved by reusing soiled uniforms rather than replacing them. When his staff complained about the outspoken, insubordinate female nurse who consistently disregarded the army's red tape and military procedures, Union General William T. Sherman threw up his hands and exclaimed, "She ranks me. I can't do a thing in the world." By the wars’ end Mother Bickerdyke had built 300 hospitals and aided the wounded on 19 battlefields including the Battle of Shiloh and Sherman's March to the Sea. Wednesday, March 26, 1862 : Apache Canyon, New Mexico Territory, was the scene of today’s most severe action. Although little known

compared to the famous battles of the East, the American West was vigorously contested during the War. A column of Confederates left Santa Fe, quite unaware that they were about to encounter Federal forces

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