Chronological History of the American Civil War
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legal tender. Seems most of the precious metals for coins were going toward the war effort, and one state might not recognize another state’s paper money, and stamps seemed to be accepted everywhere. Friday, July 18, 1862 : One does not often think of important Civil War actions taking place in...Indiana. One such, however, occurred today, and it was not the last to take place in places which considered themselves safely settled in the middle of the Union. John Hunt Morgan (CSA), colonel of cavalry, had been raiding in Kentucky. Today, he and his men set sail across the mighty Ohio and had their way with the citizenry of Newburg, Indiana, near Evansville. Half of southern Illinois, Indiana and Ohio went into a panic. Saturday, July 19, 1862 : Today, guerrilla raids were on Brownsville, Tennessee. Such guerrilla raids, continued across Missouri as well. Flag Officer Tattnal of the Confederate States Navy commander of the C.S.S. Virginia, had ordered her blown up after running around in the James River, was court-martialed for it. Today, the court acquitted him, with honor, for taking the only alternative possible. Sunday, July 20, 1862 : Today, was quiet on both sides, North and South. No major battles took place anywhere today, which meant that most armies spent the day marching away from the last one and towards the next. One private of the 15th Illinois Volunteer Infantry, was mortified to have to march through Memphis, Tennessee, with his handkerchief tucked in his belt to cover the hole in the back of his pants. Minor skirmishes did take place in the West, at Greenville and Taberville, Missouri, and Gaines Landing, Arkansas, as well as Hatchie Bottom, Mississippi. Union General John M. Schofield, in Missouri orders an anti-guerrilla campaign to rid the state of guerrilla groups (such as the ones led by Nathan Bedford Forrest and Colonel John Hunt Morgan). Over the next two months over 500 guerrillas fighters were killed, 1,800 wounded and 560 were missing. However, the problems caused by these cavalry-based groups were not resolved. Monday, July 21, 1862 : President Lincoln, decides that the U.S. cannot force subjects of foreign powers to be required to take an oath of allegiance to this Government. Nashville, Tennessee, was technically back in the control of the Federal Government, but things were not at all comfortable for the Union Army there. They were safe enough while in the city itself, and gunboats patrolled the Cumberland River against harassment from that quarter. The countryside, however, was thick with Confederate partisans. Many bridges suffered arson assaults under cover of darkness, particularly on the Chattanooga road. Tuesday, July 22, 1862 : Abraham Lincoln surprised his Cabinet today, with the first draft of his proposed Emancipation Proclamation. It was drawn up and written by himself, which called for the freeing of slaves in states in rebellion against the Union. Secretary of State Stewart requested to delay the announcement of this until after a major military victory. This would be a long postponement. On this day the North and South also agreed on an exchange of prisoners. Some Southerners celebrated the first anniversary of victory at Bull Run.
Wednesday, July 23, 1862 : A few days ago, General John Pope (U.S.) (pictured), head of the newly created Army of Virginia, had showed his disregard for popularity by announcing that the populace of the area would be charged for any damage committed by Confederate agents to railroads or telegraph lines. Today, he went even further, announcing that any male who refused to swear loyalty to the Union would be shipped South, and if found to have returned without permission, shot as a spy. Moving his men by railroad from Tupelo, Mississippi, General Braxton Bragg (CSA) reappears in Chattanooga, Tennessee after a journey of more than 770 miles. It was the largest troop movement by rail during the war for the Confederates.
Thursday, July 24, 1862 : Major General Henry Halleck becomes commanding general of the United States Army. Admiral Farragut (U.S.) had taken his fleet upriver almost as far as Vicksburg, and they had done a remarkable job of cutting off the flow of Confederate supplies across the Mississippi. Only right under the guns of the city was Confederate passage possible. Now the river was getting lower and his
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