Chronological History of the American Civil War

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was just trying to stay out of more trouble, since both Grant and his superior, Halleck, placed the blame squarely on Wallace for their high losses at Shiloh, saying that his incompetence in moving up the reserves had nearly cost them the battle there just weeks before. Meanwhile, in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia, in pursuit of Jackson's army, Major General John C. Frémont's (U.S.) army of 11,500 encountered Major General Richard S. Ewell's (CSA) division of 5,800 men at Cross Keys. Confederate won this one, with casualties: 951 total (US 664; CS 287). Monday, June 9, 1862 : Another victory for the South today at Port Republic, Virginia. This victory was costly to both sides, with casualties: 1,818 total (US 1,002; CS 816). This caused the Union armies to retreat, leaving “Stonewall” Jackson in control of the upper and middle Shenandoah Valley and freeing his army to reinforce Lee at Richmond. In Bolivar, John Houston Bills writes: “Cutting wheat today. The federal army is quietly reposing here, the men committing many petty thefts & robbing gardens, hen roosts, killing goats, calves, & sheep.” Tuesday, June 10, 1862 : Ulysses S. Grant, West Point graduate, bad businessman and worse farmer, had found the work he was born to do, when the American Civil War broke out. Talking his way into a colonel’s commission in the Illinois volunteer forces, he had risen rapidly to general's rank. What he lacked, however, was a force to command. Today, he regained this, as General Halleck, (U.S.) at Corinth, reassigned Grant, along with D. C. Buell and John Pope, to their own U.S. army corps. General Grant (U.S.) was far from the best strategist or tactician the war produced, but his bulldog persistence and aggressiveness made up for many shortcomings. In Bolivar, Mr. Bills tells us: “Gen. Wallace & most of his army departs via Middleburg. Three Regiments are left under Col. Sanderson. They encamp at the river. Perhaps 20 Negro men servants are given up here as runaways.” Wednesday, June 11, 1862 : John Houston Bills writes again in his diary: “Visit Hickory Valley, the Federals have not been at my place. My cotton not yet burned by the Confederate Cavalry. No federals at Junction.” Thursday, June 12, 1862 : One of the classic maneuvers of the early war began today as the cavalry of General J.E.B. Stuart set forth on their march around General George McClellan (U.S.) and his force the Army of the Potomac. Setting out at 2 a.m. from their camp near Port Republic, Virginia, with 1,200 men, Stuart succeeds in humiliating the Union commander. It also reinforced the idea that the Southern cavalry was inherently superior to that of the North. In a telegraph message to Union commander Halleck: “Gen. (Lewis "Lew") Wallace reached railroad station on Memphis and Ohio Railroad, 11 miles from Memphis, on the 12th instant. He reports a great scarcity of water from Bolivar to Somerville; chiefly wheat and corn fields on the way. In some districts no cotton burned, and in others nearly all. He chased a party of cotton-burners several miles; captured some horses and equipments, but no victims. Bridges toward Jackson, probably meaning Humboldt, burned. Road from station to Memphis in running order. Saved a passenger and box car and prevented bridge across Wolf River from being burned. Had sent a handcar to Memphis, and understands there are three locomotives and probably freight cars in Memphis. Was sending his wagons to Memphis for supplies. I am communicating with Bolivar by telegraph. Shall I move my headquarters to Jackson, a more central and convenient point?”- John A. McClernand, Major General (U.S.) Friday, June 13, 1862 : J.E.B. Stuart (CSA) continues his "rides around the Union Army," raiding supplies and battling small groups of Yankees during the Peninsula Campaign, taking and destroying supplies. Saturday, June 14, 1962 : Jeb Stuart’s men had been more or less constantly in the saddle since 2 a.m. three days before. They got off their horses today, but not for purposes of rest. They had reached the Chickahominy River to discover that the bridge they had been counting on at Forge Site had been destroyed by the Yankees. A frantic three hours’ work repaired it enough for them to cross, and they began the final arc around the Union left. Stuart himself left the party under command of Fitzhugh Lee (nephew of Robert E.) and dashed for Richmond to report their findings. Sunday, June 15, 1862 : General John C. Fremont (U.S.) had a simple job description: stop Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, preferably by defeating his forces and capturing or killing him. At the

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