Chronological History of the American Civil War

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7 wounded)! Big Bethel was fairly typical of many early battles – neither side had any significant experience of warfare, and many of the men were new to their regiments (which themselves were new). Other than giving Magruder some valuable experience, the battle had no impact on the position of the two sides on the Peninsula. Tuesday, June 11, 1861 : Counties in western Virginia set up a pro-Unionist government that was recognized by the federal government in Washington DC. This would set the way for “West Virginia” to separate and remain Union.

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad had taken interest in Harpers Ferry in what would soon become West Virginia, because of its growing economy and federal armory (originally built by George Washington). Friday, June 14, 1861 : Stonewall Jackson's 11,000 confederate Army after destroying 19 of 25 arsenal and armory buildings; blew up Harpers Ferry Bridge. This railroad and turn pike bridge was rebuilt nine times during the civil war. Harpers Ferry was evacuated by rebels in face of McClellan's advance. The Memphis Appeal lists the Tennessee counties in which

a majority voted to remain in the Union. They are Anderson, Bradley, Campbell, Carter, Claiborne, Cocke, Grainger, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, Hawkins, Jefferson, Knox, Marion, Monroe, Roane, Sevier, Sullivan, Union, Washington, all in East Tennessee; and Decatur, Macon, and Wayne counties farther west. The same edition reports that a state warrant has been issued for the arrest of U. S. Senator Andrew Johnson for treason to Tennessee. The Louisville Journal writes indignantly: “Twenty or thirty Louisville steamboats, bound up from New Orleans, have been seized at Memphis, by order of Gen. Pillow …. Our State can no longer send a boat down the Mississippi and expect her return. Our commerce upon that mighty thoroughfare is annihilated.” Reports arrive of skirmishes in Missouri between Union troops and secessionists. Sunday, June 16, 1861 : Rapid recruiting replaces reverence. By custom, and in some places by law, Sunday was a day of churchgoing, followed by rest. Business was not normally conducted on this day, but these were not normal times. In camps, in barns, in tents, on prairies, mountains and cities, newly recruited troops today were beginning their indoctrination into Army life. Almost none had uniforms, very few had government-issued weapons (although many had simply brought their own from home, these often did not use standard-sized ammunition) and the rations issued were definitely not up to Mother’s standards of cooking. Monday, June 17, 1861 : From William L.B. Lawrence diary: “The Secession Flag now waves in triumph from our State Capitol; it was hoisted today amid much enthusiasm. Farmers are cutting wheat and rye.”

Friday, June 21, 1861 : John H. Winder (pictured) received his commission as Brigadier General in the army of the Confederate States of America today, and possibly the toughest assignment of the war. He was named inspector general of all the military camps in the Richmond area. Among other duties, he was charged with finding uniforms and weapons for the armies, paperwork for discharges for those unfit for service, capturing deserters and caring for the sick and wounded. Later, he was put in charge of the Confederate Bureau of Prison Camps, which included the famed “Andersonville Prison,” officially known as Camp Sumter in Georgia. This post he held until his death on February 7, 1865. During the war, Winder was frequently ridiculed in Northern newspapers, who

accused him of intentionally starving Union prisoners. In their post-war writings, some of the high level leaders of the Confederate government voiced the difficulties of Winder's assignment, saying: President Davis, Secretary Seddon, and Adjutant Cooper

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