Chronological History of the American Civil War

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declared that he was a much-maligned man. He was set to perform a task made impossible by the inadequacy of supplies of men, food, clothing, and medicines. Sunday June 23, 1861 : Today, the Union Army acquired an air force. One Thaddeus S.C. Lowe, who

called himself “professor” although his academic affiliation is unclear, had last week demonstrated his tethered balloon (pictured) to President Lincoln, communicating by telegraph from it. Today, he ascended with an artist and observed the Confederate units around Falls Church, Virginia. The artist sketched the scene, providing the closest thing to aerial photography that the technology allowed. Monday, June 24, 1861 : On this day, Tennessee became the 11th (& last) state to secede from U.S. President Lincoln with a party of five generals and three cabinet members

observes demonstration of "Coffee Mill" gun at the Arsenal at Greenleaf's Point. Lincoln was so impressed with the weapon that he purchased 10 on the spot for $1,300 apiece. The Union Army eventually purchased a total of 54 of the weapons. However, due to antiquated views of the Ordnance Department the weapons were rarely used. Stating it would use too much ammunition. Meanwhile on this day, an agent of the B&O Railroad reports the loss of 48 locomotives and even more gondolas and coal cars, which have been burned by rebel sympathizers in Baltimore. Wednesday, June 26, 1861 : At the Greenville Convention, all East Tennessee counties except Rhea County meet to petition the General Assembly to allow them to secede from the now-Confederate State of Tennessee and remain in the Union. Their request is denied. Thursday, June 27, 1861 : The Memphis Avalanche reports that $2,000,000 has been offered by European buyers as an advance on the cotton crop, and that France and England will soon recognize the Confederacy. Friday, June 28 1861 : The Tennessee General Assembly authorizes a draft of free black men into the Confederate army. Most free black men will manage to evade both the Confederate draft and the local sheriffs compelled to enforce it. In Maryland, cross-dressing Confederates commandeer Chesapeake craft. There are limited accounts of men dressing as women during the very Victorian days of the Civil War, and this is one. This night a party of Confederate sympathizers led by George Hollins and Colonel Richard Thomas decided to make their move to support Secessionism. Disguised in female garb the group boarded the side-wheel steamship St. Nicholas in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Seizing the boat from its startled crew, they set forth in search of the USS Pawnee, although exactly what they planned to do if they caught it is unclear. Alas, they could not find the warship, and had to settle for taking three small commercial vessels.

Sunday June 30, 1861 : Today, Raphael Semmes (pictured) had only attained the rank of commander at this early stage of the war. The Confederate States Navy was still in the process of organization; that of the North was in near-complete disarray, having had many of their best officers, ships and naval yards taken into the Confederacy. The North was nevertheless trying to enforce a blockade of Southern ports. Commander Semmes and the CSS Sumter evaded the New Orleans blockade today and set forth as commerce raiders. He would have considerable success; accounting for 18 merchant vessels while eluding Union warships the next 6 months. Monday, July 1, 1861 : Illinois Senator Lyman Trumbull meets with Lincoln for about an hour in the evening, and the two men discuss the war:

"He said to me that he did not know of any law to authorize some things which he had done; but he thought there was a necessity for them, & that to save the constitution & the laws generally, it might be

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