Chronological History of the American Civil War

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promised to kill or remove every Indian from the state and provide Minnesota with 2 million dollars in federal funds. Lincoln only owed the Sioux $1.4 million for the land. Saturday, December 27, 1862 : General William T. Sherman’s (U.S.) military units continued their advancement, if such it could be called, towards Vicksburg. Minor battle took place at Snyder’s Mill between the Union men and scouts from the Confederate forces of General John Pemberton (CSA) defending the city. In Kentucky, General John Hunt Morgan (CSA) and his 3,000-man cavalry attacked Elizabethtown. During the battle, more than 100 cannon balls were fired into the town. Although, he successfully captured Elizabethtown, Kentucky, Morgan's chief goal was to disrupt the railroad and northern transportation. He proceeded north along the railroad, burning trestles and destroying sections of the track. Sunday, December 28, 1862 : Despite being born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and having 2 brothers

fighting for the North, Confederate Lt. General John C. Pemberton (pictured) was in charge of protecting Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last strong hold on the Mississippi River. The city had several natural defences; high bluffs along the river and swamps around the northern sections. Pemberton had to stop the advance by Union Major General William T. Sherman that was trying to capture it. This defense was all the kept the Union from having control of the river that divided the country. General Sherman’s Federals pushed their lines forward through the swamps toward the Walnut Hills, which were strongly defended. Today, several futile attempts were made to get around these defenses. Across the river in Arkansas, a unit of Union troops captured a considerable amount of Confederate supplies at Van Buren, Arkansas. Monday, December 29, 1862 : In what would be known as the Battle of

Chickasaw Bayou, Sherman (U.S.) ordered a frontal assault, which was repulsed with heavy casualties, and then withdrew. The attack never had a chance of success. When one Union brigade captured Confederate rifle pits at the foot of the bluff, they came under fire from another Confedate line from above. No other Federal force got close to the bluff. This Confederate victory frustrated Major General Ulysses S. Grant's attempts to take Vicksburg by direct approach. Union casualties were 208 killed, 1,005 wounded, and 563 captured or missing; Confederate casualties were 63 killed, 134 wounded, 10 missing. Sherman had to figure another way to attack. In Tennessee, Nathan Bedford Forrest (CSA) arrives at Parker’s Crossroads and sets up camp. Tuesday, December 30, 1862 : Just nine months earlier the U.S.S. Monitor has revolutionized naval warfare in a standoff battle with the C.S.S. Virginia (Merrimack) off Hampton Roads, Virginia. Today, it sunk in a storm off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; 16 of the 62 crewmen, were lost with it in the storm. Meanwhile, Brig. General Samuel P. Carter (U.S.) and a portion (150 men) of his brigade of Union raiders attacked a significant railroad landmark, and stood at the northern end of the 400ft-long Watauga Bridge at Carter’s Station, Tennessee. The Federals burned the railroad depot, a cache of supplies, and torched the bridge. The bridge collapsed while a Confederate train was on it. Outside of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, U.S. Major General William S. Rosecrans slowly approaches the main Confederate forces led by C.S.A. General, Braxton Bragg, with fighting at Jefferson, La Vergne, Rock Spring and Nolensville. Though the Confederates do a good job of slowing their advance, Rosecrans (U.S.) continues to move closer to the Murfreesboro Confederate stronghold. Wednesday, December 31, 1862 : Confederates at Parker's Crossroads, detected a Yankee force ahead and Forrest (CSA) decided to attack. Early in the battle, it was favoring the south; they even ask the north to surrender. When, suddenly Forrest was surrounded and his men starting to panic. At one point, Forrest himself came upon Union troops, who demanded that he surrender. He agreed and rode off to gather his force. The Rebel commander then surveyed the situation and reportedly said, "Charge ‘em both ways." He diverted some of his men from the initial attack to turn against the Federals coming from behind. Though around 300 of Forrest's men were captured, the bulk of his forces escaped.

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