Lavenda & Schultz (09_18_2019) 5-7

CHAPTER 5 • The Dimensions of Social Organization

The key terms and concepts covered in this chapter, in the order in which they appear: society status role

caste class clientage compadrazgo state bureaucracy authority race racism antiracism ethnic group

ascribed status achieved status social structure institutions social organization functionalism egalitarian societies stratified societies rank societies

O ne of the basic claims of anthropology is that human beings are a social spe- cies; that is, we have evolved to live with and depend on others of our own species. Biological anthropologists have demonstrated, for example, that human infants are born earlier in the gestational process than are infants of apes and monkeys and that our young are dependent on other members of the group for far longer (15–20 years and more) before they are capable of establishing them- selves as mature adults. Human interdependence means that we cannot survive as lone individuals but need to live with others: that is, we must live in society . When anthropologists speak of human society, at minimum they mean a group of human beings living together whose interactions with one another are patterned in regular ways. Such organized groups might also be identified by the particu- lar geographical territory they inhabit, by the particular language they speak, or PROPERTY OF OXFORD



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