Chronological History of the American Civil War

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They moved into Union City and captured it without any resistance. The Confederates plundered the town and captured more supplies. When Forrest had done everything that he planned on doing, the Confederates retired back to Dresden. This was part of what would be called "Forrest's West Tennessee Expedition." Monday, December 22, 1862 : In Grand Junction, Tennessee, Confederate General Earl Van Dorn's cavalry struck the Union garrison here two days after his devastating raid on General Ulysses S. Grant's supply depot at Holly Springs, Mississippi. Col. John McDermott, (U.S.) 15th Michigan Infantry, counterattacked Van Dorn's force and wired Grant: "We are skirmishing with the enemy and will hold them ... moving on ... we are after them." Van Dorn escaped, and the town remained firmly under Union control. Some 1,500-1,800 Federal soldiers were taken prisoner and an incredible $1,500,000 worth of supplies were taken or destroyed . Historical marker in Grand Junction reads: “Grand Junction is named for its location, where the Memphis and Charleston and Mississippi Central Railroads intersect, and was strategically important to both Confederate and Union forces. After defeats at Shiloh and Corinth, Confederates tore up the tracks, hoping to delay the Federal pursuit. Union General William T. Sherman oversaw much of the repair work in mid-1862. Later Union General Ulysses S. Grant made this place a staging ground for his Vicksburg campaign, storing “100,000 rations” and basing 40,000 U.S. soldiers here." Tuesday, December 23, 1862 : Major General Benjamin Butler, (U.S.), as the military governor of New Orleans, was the most unpopular Union commander in the South. He once ordered women who harassed Union soldiers would be arrested, and treated as prostitutes. On this day, Jefferson Davis issued an order that if Butler were to be captured he should be hanged immediately, rather than treated as a military prisoner of war. Wednesday, December 24, 1862 : John Houston Bills, Bolivar settler, planter, diarist writes: “Awake at early dawn to witness the ingress the night of immense numbers of Federal Cavalry who we find feeding their stock from our cribs & hay lofts. The last of mine is taken. At 7 ½, we find all the Army in motion & soon in line of battle. A slight skirmish is all we have through, a day of immense excitement. Middleburg is also attacked but unsuccessfully by the Confeds. They lost 10 killed & 20 wounded. 12th Michigan Co. Graves acted gallantly.” Major General Earl Van Dorn and his Confederate force had attacked a Union blockhouse at Middleburg. The blockhouse was being manned by the 115 men of the 12th Michigan Infantry, commanded by Col. William H. Graves. Van Dorn sent a surrender request to Graves, who immediately refused the request. Graves replied the he "would surrender when whipped." The Confederate attack lasted for 2 hours and 15 minutes. The Federals repulsed the Confederate attacks. The Confederates suffered 9 killed & 11 wounded. Union losses were 19 total; 1 killed, 5 wounded, 13 missing. Thursday, December 25, 1862 : Lieutenant Elisha Hunt Rhodes of the Second Rhode Island (Army of Potomac) (U.S.) spends his second Christmas Day in camp near Washington, D.C., singing with other officers and writing in his diary: "I should like to be home this Christmas night." But as so many other soldiers will learn, this will not happen for a long time to come. Confederate General, John Hunt Morgan (CSA) continued his raid on Federal forces in Kentucky, leading to violence at Bear Wallow and Green’s Chapel in that state. Friday, December 26, 1862 : Lincoln’s orders for the nation’s largest mass execution (pictured) of 39

Santee Sioux was shortened from the original 303 set to be executed. The Indians have been on a rampage, since treaties were being broken and promises of food and shelter not fulfilled. Lincoln was concerned with how this would play with the Europeans, whom he was afraid were about to enter the war on the side of the South. He provided the following compromise to the political leaders of Minnesota: They would shorten the list of those to be hung down to 39. At the last minute, one Indian was given a reprieve. In return, Lincoln

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