Chronological History of the American Civil War

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Union Army. According to the terms of Davis’ order, they were to “be treated as outlaws, and if captured should be held as felons” rather than treated under the protocol of prisoners of war. Friday, August 22, 1862 : General Benjamin Butler (U.S.) authorizes the enlistment of "free Negroes.” Lincoln, defended his stand on slavery. Criticised by the ‘New York Tribune’ for not doing enough about slavery, Lincoln stated that his primary aim was to save the Union. “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it, and if I could do so by freeing all the slaves I would do it.” At Rappahannock in Virginia, a Confederate cavalry raid led by Jeb Stuart, got into Pope’s Union headquarters and captured some command officers and Pope’s dispatch book. This book had vital information in it. For Lee, (CSA) this was critical information. This raid continued to build on Stuart’s growing reputation as an outstanding if unconventional cavalry officer. Saturday, August, 23, 1862 : Overnight heavy rain stopped Lee from attacking Pope’s men as he had planned. However, armed with Pope’s dispatch book, Lee now planned to march the bulk of his men around Pope’s army cutting them off. To distract Pope’s men, a large force of Confederate troops would remain by the banks of the Rappahannock River and engage Pope’s men with fire. Lee’s whole plan was to isolate Pope’s force and then defeat Pope in battle, if he did not surrender. In Bolivar, a different kind of war was going on... John Houston Bills, settler, planter and diarist tells us: “My back given way to my urinary infirmaty. I however attend the public meeting, hear a speech from Gen. McClernand one from Mont Jones - resolutions favouring the restoration of the Union are passed, but few voices responding, no one contradicting. I am so worn down by the War. My feelings are all for peace, though, I confess I am unable to say how would be best to effect it & therefore say nothing. I feel my nothingness & total impotency for good in an affair of such dimensions as this. Our people seem bent on fighting it out, which must be a desperate game & of doubtful issue. May God interfere for the good of Men!!” Sunday, August 24, 1862 : In international waters, Captain Raphael Semmes mounted a gun-carriage and read his commission from President Jefferson Davis, authorizing him to take command of the new

cruiser. The new Confederate cruiser was powered by both sail and by two 300 horsepower horizontal steam engines. It would become the terror of Union ship captains and insurance companies. During all of C.S.S. Alabama 's (pictured) raiding ventures, she boarded nearly 450 vessels, captured or burned 65 Union merchant ships, and took more than 2,000 prisoners without a single loss of life from either prisoners or her own crew. This cost insurance companies about $6,000,000. (approximately $123,000,000 in today's dollars) After the war, the U.S. sued Great Britain for damages; since they built it and others for the Confederates and won $15,500,000.

Monday, August 25, 1862 : Lincoln selects Senator Samuel C. Pomeroy of Kansas for commissioner of African colonization. The U.S. Secretary of War, authorizes General Rufus Saxton to arm 5,000 slaves, thus 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first official black regiment would be formed. Tuesday, August 26, 1862 : Robert E. Lee’s nephew, Fitzhugh Lee (CSA) captures the rail depot at Manassas Junction setting in motion a chain of events that culminate into the Second Manassas. Wednesday, August 27, 1862 : In Virginia, both armies were on the move. Lee’s Southern army wanted to meet up with Stonewall Jackson, while Pope’s army (U.S.) wanted to recapture Manassas Junction. Thursday, August 28, 1862 : In Virginia, General Pope (U.S.) thought he had Stonewall Jackson on the run, not knowing all the while he was being surrounded. In Bolivar, diarist, settler, planter, merchant, John Houston Bills of “The Pillars” writes: “Weather still Very hot & dry. No grass for cows nor water for them to drink. The branches near town so vitiated by the by the soldiers washing & filth that horses will die of thirst before they will drink it. No turnips sown yet, nor will there be till rain comes. Early, I go to the Head Quarters & report my servants Nathan & Andrew sick. Capt. Ryan says take care of them & he will have them discharged. Great numbers of slaves, men, women & children arriving in the Camp

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