Chronological History of the American Civil War

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moment he couldn’t even find him, nor figure out if he was going to be reinforced in the Valley or move out of it. Lincoln had a guess: Jackson “is much more likely to go to Richmond than Richmond is to come to him.” Lincoln’s guess was quite correct. Jackson was on the move. Message sent to General Lew Wallace, now in Memphis: “Sir, I arrived here with my whole division yesterday, and Gen. Hurlbut is at Grand Junction today. I will start working parties to repair the Memphis and Charleston Railroad immediately, and would like you to examine the Somerville Branch and meet us at Moscow tomorrow with any hand cars that can be found. I would be obliged to you if you would give me such information as you possess of the position of yours and McClernand's troops. Respectfully, your obedient servant W. T. Sherman, Major General (U.S.).”

Monday, June 16, 1862 : President Lincoln orders General Robert E. Lee's house at Arlington Heights, Virginia converted into hospital. Despite its name, the town of Secessionville, South Carolina had been in existence for many years before the War of Southern Rebellion. Its capture was important to the Federal effort to recapture Charleston Harbor. This cause suffered a dreadful setback today when, completely against orders and all advice, Brig. General H. W. Benham (U.S.) (pictured) decided to assault the works from James Island. The frontal attack on Fort Lamar failed utterly, his force of 6,600 suffered nearly 700 casualties, the defeat would be the only Union attempt to capture Charleston, South Carolina, by land during the American Civil War. Benham was soon relieved of command and forgotten. Tuesday, June 17, 1862 : General Braxton Bragg replaces the ill General

Beauregard in command of the Confederate States Army of Tennessee. General John Pope (U.S.) was ordered to head East today, to command a new entity called the Army of Virginia. This was a consolidation of the armies of Fremont and Banks. General Fremont (U.S.) was so disgusted at having to serve under Pope that he resigned. Wednesday, June 18, 1862 : The Cumberland Gap was an odd geographical feature in more ways than one. Famous since the days of Davy Crockett, and a vital pass through the Cumberland Mountains, it was fought over repeatedly. Today, it was in the hands of the Union, taken by General George W. Morgan (U.S.) and company. From La Grange, Tennessee, General Halleck's (U.S.) orders are for the whole army is to have nothing to do with the Negro; "Exclude them from camp. We cannot have our trains encumbered by them, nor can we afford to feed them.” Thursday, June 19, 1862 : In Washington, Lincoln signed into law, a measure prohibiting slavery in U.S. territories, and makes it known that he planned to outlaw slavery in all states in America. But at this point in time, it did not free anyone in the Northern held slave owning states. On the White River in Arkansas, the “Battle of St. Charles” was underway. The U.S.S. Mound City was hit by rebel guns and exploded the boiler, killing almost all onboard, 125 men. Union gunboats called off the attack, but the Union ground troops captured the area. Hardeman countian, John Houston Bills writes in his diary, “Cool morning. My daughter Eve Polk, accompanied by Jerome Hill, gets off for Nashville to meet her unfortunate husband. I furnish her $200 good funds for expenses.” Friday, June 20, 1862 : Brig. General Thomas Williams (U.S.) led 3,000 men onto boats in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and headed upriver. Their destination: Swampy Toe. This charmingly named site happened to be on the west side of the Mississippi River opposite Vicksburg. The mission: establish a base, and commence digging a canal to enable ships to bypass the cannon batteries which were being set up in ever increasing numbers on the cliffs of that city. This canal project would eventually be taken over by General Grant and vastly expanded. Many would die of drowning and disease.

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