2021 Fall Newsletter


The 2021 Fall Edition Newsletter of the MIAMI COUNTY HISTORICAL MUSEUM

E-Mail: micomuseum@gmail.com

Web Page: https://micomuseum.org Price $2.00


Officers and Directors 2022

President- Agnes Dillard Vice President- Wes Cole Secretary- LuAnne Debrick Treasurer- Vincent Thorpe Louisburg - Aggie Dillard Marysville Township - Middle Creek Township - Mound Township - Donna Darner Osage Township - Ann Davis Osawatomie City- Wes Cole Osawatomie Township - Paola City - Elsie Cordle Paola Township - Jana Barcus Richland Township - LeAnne Shields Stanton Township - Vicent Thorpe Sugar Creek Township - Ann Benton Ten Mile Township -Gorden Geldhof Valley Township - Lloyd Peckman Wea Township - Iris Kluber Member at Large - LuAnne Debrick Miami Township - Nina Gerken

913-406-3243 913-731-3193 816-392-0605 913-294-5436

Gift Corner

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Queries - Mini Minutes

Back In Time

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Bull Creek Occupation Pearl Street Story Bernice Wallace Publications for sale Heritage Walk Bricks Buckeye Bill Auctioneer

Board of Directors

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816-392-0605 913-731-3009 785-869-3246 913-731-7869 913-731-3193 913-294-2779 913-335-2657 913-710-1767 913-294-5436 913-259-9839 913-449-5153 913-849-3278 OPEN OPEN

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Back Cover

Notice To The Membership The Miami County Historical Museum member The party will be held at the Museum Tuesday, December the 14th. from 12:00 to 2:00 PM. All members, volunteers and friends of the museum are invited. snacks & drinks will be provided.

913-294-8012 Genealogy Society Coordinator- LeAnne Shields 913-710-1767 Newsletter - Roger Shipman 913-259-9219

ship dues are $25.00 Make checks out to:

Miami County Historical Museum 12 East Peoria, Paola, Kansas 66071-0123

A Newsletter of the Miami County Historical Museum & Genealogy Society Fall 2021 Volume 36- No.2 Miami County Historical Museum 12 E. Peoria, Paola, Kansas 66071 Phone: 913-294-4940 E-Mail: micomuseum@gmail.com. Web address; https://micomuseum.org Museum Hours: Monday - Wednesday - Friday 10 a.m. - 4 p.m. Financial The Miami County Historical Museum is a Non-Profit Organization with a tax exempt status allowed by the Internal Rev enue Dept. Gift and donations received by the Societies are deductible for Income Tax purposes. For additional informa tion or questions regarding Endowments, Trusts, etc., Please contact us at 913-294-4940

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Visit our gift corner We have books, out of print museum books on DVD, brochures of local attractions, numerous historical Paola photos suitable for framing, tee-shirts, hats and some free stuff

Hours for the Museum Open Monday, Wednesday, Friday 10:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. Closed Saturday with the exception of special occasions For appointments call: 816-392-0605 913-406-3243- 913-710-1767 QCD Qualified Charitable Distributions Donations from an IRA fund to meet your IRA Annual Required Distribution to a Charity. Any Donation with QCD are 100% untaxed by the IRS. Normal distributions are subject to federal and state income taxes. Requirements: To Avoid Taxes on Distributions 1. Age 70 1/2 or older 2. Donations made directly by IRA Custodians to 501 charitable group 3. Limit of $100,000 per year per person with IRA 4. Donation made by Dec. 31 of each year given by Custodian Thus, you can give to our museum up to $100,000 per year per person from your IRA as a distribution and pay no taxes on that gift---normal distributions are taxed as a part of your adjusted gross income. The custodian provides a 1099-R form to report on your income tax return. Example: Have your custodian of your IRA give to our museum $2,500(any sum up to $100,000) from your IRA. Will be part of your required distribution but would be exempt from normal taxes that year. A WIN-WIN FOR YOU AND YOUR CHARITY CHOICE Give to Charity---Pay Less Taxes. QCD—for the Endowment or Regular Museum Donation. Timely Tax Information

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VOLUNTEER AND VISITOR REPORT June through September, 2021 Volunteers - 20 plus the Art Guild Workers Board Meetings - 4 Average Attendance - 10 Visitors - 542 “Volunteer Hours” 1,455 States Represented - 23 plus Alaska and Switzerland Volunteers: Ann Davis, Jana Barcus, Ann Benton, Pat sy Bortner, Jim Bousman, Wes Cole, Jean Cook, Elsie Cordle, Donna Darner, Luanne Debrick, Agnes Dillard, Gordon Geldhof, Nina Gerken, Iris Kluber, Lloyd Peck man, Leanne Shields, Roger Shipman, Vince Thorpe, Beth Wilson, Kathy Peckman The Art Guild held its annual Art Show at the museum during July. It was a huge success with paintings being submitted from the United States and abroad. A few changes were made to the By-Laws and they were approved. Board members were approved for the years 2022 — 2023. They are; Wes Cole - Osawatomie City, Vince Thorpe — Stanton Township, Nina Gerken — Miami Township, Iris Kluber — Wea Township, Ann Benton ¬Sugar Creek Township, Luanne Debrick — At Large, Aggie Dillard ¬Louisburg, Elsie Cordle — Paola City, Open — Middle Creek Township. A Volunteer Appreciation Open House and luncheon was held September 11. Good food and lots of visiting took place. A donation of $ 1,000. was given by Mary Clemens and Tibby Clemens in appreciation of Aggie Dillard's help. A new dehumidifier was purchased for basement 2. Ex pansion plans are moving ahead on financing, acquir ing an elevator and opening up the upstairs rooms in buildings 1 & 2. Grants are being looked at and dona tions will be appreciated. The museum is always looking for new volunteers to help at the museum. If your bored, come by and pick the hours you would like to help out. You are needed. MINI MINUTES May — November 2021

QUERIES Sondra Douglas wants info on Clara Callabressi who died at the State Hospital in 1902. Nicole Cunningham is looking for a marriage record for Jessie Wood and Buswell Seetin in 1905 Nicole White is trying to find info on Verna M Gide who may have been in the State Hospital. Susan Beck is looking for a John N Hollingsworth. Lisa Otto is interested in what we might have on John Roberts in 1899. Thea Gavin is looking for a lost daughter of Merle Lee and Carrie Fransee Lively. Tom Rafiner is looking for pictures and personal info on the Sims family of Charles, Helen and Polly and the family of Benjamin Wingrove. Kari Plagmann is interest in finding a birth record for Louise Liddle in 1902. Birdie Bolin wants info on William Shaw, Rosella Cott Shaw. She is a niece of Christmas Noel. Micheal Menzie wants to find something about Har man Beeson. Warren Russell desired history of house at 402 E. Peo ria Street. Kenneth McClintock wants to know about the old Bea gle Depot. Ethel Simons is researching the Lee Family. Pam Kermoade wants an obit for Emaline Cook. Franklin Packard is searching for info on the George Breckenridge and Alta McDowell and the Beaver School. Also, Ruth and Earl Zuel. Audra Harper wants pictures and info on City of Paola municipal buildings. Victoria Lowman is trying to find info on the property at 120 South Broadway in Louisburg.

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ARE YOU WORKING ON YOUR GENEALOGY? ARE YOU HUNTING FOR ANCESTORS? We have people here at the museum that will be glad to help you in your search. You can give us a call (913/294 4940), send us an e-mail or drop by and chat. We are open 10:a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday thru Friday.

VOLUNTEERS NEEDED: Front Desk (1/2 or full day), Computer input, Arranging displays, Moving help, Grant writers, Interviewers, History researchers Newsletter Accessions Manager Call the Museum at 913-294-4940 Our e-mail address is: micomuseum@gmail.com

Old negatives, color or black & white can be copied and made into prints. Those old dark “Tin Type” images can be revealed to show a sharp image that can be printed or saved onto computer files. I can copy all sizes of negatives color or black & white from the small 110, 35 mm, all 120 and up to a 4 x 5 inches. Color slides can be copied and made into color prints or cop ied onto CDs or USB memory stick to view on your com puter. The photo of a couple below had been washed in a pair of jeans and it was pulling off the backing. The owner was heartbroken as it was the only photo of her father. I removed the wrinkled image off the card base by soaking it in water. It was stretched and glued down on new backing and copied. Using Photoshop I was able to remove, at the customer’s re quest the stepmother and create a new portrait of her father. KEYBOARD PEOPLE WANTED We are trying to copy all of our obituary card files into a computer data base. Presently There are over 30,000 scanned obit cards that need to be renamed with the persons info on the card. The museum will provide USB thumb drives to volunteers who could take the drives back to their computers and rename them at their own pace.

Another new service at the Museum, We can now digitize 8mm & Super 8 mm movie film which can be transfered to DVDs or viewed on your computer. This is in addition to restoration of photos and video transfer to DVD format

I can also duplicate printed material like old cookbooks and turn them into digital files that can be viewed on computer screen or printed out in a booklet.. Using a digital process the museum now has the ability to provide the service to restore your precious images. We can fix damaged pictures, add a person to a group photo or take someone out. Faded out prints can be brought back and made to look like new. Drag those old films out of the closet and turn them into gifts.

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A STEP BACK IN TIME Book information can tell us a lot about many differ ent things. We can learn about finance, sports, how things work, and historical facts. One of the best ways to learn about history is to hear it by word of mouth. When you can sit down with a parent, grandparent, or if you are lucky a great grandparent, and hear about their experiences in the past, it makes things more personal and you can relate to it better. The following information about Paola was a story published in The Republican newspaper in the 1930s. This is information provided by Mrs. James S. Neylon (Margaret Shannon before her marriage). She came to Paola in 1861 and lived here for 71 years. These are her historical rec ollections of Paola. Names and places have changed, but you might recognize some facts, places, or people (maybe relatives) in this story. This is her story. “Thinking back, my first recollection of Paola was the square with a low rail fence around it to keep out roving animals. This was soon replaced by a board fence built by the efforts of the women of Paola. On the east side of the square were two buildings. On the corner, the first floor was a general store owned by Jake Snyder, brother-in-law to Walter Buck. The second story was the city hall. The other building on the east side was a saloon. There was nothing on the south side of the square. On the west side was a two- story stone building used as a court house. On the corner was a small dwelling. On the west was another saloon, then the Union Hotel. On the northwest corner was a long one- story hotel called Torrey House. It was owned and run by Mr. and Mrs. Torrey and the latter’s sister, Miss Augusta Redfield (Mrs. B.F. Simpson). Later this was sold to Thomas Krutz. The Torreys moved to their claim now known as the Wagstaff farm. Mr.Torrey soon died and his wife married Judge Wagstaff .Mr. Krutz soon built a three

By: Vincent Thorpe

type Gallery. Mr. Brown practiced medicine between taking pictures. On the northeast corner of the square were two two- story buildings occupied by Mr. Mitchler, who carried a general stock of goods. Across the street to the east (for merly Peoples Bank and Metzler Furniture Company) in the middle of the block was a small dwelling occupied by Judge Hiram Stevens who was Mrs. D. O. Sellers father. The house was occupied by Uncle Cy and Auntie Shaw. Across the street north lived Mr. and Mrs. A.J. Shannon, my parents. Opposite in the house known as the Doc Curtis property lived the Mitchlers, with Frank, Dick, Ed, and Charlie; a lively bunch. Going on north was a log house owned by a carpen ter known as Thomas Akers. Across Piankishaw, on the east side lived Cyril Taylor the village blacksmith. What is now known as McNelley property was built and occupied by Ezra Robinson. The old two- story house on the west side of the street was built by Mr. Totten who later moved to Missouri. That house was then occupied by government men sent to arrange allotments for the Indians. Later it was the home of army officers who boarded with Mrs. Robinson, across the street, at this time owned by Tom Hedges, whose wife was a daughter of Grandma Baptiste. The spring across the street was the city waterworks. The stone building over it was ordered built by Captain Hubbel, the first mayor, with Ezra Robinson, contractor, at a cost of $100 for building and ground. I can still see Wal ter Buck sitting on a barrel of water, which was fastened to a two- wheel cart hitched to a pony. Those needing water listened for Walter’s whistle, as he was a famous whistler.

story brick building on the corner, the St. Charles Ho tel which extended to the Koehler bakery. It was occupied by stores on the first floor, offices on the second, and the I.O.O. F. and masonic lodge rooms on the third. A stone building occupied by Dave Morris’ barber shop adjoined on the east. The second floor of this build ing was occupied Brown’s Photographic and Ambro

The Spring House on Pearl street

Baptiste Peoria was born in 1800 in Kaskaskia, Illinois. He was not an educated man, but by natural force of intellect acquired several Indian languages. Paola, first known as Peoria village, is situated two miles west of the geographi cal center of Miami county, first called Lykins County after a medical missionary. The name was changed by the first state legislature in 1861. It is between Bull creek on the west and south and Big and Little Wea on the east.

Vincent Thorpe

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In 1879 a Normal School and Business Institute in Paola by the state. It occupied all of the 3rd. floor and part of the second with Prof. John Wherrel as president. There were two large dormitories built on lots now owned by Mrs. Carrie McLaughlin.

The tribes located within a radius of thirty miles were Peo rias, Piankishaws, Kaskaskias, Weas, Miamis, , Shawnees, Ottawas, Chippewas, Osages, and Pottawatomies. In 1857 the town company was incorporated with Baptiste, presi dent and A.J. Shannon as agent and secretary. Not counting the local Indians, there were thirty inhabi tants. After receiving the charter, the company was autho rized to purchase not more than 600 acres. After securing 400 acres, the name Paola was selected in honor of Baptiste Peoria and is derived from the Indian pronunciation of Peo ria. When the streets were laid out, those running east and west were named after the various tribes having reserva tions in this part of the country as Kaskaskia, Piankishaw, Peoria, Wea, Miami, Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa. The streets running north and south were named after miner als and precious stones as Pearl, Diamond, Gold, and Silver. Baptiste donated the square as a place of entertainment and one-half block of land for a cemetery. This is where the south school was located. The cemetery filled up rapidly so in 1861 the city bought the north 5 acres of the present cemetery. The women organized a Cemetery Society and gave Literaries and Socials to raise funds to fence it. The charter granted in 1855 expired by limitation in 1865 and a city of the third class was organized. Paola became a city of the second class in 1867. Paola was always the coun ty seat, but one election was held to change it. Osawatomie was the principal competitor, but lost. The first school was taught by Miss May Williams in a building located where the Investors Loan Office was. The school was of short duration as the teacher married Cy Shaw. He was the secretary for Baptiste Peoria with a great deal of prestige. Through the efforts of Mrs. Crider, an Epis copalian, a Sunday School was held in the same room. I think it was in 1867 a private school was taught by a Mrs. Smith. She afterwards became the wife of a Congregational minister, Mr. Jordan. This school was held on the first floor of the brick M.E. Church building. Soon a brick school was erected where the courthouse now stands. It was two long rooms on the first floor and on the second floor which was used for entertainments until Paola Hall was built on the west side. My teacher there was Miss Lottie Buck, sister of Walter buck. The first milliner I can remember was Miss Vi Buck. Davy Ferguson was the first principal. The North school was built in 1872. A.C. Farnham was the first superintendent. It was about this time our beloved Henrietta Stoddard appeared upon the scene.

Among the many graduated were Senator Lon and his wife and Henry McLain , congressman from one of the western states, Deck Anderson and Maggie Shannon. The Methodist Church was organized in the summer of 1858 by a missionary named Rev. Pugh. The congregation first met in homes. The brick building now known as Baehr Bros. building was erected in 1865 at a cost of $11,000. A larger place was needed as a church and it was erected on the present spot in 1882. An Indian chapel existed in Peoria Village in 1846. Its location was near the spring and our present Catholic orga nization may be considered a continuation of the labors of the Jesuits who established missions among the Confeder ated tribes in 1845. In 1855, Baptiste Peoria donated five lots for a church and five acres east of town for a cemetery. In 1859, the Catholics began to build a stone church. It was

all completed but for windows, doors, and floors when the war interfered with all religious affairs and it was not completed until 1863. A brick church was erected in 1881, costing $7000. It burned in 1896 and was replaced imme diately by the present one.

The Presbyterian church was organized in 1867 with 16 members. Mr. and Mrs. Stephenson, Mr. and Mrs. Light and Mrs. Roberts were among the charter members. Rev. J.M. Rankin was the first pastor. Services were first held in the north room of the second story of a building located where Peoples National Bank is. Later services were held in Paola Hall on the west side. A church was built on the present in 1870, costing $4000. The present church was erected in 1905. The First Christian Church was organized in 1885. L.S. Vickers, Dr. Willhoit, Mr. Riley, L.S. Wells, Miss Anna Chil dress were charter members. Mrs. Hobson was the leading spirit. Continued on page 21

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Bull Creek Occupation

Saving Native American history before the filling of Hillsdale Lake

By: Gordon Geldhof

the archaeological information that would be lost when the government decided to dam Bull Creek and create Hillsdale Lake as a means for improving flood control. Once the building of Hillsdale Lake was completed, archaeological resources that could inform our un derstanding of previous indigenous habitants of that location would be destroyed. In total, 118 sites were recorded. This article provides information discovered from those sites. Although the present document is not intended to be fully comprehensive as to all of the indigenous people who may have lived along the Bull Creek and surrounding areas, this summary illustrates the diver sity of the peoples who have occupied the land now known as Miami County. Cultural Chronology for the Bull Creek Locality Cultural remains discovered in conjunction with the Hillsdale Lake project date back to approximately 2000 B.C. We know that different peoples lived here at different times, but it is important to note that we do not know the names of the different tribes that inhabit ed the lands in Miami County before interactions with white settlers. Archeologists have given names to the peoples who inhabited certain areas during different time periods. These periods are called “phases” or “as pects”. Each phase or aspect reflects a unique culture defined by the types of tools people used, the kinds of food they consumed, the types of pottery they created, and possible trade with other cultures during a specific time period. In other words, a phase or aspect is de fined by the kinds of materials a group of people left behind and that tell us about who they were. Artifacts do not necessarily tell us about a culture di rectly. Instead, Archeologists uncover artifacts and features that they then have to interpret. We may not find an intact house that existed long ago but can ex trapolate that a house once stood in an area from the data we collect. An example of this would be uncover ing postholes, rock formations and other artifacts bur ied underground. Here is one example of something that has been uncovered from a Pomona Phase site:

When most people think of Native American oc cupation in Miami County, they imagine nomadic tribes living in tee pees and hunting buffalo. They think about the Miami, Pottawatomie, Shawnee and The Confederated Tribes (Piankeshaw, Kaskaskia, Wea, and Peoria). In reality, these tribes only occu pied what is now Miami County during the relatively recent past. They were relocated from their homes in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio in the 19th century. The Shawnee reservation embraced a strip of land across the northern end of the county. The Pottawat omie reservation in Miami County included what is now Mound and Osawatomie townships and a small portion of Stanton and Valley township, in all about eighty square miles, or 51,000 acres. This tribe was removed to a reservation on the Kansas River in 1847- 48 where a portion of them still remain. The Confederated Tribes were composed of the Weas, Piakeshaws, Peorias and Kaskaskias. They inhabited the northern part of the county, border ing the Shawnee Reservation. The Confederated Tribes formerly lived in Southern Illinois. The Miamis were the first settlers in Miami County. They, as a portion of the Shawnees, were originally from Ohio. The original Miami reservation consisted of about 500,000 acres of land and was bounded on the east by Missouri, on the south by the reser vation of the New York Indians, on the west by the Pottawatomie reservation, and on the north by that of the Confederated tribes. Treaties signed in 1854 cost these tribes much of their land. Each member of the tribe was allowed to retain 160 acres if they became American Citizens, with the rest of the land being granted to the U.S. government. Discovering the Past Intensive archaeological studies can help us un derstand the lifestyles of Native Americans who oc cupied an area prior to contact with White settlers. One such study began in 1965 in order to preserve

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Images courtesy Army Corps of Engineers

The postholes suggest an oblong house with a fireplace (hearth) in the center of the building. Addi tionally, the finding of daub indicates the building may have had solid walls. It’s important to note that some of these postholes were up to 12 inches in diameter and sunk into the ground nearly 3 feet. Not something lightweight and easily pulled up and moved around like a tent stake. Most people think Na tive Americans lived in tee pees that looked much like a tent. In reality, these structures were more like long lasting structures. The cultural entities found as part of the Hillsdale Lake project span a period of 4000 years and have been divided into five groups: Nebo Hill Phase; Greenwood Phase; Hertha Phase; Pomona Focus; Great Bend Aspect

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NEBO HILL PHASE The Nebo Hill phase existed during the Late Ar chaic Period and lasted from 2600 BC to 1000 BC. As the figure below indicates, this culture ex isted in an area that encompasses parts of Ne braska, Iowa, Missouri and Kansas and is thought to be ancestral to the later Kansas City Hopewel lian culture.

Findings from the Bull Creek area indicate possi ble continuous occupation at least during the 800 year span between 2000 BC and 1260 BC. Nebo Hill people lived in large and small oval hous es that included solid walls with hearths. Houses likely provided shelter for 2 nuclear families. The Nebo Hill people may have used these sites for winter camps or to process summer harvests. These people utilized Horticulture, had Twined Fiber Fabrics, and fired clay artifacts including Fiber Tempered Pottery, Human Effigy figurines, as well as flexed human and dog burials, indicate some sort of religious associations. Flexed burial refers to the type of burial, in which the legs of the deceased are flexed at angles

Photo Courtesy KSHS

A very distinctive artifact from this time period is the Lanceolate Projectile Points.

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Other artifacts include Contracting Stemmed Points,

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Milling Stones,

Side Notched Points,

Dart Points, Atlatls

Grooved axe heads,

(A stick used to throw shafts) and Large Stemmed Points.

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Other tools used include Grinding Stones,


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As with the people of the Nebo Hill Phase, the size and construction of Hertha-Phase houses indicates possible stable or semi-stable occu pation. Hunting and gathering groups could still venture far from home but return to home much like modern day people go hunting for deer or go the lake for the weekend. The settlement pattern consisted of hamlets or homesteads of one or two houses each. Other features consist of small ba sin-shaped pits both within and outside of houses.

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Photo Courtesy KSHS


Hertha Phase The Hertha Phase existed during the Early Ce ramic Period and lasted from 550 BC to 1050 AD. Sites excavated at Hillsdale span the period from 565 BC to 775 AD.

During this period, the preferred method of hunt ing changed from using the Atlatl to usage of the bow and arrow. Hunting implements still included large lances and large cornered notched arrow points, but archaeological evidence suggests a preference for a smaller arrowhead on a wooden shaft. Blakeslee and Rohn (1986) suggest that small er arrowheads could travel deeper and do more damage to prey. Although many collectors incor rectly refer to small arrow points as “bird points” because of their size, North American Indians commonly used 2- to 4-centimeter points to dis patch large game, including bison. The technological advances observed during this period led to the development of larger commu nities. In turn, the larger population led to the de velopment of more complex political and religious beliefs. For example, archeologists have discov ered cemeteries located on surrounding hilltops during this timeframe.

The Early Ceramic Period defines just what is says. During this time, indigenous people began using pottery on a large-scale basis. People of the Nebo Hill Phase did create pottery vessels by shaping clay, although it was rare. During the Early Ceramic Period, the people of Kansas began to make cooking and storage containers. Some pots were shaped using large amounts of unfired clay, whereas other containers were formed from broad clay coils. During this pe riod, pottery was used for cooking large amounts of vegetation and animal meat. These consisted of thick grit tempered pottery with smooth sur faced and rough constricted orifice jars. They also included wavy rimmed vessels.

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( Tools that had cutting edges on both sides). They also had ground stone celts (a type of axe).

People from this time frame lived in large oval houses. Each large house contained storage pits and several hearths. Some of the houses mea sured 32 X 65 ft. That’s the same size as a mod ern 2000 sq ft house. These houses also had solid daub walls. The Hertha-Phase people engaged in hunting, gathering, and pottery making. Typical pottery had pale, almost pink surfaces and a dark core. The exterior surface was smooth.

Specific tools used in cluded large cornered-notched points and bifac es. Photo Courtesy KSHS Greenwood Phase The Greenwood phase spans between 400 AD and 1000 AD at the Hillsdale site and roughly cor responds to the Middle to Late Woodland Period (which lasted from 1200 AD to 1400 AD).

During warm seasonal occupation, evidence sug gests hunting and butchering happened, along with hide working, food processing, and tool man ufacturing. From artifacts found we can interpret their diet to have consisted of: Hickory Nut, Black Walnut, Pig weed Seed (Young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked like spinach), Carpet Weed Seed (edible), Nut Rush (edible nut), Kingnut (hickory nut). Ani mal remains found at sites of this cultural pattern primarily consist of bison, deer, elk, antelope, and a variety of small game. Interesting finds also include plants those mod ern herbalists use for medicinal purposes. Found at these sites include: Pokeweed; Seeds used to treat epilepsy, anxiety and neurological disorders, and cancer. Euphorbia; Possibly used as medicinal to reduce swelling. This is one of the 50 top Chinese funda mental herbs.

Sites of this cultural pattern are found across much of Southeastern Kansas, primarily along the Neo sho, Cottonwood, Verdigris, Elk, and Marais de Sygnes rivers. Settlements during the Greenwood phase consisted of villages (up to 8 houses) that were themselves part of a larger settlement that included several hundred people. Houses found at Greenwood phase had long, oval dwellings. Hearths and basin-shaped pits occur within hous es and are also found scattered throughout the village. Some of the deeper pits may have been used for storage. Subsistence practices consisted of hunting and gathering.

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Many different types of houses are found including both small and large houses. Also found are Large Oval Type Houses.

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Other everyday used tools include Scrapers,

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Water reed (thatching material) was also found and may have been used in house or basket making

Celts, Grinding Stones

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Pottery patterns changed to include Wide Mouth Conical Jars.

Along with flexed burials, items representing jewelry were being produced. These included Incised Bone Beads and Shell Disk Beads.

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Pomona Phase The Pomona Phase is characterized as a Middle Ceramic Period from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Pomona is a Middle Ceramic period culture of the Central Plains tradition. Pomona sites are found primarily in the Osage Cuestas of eastern Kansas.

Photo Courtesy KSHS

These people utilized cuttings blades. And to pro cess wild seeds, nuts, and other food, Manos

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Sites found during the excavation of the Hillsdale Project include extended communities, clustered houses (3 to 4 houses together), isolated houses, work/storage areas, and hunting camps. Pomona culture was first recognized during arche ological study of the Pomona Reservoir in Osage County. Pomona people made a distinctive type of pottery, named Pomona Ware by archeologists.

Bones found at the sites indicate key sources of meat included Elk, Sheep, Pronghorn, Snake, Beaver, Racoon, American Buffalo, White Tailed Deer, and Turtle. From artifacts found we can interpret their diet to have consisted of: Blackberry, Raspberry, Mulberry, Hickory Nut, Ha zelnut, Black Walnut, Redbud Seed (High in Vi tamin C), Pecan, Corn, and Lambsquarter Seed (similar to spinach). Possible medicinal herbs include Mustard Seeds (used as an Anti-Inflammatory); Croton seeds (used to treat gallbladder problems, colic, blocked intestines, and malaria), Passion Flower (used to treat anxiety and sleep problems, as well as for pain, heart rhythm problems, menopausal symp toms, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is applied to the skin for burns and to treat hem orrhoids);

Photo Courtesy KSHS

Page 15 These people lived off of both horticulture and hunting-and-gathering. They had what we would call farmsteads that grew maize, squash and sun flowers. For relaxation or ceremonial events, they used Clay Smoking Pipes. To plow their field the used Bison Scapula Bones as a garden hoe.

Pomona people lived in irregular round or oval shaped structures which were constructed of a light frame of saplings, covered with thatch, and plastered with wattle and daub. Wattle and daub are a composite building method used for making walls and buildings in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.

When they would go fishing, they would use Bone Fish Hooks. When making arrowheads they uti lized Hammerstones to shape the flint or chert and Sandstone Abraders the help sharpen the arrow points or to straighten arrow shafts. To crush the corn into meal, Grinding Stones were used.

Buildings included both hearths and storage pits. Pomona pots are globular and have constricted necks. Different types of pottery are associated with this timeframe. They include Vessels with High Verti cal Rims, Cord Roughened Pots, Vertical and S Rims, Untampered Pottery and High Rim Jars.

Fresno Points, Small Side Notched Points;

Other types of tools used include Diamond Shaped Knives, Drills, Gravers, Scrapers, Celts, Manos, Bone Awls, Beveled Knives and the Bow and Arrow. From artifacts found we can interpret the Pamo na-Phase people’s diet included Cow, Bison, White tailed deer, Redbud Seed, Croton Seed, Vetch Seed, Lambsquarter Seed, Water Reed Seed, Mustard Seed, Passionflower Seeds, Black Walnuts, Hickory Nut, Pecan, Kingnut, Blackberry, Raspberry, Mulberry and Hazelnut.

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Great Bend Aspect Late Ceramic Period 1400 to 1700 AD

Living quarters were Grass Covered Houses and made in both Circular and Oval Houses shapes. As with the people living before them, people of the Great Bend Aspect focused on Maize Horticulture along with Bison Hunting.

A few small hunting camps were found in the Bull Creek Area from peoples of the Great Bend Aspect. These peo ple had evolved into much more complex societies than seen in previous aspects.

Floorplan of the grass coverrd house above

Outline of excavated area

Postholes Hearth

Storage Pit Sandstone Prepared floor

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Old Catholic Cemetery Location

Map image is from an 1901 Miamia County atlas

The first Catholic cemetery of the Paola Parish was on a point of a wooded hill, north of the old homestead of Robert McGrath, and now his heirs, on Wea Creek east of town. It was acquired in 1868, and in 1886, when the present grave-yard “Holy Cross” was purchased, near the Wea bridge, the few bodies were removed from the hillside to the new cemetery, three-fourths of a mile south. Over half of the coffins were decayed, as many of the bones, and there was not one stone, marble or granite marker. Tom McGrath and B. J. Sheridan helped with the removal

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TO: MIAMI CO HISTORICAL MUSEUM FROM : LLOYD L. PECKMAN SUBJECT: NORTH UP HISTORIC PEARL STREET: As I leave our museum, I often take a right up Pearl Street. Many young and new people to our area have no idea that it was the first road into Paola and a very historic area. Paola is most certainly located here be cause the ever- running Big Spring just north of the now Dengel Funeral Home. Before the white man came here, it had to have been used by the Osage, Kansas {Kaws} as welt as-dther Western tribes such as the Wichita. Most information for this report comes from our “Paola, Kansas A 150 Year Timeline” pub lished in 2006 by a group of 6 from our Museum. See page 384 for names of the group and pages 12 to 18 for most early history written by Phil Reaka and Har old Long. In 1871, an 18- foot deep cistern was dug at the North east corner of the square, with a pipe line from the Big Spring. It was a public drinking source for many years, see page 58. At the top of the hill on the west side at what is now the 312- 314 address, Baptiste Peoria had the first Trading Post where He traded for animal furs for sta ples purchased in barrel lots from Westport Landing. He may have started this Post in the Mid 1830s, as the General Clark Treaties of October 1832 required the Algonquin to move to Kansas. In another report, Bap tiste reports in 1866 as living in Kansas for 35 years. Another important site is the early cemetery located just north of the Trading Post at 402 North Pearl Street where nine burial took place between 1859 and 1867. That included at least 3 of Baptiste’s children. Amanda his daughter died In 1859 and his son, Samuel died in 1861. The 150 Year book reports on page 87, that “On petition of David Lykins Peery, the ten bodies in the Indian burying ground at the rear of the lot at 402 North Pearl were moved to the Elmwood division of the Paola Cemetery by order of the Paola City Coun cil September 16, 1891”. The report stating this was done in 1910 is incorrect. Dr. Floyd Grimes cleaned and restored these gravestones inn about 1991 and pictures were taken.

Just across the street along Tower Street was located the First Wea Village and Indian Government Agency, see page 14- 16. Also, a blacksmith shop and an In dian Chapel and several log cabins, marked the first location of Paola. About 1,000 feet east was located the big dug out Fort to protect the 11th Kansas Cav alry and Supplies stored here from the Rebel General Price’s invasion. The Cavalry and Supplies were locat ed on both sides of what is now the Dengel Funeral Home on Pearl street. Roger Shipman created a model of this Fort located in our Museum. That Fort was located just northwest of the present Paola Water Tower, the highest point on the hill. Another very interesting site I ‘ye never read about before is this one, that was shown on Wea Mission map and located northeast of Miami Co. Hospital. It was the first Catholic Cemetery. A short newspaper clipping dated 1894 states this. [“The first Catholic cemetery of the Paola Parish was on the Point of a wooded hill, north of the old homestead of Robert McGrath, and now his heirs, on Wea Creek east of town. It was acquired in 1868, and in 1886, when the present burial ground was purchased, near the Wea Bridge. The few bodies were removed from the hill side to the new cemetery’, three-quarters Miami Co. Hospital. It was the first Catholic Cemetery. A short newspaper clipping dated “Forty Years Ago, September 30,1934” given to me several years ago by Vera Dakin states this. [“The first Catholic cemetery of the Paola Parish was on the Point of a wooded hill, north of the old homestead of Robert McGrath, and now his heirs, on Wea Creek east of town. It was ac quired in 1868, and in 1886, when the present burial ground was purchased, near the Wea Bridge, the few bodies were removed from the hillside to the new cemetery’, three-quarters of a mile south. Over half of the coffins were decayed, as were many of the bones, and there was not one stone, marble or granite mark er. Tom McGrath and B. J. Sheridan helped with the removal.”; Kenny Northern though at one time that He had destroyed this site with a bulldozer. It is notable that except for the Park Square no histor ical signs are in the old part of Paola. Lloyd Peckman 10/21/2021

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TO: MIAMI CO. HISTORICAL MUSEUM From: LLOYD L. PECKMAN BERENICE WALLACE, SECRET DONATIONS: In our Winter of 2019 Quarterly, Larry Lybarger cre ated a very nice report on Mrs. Wallace's charitable contributions to our community and the larger area, as far north as Michigan University, her Alma Mater. He mentions the Eye Foundations of KU which is in correct. It was located across the street from Truman Medical Center. My wife and i are both, referred patients at Sabates Eye Center off 112th and Nall. There I noticed a 10- page history booklet taken from the Kansas City Star Sunday Magazine dated November 20, 2011. I was shocked to see on the first page in bold letters the name BERENICE BOYD WALLACE, who owned Paola Lumber as a very significant donor to Sabates charitable EYE FOUNDATION. Dr. Felix Sabates desired to form this retinol research and training center to train other doctors in what he knew. He cared for her detached retina in about 1970. It is a very serious con dition that I had in 2001, so I am familiar with it. The rest of the story is this? As background, Felix Sabates was a very bright and a white Cuban and got his doctors degree from Havana University in about 1955. He immigrated to New York and studied at New York University, Harvard and Bos ton colleges and especially under Dr. Charles Schep ens who created the first techniques for reattaching the retina. He later moved to Columbia Mo. and established a very successful eye clinic there and then moved to Kansas City; where he created his own specialty per sonal eye centers. That is when in 1970 when he treated Berenice's de tached retina, he asked her for money and explained to her what it was for. She donated it with the pro viso that "but if you ever tell anyone I am giving you the money, I will not give you any more". She reports about those damn-Democrats, and probably did not want her Paola Republican friend to know about giv ing to Truman Medical Center. After that each winter at IRS tax time, she donated an offsetting amount of

money to the foundation. It reports that when she died in 1991, she left half her fortune to the Eye Foundation. The Eye Foundation Library was dedicated in her name and her name is inscribed on its wall. The Eye Founda tion has graduated 140 specialized Ophthalmologists that practice all over the world. One takes care of the King of Spain.

It should be noted that Berenice's husband, Clyde Wal lace died after 6-month of marriage, leaving her a wid ow the rest of her life. Her substantial fortune did not all come from the Paola Lumber. She inherited a large amount from her Mother Sadie Boyd and Grandfather Henry Marshal McLachlin. He is the man who wrote the yellow 5-dollar book we have in our left front window. He wrote about Paola in the early day after 1857. Even tually between 1880 and 1900 he ended up owning half interested in Little Bay Lumber Co. at Little Bay, Arkansas. It harvested more than 25,000 acres of hard yellow pine which was shipped all over the midwest and as far as Ohio. Probably every One by twelve piece of barn siding in our area came from there. Over a one-hundred- year period, it has weathered very well. For instance, the Osage Trading Post labeled board at front of our Indian Room came from a 120year old barn east of Block. It is remarkable that this family fortune and others in our community have helped many people. Lloyd L. Peckman BERENICE BOYD WALLACE

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PS-ADDENDUM: On 10/12/21 during my Wife's eye appointment at Sa bates Eye Center with Dr. Michael Cassell, I asked him about current status of the old Eye Foundation. He reported that the Sabates share had been sold to Truman Medical Center, the building sold to another firm. That a very similar charitable operation has been built at the UMKC School of Medicine with the name of UMKC VISION RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF KANSAS CITY. It now has six eye Scientist working on the latest eye research and is training 4 new specialized doctors each year from more than 250 applications. Dr. Cassell was trained at the original Foundation as was my Dr. King Lee. Dr. King Lee was one of the first

trained by Dr. Felix Sabates and worked for him for several years before going to Advent Hospital. Dr. Fe lix's dream was to cure Macular Degeneration, which is the main cause of blindness in older patient. Berenice Boyd Wallace is the only donor mentioned in the Kansas City Star report and in the 20 years She likely made a substantial contribution. It is remarkable that the Foundation Internationally respected, con tinue to carry on and cares for hundreds, if not thou sands of patients. The Sabates name has been sold to a large Interna tional, French group known as ESSILOR CORP. and

works worldwide. Lloyd L. Peckman

Cont. from page 7

STEP BACK IN TIME Mr. David Lykins was the first medical missionary in 1855. Dr. Hoover was sent as medical assistant in 1856. B.F. Simpson was the county attorney, coming to Paola in 1858. The Colored Baptist Church was organized in 1865 and the Colored Methodist church in 1868. The first baker was C. Eisle, father of Mrs. Ewbank. The bakery was located in a house where Cecile Shope if located. Tom Ellis of St. Louis established the Union Crusader in 1861, using material that had been used in publishing the Paola Chief. John McReynolds published the Paola Chief in 1860 prior to the Union Crusader. It was owned by W.R. Wagstaff.

Simpson and John McReynolds. It was sold in 1873 to The Republican Co., composed of the three Greason brothers. It was republican in politics. In 1874 it was published as a reform paper. They sold out in 1880 to Leslie J. Perry who consolidated it with The Republican Citizen. W.D. Greason was the editor for many years and it is now the property of Drew Mclaughlin. In 1871 Perry and Bright started the Kansas Spirit. Soon Mr. Bright retired and Perry changed it’s name to Western Spirit. In 1880Mr. Sheriden bought an interest and took charge as editor in 1881. It was then owned by Sheriden, Highley, and Greason. In 1887 Mr. Sheriden became the sole owner. The First National Bank was established in 1871 with a Mr. Thomas as president and F.M. Shaw, cashier. It was discontinued in 1877. The Miami County National Bank began in 1876 with J.E. Thayer president and J.W. Spon able vice president. The success of the Free Public Library was largely due to the great interest of J.W. Sponable”. It is great that one person can remember so much.

The Miami Republican was established in 1866 by Basil

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Miami County Publications--Inventory Clearance Sale TOMORROW IS ANOTHER TOWN The Anatomy of a Circus An autobiography by James R. Patterson A history of the Great Patterson Shows when the circus maintained winter quarters in Paola All the following publications will have sales tax, postage & handling added to the listed price Journies of Ursuline Academy & College, soft-back $35.00 History of Paola 1855-1955 by Bernice Wallace $9.50 Paola Accounts in Living Memory Last Half Century $5.00 Family Histories and Stories of Miami County, Kansas, 1987 VOL I Excess Inventory Sale $20.00 All cemetery books are available on a CD that must be read with a computer. The contents are in the PDF format that is search-able with Adobe reader. You can find a grave location in just a second. All CDs are $15.00 each Cemeteries of Miami County, Vol. I (rural south 2/3 of county)-CD ONLY Beagle, Block, Cashman, Daganett, Debrick, Fontana; Frank, Greenvalley, Herman, Highland, Hodges, Indianapolis, Jingo, Lessenden, Mannen, Miami, County Poor Farm, Mound Creek/Mount Nebo, New Hope, New Lancaster, Rockville, Settle, Spring Grove, Stanton, Whiteford and Wilson-Raymer Cemeteries of Miami County, Vol. II (north 1/3 of county ) CDONLY Antioch, Ayers, Bucyrus, Old Marysville, Hillsdale (old & new), Louisburg (old & new), Pleasant Valley, Rock Creek, Scott’s Valley, Somerset, St. Mary’s, Wagstaff, Wea, Holy Rosary, (Lane & Shively in Franklin Co.) Index of Taxpayers of Miami County, 1878 Lists of land owners or residents $3.00 The Story of Paola, 1857-1950 by McLachlin Softback Part 1 and Hardback Part 2 with Index to both parts Sold as a set $19.50 Softback Part 1 $5.00 index only for original book owners $5.00 Barns of Miami County, Kansas 457 old barns in full color 136 pages $20.00 Paola High School 150 years proud1857-2007 $25.00 Cliff Wright’s, World War II For One, $18.00 and Kansas Folklore $21.00 Lest We Forget (List of Osawatomie Alumni) $5.00 Paola High School Alumni 1888-1988 $5.00 Paola 150 Year Timeline on DVD $20.00 New Publication Tax included price $ 28.00 plus P&H New Publication Tax included price $ 28.00 plus P&H DVD now available Reduced Now only $20.00 Family Histories and Stories of Miami County, Kansas, 1998 VOL II Hardback

Please make checks to: Miami County museum 12 East Peoria, Paola, Kansas 66071-0123 Phone 913-294-4940

Lost Years -Miami Indians in Kansas $10.00 Our new e-mail: micomuseum@gmail.com Web site: https://micomuseum.org

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E-mail micomuseum@gmail.com Web site https://micomuseum.org

Mi. Co. History Museum 12 East Peoria

Paola, Kansas 66071 Phone 913-294-4940

Paving the Way to Heritage Walk A feeling of community spirit and support is growing in Paola . Paola's historic district, the downtown square and the park, is the focal point of Paola. The Heritage Walk is located in the center of the park near the gazebo; it provides a unique opportunity for you to memorialize a relative or a former/current resident of our communi ty with a brick engraved with their name added to the hundreds already placed in the Walk . The Park was given to the City of Paola by Baptiste Peoria when the town was founded . He specified that the Park must be used as a park forever. Over the years the Gazebo, the fountain, the sidewalks, and landscaping has been added to the park. Children's play equipment and benches were added so that families could enjoy spend ing time in the park. Engraved bricks may be placed individually, or may be grouped for family members,school classes, etc . Each brick may have two lines engraved with 14 letters and spaces on each line. Holidays and birthdays are the perfect times to order a brick for that 'hard to suit' person on your list or a way to assure that relative or friend will never be forgotten in Paola. You may request an application at www.info@thinkmiamicountyhistory.com or you may pick up an application at Miami County Historical Museum at 12 East Peoria Street (913) 294-4940 Please mail your completed application(s) along with a check for $40 for each brick requested to Miami County Historical Museum at 12 East Peoria Street Paola, KS 66071. We will notify you when your application(s) has been received, and the brick(s) will be installed as soon as pos sible . Each brick may have 2 lines with 14 letters and spaces. Brick 1 Brick __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Address__________________________________________________________ City_________________________________ State____ Zip _________ Phone_____________ Number of bricks ordered ______ @ $40 each Check enclosed $_______________ The Miami County Museum has partnered with the Miami County Veteran’s Memorial to be an information center for the history of veterans who live/lived in Miami County, Kansas. Veterans whose names are on the wall plus all veteran’s information are welcome. Individual files will be kept on each veteran from information received at the museum. The information can provide a glimpse into the life of the veteran, which will be available to family, relatives and others. Information can be used for genealogy purposes. Information as to service, rank, newspapers articles, pictures, war stories, parents, siblings, letters, schools at tended, marriage and children requested. Death and obit if applicable. Anything of interest can be submitted that the family would want their veteran to be remembered by. Information can be mailed or dropped off at the museum. New email address is micomuseum@gmail.com. Names for the memorial wall or bricks can be purchased at the Museum or Dengle and Son’s Mortuary in Paola, KS. Phone 913-294-2372. Name _____________________________ E-mail ______________________________

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