Chronological History of the American Civil War

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and many would soon die in Fredericksburg proving him right. General Ulysses S. Grant (U.S.) issues orders barring Jews from serving under him. Monday, November 10, 1862 : John Houston Bills, Hardeman County settler, planter, financial advisor to President James K. Polk and diarist writes: “Dry & Dusty. Nothing unusual, only the increase of Contrabands (run away slaves). God knows when the Exodus will stop.” Tuesday, November 11, 1862 : John Houston Bills from his home in Bolivar “The Pillars” goes on to write in his diary: “Yet dry & dusty. A train of waggons, said to be 10 miles long, numbering 1600 passed through town today, the rear camp at my Cornucopia place. They steal my broodmare & two young horses & three mules, which they carry off in spite of all the exertions to remove them. Those with my fine mare and mule from Hickory Valley, previously stolen are worth at least $1250.” On Lincoln’s appointment orders, General Grant assigned John Eaton, Jr., a chaplain with the 27th Ohio Infantry, as “Superintendent of Contrabands” and to oversee the state's first contraband camp at Grand Junction, Tennessee. Northern missionaries and church leaders arrive to establish schools, administer religious and medical services, and even provide political education for contrabands. The army puts the able freedmen slaves to work at fifty cents per day on abandoned farms, government-supervised plantations, and military projects. General Burnside (U.S.) immediately changed McClellan’s plan of attack. He believed capturing Richmond, was more important than taking on Lee’s army. Burnside therefore ordered the Army of the Potomac (U.S.) to Richmond via Fredericksburg. He probably lost the best opportunity the North had of dealing the South a knockout blow by failing to take advantage of Lee’s army that was now still split in two divisions. President Lincoln, confers with General Heintzelman (U.S.) regarding the presidential bodyguard. Wednesday, November 12, 1862 : Mary Ann “Mother” Bickerdyke had been a middle-aged widow and botanic (medicines chiefly of herbs and roots) physician in Galesburg, Illinois. When the war broke out her church send her and supplies to Cairo, Illinois. She stayed and helped the sick and wounded. Today, she took leave, and started a fundraising tour among the bankers and other rich folk of Chicago. Thursday, November 13, 1862 : Union forces fought a brief skirmish with some local Confederates at Holly Springs, Mississippi. After driving away the Confederates, the Federals took over the railroad center in town. This was another step in controlling the railroad system to move men and supplies. Other minor actions took place in Sulphur Springs, Virginia, near Nashville, Tennessee, and along the coast of Georgia. Memphis Daily Appeal now printing from Grenada, Mississippi, since the Memphis was invaded by the Union wrote: “A lady living five miles north of Ozark, Arkansas, with an axe, a saw, a chisel and an auger, made herself a loom out of oak rails, upon which she now weaves eight yards of coarse cotton cloth a day. The thread is furnished by Major Nicholas B. Pearce (CSA), and woven into cloth for army purposes. Think of that, ye effeminates who loll on a sofa or carriage cushions and complain.” Friday, November 14, 1862 : Lincoln approved General Burnside’s plan to push toward Richmond by

the way of Fredericksburg, but warned that action needed to be taken quickly. General Hugh W. Mercer (CSA) (pictured) played a major role in impressing the first group of slaves and free blacks into service for the Confederacy, today wrote his headquarters that a captain with the Georgian unit, Lamar Rangers had captured “six Negroes in Federal uniforms with muskets in their hands,” killed two of them and captured the other four. Mercer's opinion was clear. “I most earnestly request that these Negroes be made an example of. They are slaves taken with arms in hand against their masters and wearing the abolition uniform. Some swift and terrible punishment should be inflicted....” His commander, P.T.G. Beauregard (CSA), forwarded the letter to his superiors in Richmond for a ruling. Secretary of War Seddon also recommended to Jefferson Davis that the blacks be executed.

Saturday, November 15, 1862 : The newly reorganised Army of the Potomac (U.S.) started its march on Fredericksburg. The army marched away from where Lee had based his army. There was logic in

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