Study Guide 1 st Edition 11/08/2018 This study guide is subject to copyright.
Acknowledgements We would like to thank the numerous subject matter experts for their patience, support, and expertise in contributing to this study guide; Christina Wulff for her invaluable efforts in reading and editing the text. We would also like to thank those at Achieve whose hard work and dedication to fulfilling this project did not go unnoticed. Lastly, we would like to thank the Achieve students who have contributed to the growth of these materials over the years.
Chapter 1: Reading 1.1 Key Ideas and Details 1.1.1 Topic, Main Idea, Supporting Details, Genres, and Themes A topic is the general subject matter of the text. For example, a book titled Eating Clean: A Simple, Healthy Dieting Solution is about a new type of diet for healthy eating. What is the book’s topic? There are several answers which include dieting, healthy eating, and cooking healthy meals. All these answers are correct, but some are more general than others. The main idea of a text is its specific message. It is also the reason why the text was written. For the dieting book in the example above the main idea can be expressed as, “In order to live a healthy lifestyle, eating a healthy, clean diet is imperative.” The supporting details of the text explain the main idea. These details give the reader reason to believe themain idea. The supporting details for the dieting book in the example could include studies conducted on healthy eating, specific foods which are good for your health, and examples of healthy recipes. A genre is a category of literature (or art/music) characterized by similarities in form, style, and or subject matter. Comedy, Sci-Fi, Romance, Fantasy, Action & Adventure are just a few forms of a genre. Genres are typically defined based off of the content or intention of a story. For example, comedies are meant to be humorous and elicit laughter. While anything in the horror genre should scare the audience. A theme is an idea, subject, or concept that a text refers to over and over. Eating Clean: A Simple, Healthy Dieting Solution might have the following themes: achieving good health, self- improvement, and positive body image. 1.1.2 Topic and Summary Sentences Topic sentences reveal the main point of a paragraph, essay or book. It makes a statement that will be explained, discussed or elaborated. Supporting sentences follow the topic sentence and contain ideas that support the topic sentence. Summary sentences are at the end of a paragraph, chapter, section or document. They often summarize the main point and draw a conclusion based on the topic. 1.1.3 Predictions, Inferences, and Conclusions An inference is a logical conclusion that is not actually written in the text. Instead, it is thought of by the reader based on information found in the text. Inferences are also known as reading between the lines and can be thought of as predictions. Predictions, conclusions and inferences are based on personal judgment and prior experiences.
1.1.4 Informational Source Comprehension In informational source comprehension questions, a graphic or statement will be given and you must answer questions related to the graphic or statement. You will be asked questions related to: • Sets of directions • Ingredients on labels and instructions • Indexes and tables of contents • Product Information • Graphic Representation of Information • Other sources of print and digital communication Sets of Directions Directions can take the form of lists or can appear in paragraph form. If they are found in paragraph form, it may be helpful to rearrange them into a list. Each step in a set of instructions may require you to use the results from the previous steps. If this is the case it may be helpful to write down the steps as you complete them, as in the following example. Example Read the following set of directions then answer the question. 1. Start with the word “CINEMA” 2. Add the word “TO” at the end of the word. 3. Add the word “GRAPH” at the end of the word. 4. Add the letter “Y” at the end of the word. What new word has been spelled? a. Cinema b. Graphics c. Cinematography d. Cinematograph The new word that has been spelled is cinematography. Labels’ Ingredients and Directions Carefully reading the ingredients on a nutrition label will provide you with vital information when it comes to dietary needs, allergies and specific requirements in a diet. Products that claim to be 100% pure may be found to have other ingredients such as sugar and water, so be sure to break down the list of ingredients carefully on a label.
Example Read the ingredients, and then answer the question. Peanut-free Cookies • 1 cup flour • 3 eggs • 1 cup butter • ½ cup crushed walnuts Is this recipe suitable for someone who is allergic to nuts? a. Yes, it is b. No, it is not c. Not enough information is provided in the recipe • • •
½ cup sugar ½ cup milk 1 tsp salt
This recipe is not suitable for someone with a nut allergy because it contains walnuts. Indexes and Table of Contents The table of contents gives an overview of the contents of a document. It outlines the basic structure of the document and allows the reader to quickly look up where to find specific information. The index of a text is another way of looking up information found in it. It typically has a list of items, topics and ideas mentioned in a text followed by the page number(s) where the information can be found. Product Information: One Product is More Economical Many factors can influence the final cost of an item. Taxes, shipping and handling and other charges can add to the base price to change the final billing amount. When preparing to make a final purchase it is best to collect information about all the potential fees first. Then calculate a grand total that includes all of the fees. Be sure to compare the total amount and not just the base fees when choosing the best overall price. Example Use the table below to answer the question. Store Price Shipping and Handling Computers Unlimited $650 $80.00 Tech4U $780 $0 (Included in base price) Business Superstore $690 $35.00 CompuTab $740 $40.00 Paul wants to purchase a computer, so he compares prices from four retailers. Who has the best price? The best price is from the Business Superstore at $725.00. This is calculated by adding the price to the shipping and handling fees for each store and comparing the total amount.
Nursing Preparation Study Guide Total Amount Computers Unlimited $650 + $80 = $730 Tech4U $780 + $0 = $780 Business Superstore $690 + $35 = $725 CompuTab $740 + $40 = $780 Store
Graphic Representations of Information Graphic representations of data can come in the form of charts, graphs, maps, drawings or photos. All charts and graphs have the same goal: to represent numerical information visually so that the viewer can easily be informed and make judgments based on the data represented. A pie chart represents a concept in the form of a circle where the circle is divided up into representational portions according to the data (given in percentages). Example Use the pie chart to answer the question. The pie chart breaks down the data collected on the most popular months for families to go camping. Which was the most popular month for families to go camping? The most popular month for camping was April, given that it takes up the largest portion of the pie chart. 1.2 Craft and Structure 1.2.1 Facts, Opinions, Biases, and Stereotypes Facts are based on real, provable events, or situations. Opinions are beliefs which are based on personal ideas, judgments or thoughts rather than on indisputable facts. It can be difficult to tell when a writer’s work is fact or opinion when they personally believe that their strong opinions are facts. Biases and stereotypes can alter a writer’s ability to draw accurate conclusions. Biases are ideas or opinions that can cloud a person’s judgment and prevent a person from making fair judgments. Stereotypes are oversimplified opinions about entire groups of people or things which do not consider individual differences. Critical reading is used to carefully analyze a text, judge its credibility and determine the author’s intentions in writing.
1.2.2 Text Structure Text structure refers to the way in which a text is organized. A sequence of ideas can be presented in a bulleted or numbered list so that the relevant information is together and in a sequential order. A problem-solution structure can be used to organize problems and their solutions in a way that is easy to read. Problems can be addressed in one paragraph and solution in the next. A cause-effect structure can be used to describe an action first and then the consequence. A descriptive passage does not follow a formatting style but uses many adjectives to flesh out an idea or concept and make it more visible to the reader. Example Read the following text, and then answer the question about text structure. Ingredients: • 2 cups of sugar • 1 cup of milk • 1 cup of flour • 1 cup of coconut • ½ cup of chocolate chips • 1 tsp salt • 1 tsp vanilla Determine the text structure: a. Problem-solution structure b. Cause-effect structure c. Descriptive passage d. Sequence of ideas The text is a sequence of ideas and follows the conventions of that text structure because it is a list. 1.2.3 Characteristics of Different Passage Types Narrative, expository, technical, and persuasive are different types of passages. A narrative text tells a story. It can also relate a chain of events. An expository text introduces or explains a certain subject. It can also give background information needed to under- stand later concepts. Expository texts analyze information objectively. Technical writing involves precise information on a specific topic and a formal style of writing. Persuasive writing tries to change the opinion of the reader. One text can fit under several different categories of passages. For example, a scientist may be writing an article about whales. The articlemay contain background information about whales including how they live and what they eat. The article could also contain the scientist’s opinion on whale hunting and the author may try to persuade readers to believe that whale hunting is wrong. In this case the article is both expository and persuasive because it contains background information on whales and it contains the author’s opinion on whale hunting.
Nursing Preparation Study Guide Example Read the following passage. Then answer the multiple-choice question. How to Download a New Font 1. Search for a new font to download. 2. Click on the button that says download next to the font sample. 3. Select your operating systems (either Windows or Mac). 4. Save the file. 5. Choose a location for your download and download the file. 6. Open your saved file and use your new font. What type of writing is this? a. Narrative b. Persuasive c. Technical d. Expository This text is technical writing. It gives very specific instructions to the reader on how to download a new font. The information is presented in a list. Technical writing will often be in the form of lists, text boxes and instructions. Technical writing is similar to expository writing because they both contain facts. They differ in that technical writing is for teaching the reader to do a specific action while expository writing explains information more generally. Context Clues Imagine you are reading something, and you stumble across a word you do not know. Rather than stopping what you are doing to look the word up you could use context clues instead. Context clues are hints that the author gives to help us define a difficult or unusual word. The context clue(s) might be other words mentioned in the same sentence or are even provided for you in preceding and forgoing sentences. Use the following example to using context clues to identify the meaning of a word. Example The winner of the gold medal was omnipotent against his weaker opponents. They didn’t stand a chance. He was twice as fast and three times as strong. It was almost as if he wasn’t human, but instead using some kind of magic. What is the best definition of the word omnipotent in this passage? a.
Nursing Preparation Study Guide Although omnipotent sounds like a “bad” word its context clues suggest otherwise. It was used in a sentence about a winning competitor. The forgoing sentences included positives about how much stronger and faster the winner was compared to the others. Therefore, godlike makes the most sense in this passage. Figurative Language Figurative language is using words or phrases outside of their literal meaning. Writers will often use figurative language to provide insight to the reader that goes beyond the words in the literal sense. There are many types of figurative language. A few are presented in the table below. Term Definition Example Alliteration The repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Cliché A word of phrase that has become overly familiar or commonplace. It’s raining cats and dogs outside today. Hyperbole A large exaggeration. I’m so hungry I could eat a cow! Idiom Words or phrases My performance review was great, but the salary used in sentences, but increase was just icing on the cake. An implied comparison between two unrelated things. Life is one long scary roller coaster. Onomatopoeia Metaphor
their meaning should not be taken literally. A word that mimics the sound of the object or action it refers to. A figure of speech comparing two unlike things using like or as
Pow! Bang! Boom!
Giving something human characteristics. The expression on the doll’s face made her look merry and cheerful. She is as blind as a bat.
Definitions in Context Denotative meaning refers to the literal meaning of a word. Think dictionary definition. Whereas a connotative meaning refers to the emotions and associations connected to the word. We use context clues from sentences to evaluate the different type of meanings of a word.
Nursing Preparation Study Guide Some words can have several different meanings. In order to determine which definition an author has intended to use one must consider the context that the word is used in. A word’s context includes the surrounding words, sentences or paragraphs. Example Read the following sentence, and then answer the question. It is likely that the sale of the building will go through since the interested buyer has paid $25,000 in earnest. Based on the context of the sentence, which of the following definitions of the underlined word applies? a. A seriousness of intention b. A token of an agreement to pay the full amount at a later time c. A display of emotion d. Honesty Choice B is the correct answer. Since the buyer has paid a portion of the full amount already in this case earnest money is a pledge to pay the remaining amount. 1.2.4 Position and Purpose Determining an author’s position and purpose involves figuring out why the text was written and making a judgment based on the information provided in the text. There are four general categories for a text’s purpose, which include: informing an audience, persuasion, entertainment, and expression. • An author may write a text to inform an audience about a fact or event. An example of texts with this purpose would be newspaper articles. • Persuasion is another purpose an author may have. An author may want to persuade an audience to a specific point of view. This is also known as persuasive writing. • Authors write texts to entertain readers in certain contexts. Examples of texts written to entertain an audience include fiction novels. • The expression of feelings can also be an author’s purpose. Many poems have been written with this purpose in mind. Example Determine the author’s purpose in writing the following item. A section in a history textbook which describes the conditions and causes for the Great Depression in the Midwest during the 1930s. a. Inform an audience b. Persuasion c. Entertainment d. Expression
A section of a history textbook which describes the conditions and causes for the Great Depression would have been written with the purpose of informing an audience. The textbook would be used for learning and gaining new information. 1.2.5 Historical Context The time and place that a text was written will have an impact on the work in some way. Historical factors can influence both a text’s content and style. Example Read the following text and answer the question about historical context. Medicine in Ancient Greece Hermodicus of Lampsacus was paralyzed in the body. When he slept in the temple the god healed him and ordered him to bring to the temple as large a stone as he could. The man brought the stone which now lies before the abaton (where people slept). What does the second sentence suggest about the historical context of the text? a. In Ancient Greece doctors performed medicine. b. In Ancient Greece herbal remedies were used to cure diseases. c. In Ancient Greece, it was believed that stones could be used for healing. d. In Ancient Greece people were taken to hospitals for treatments. The second sentence reveals that in Ancient Greece it was believed that stones could be used for healing because Hermodicus of Lampsacus was brought to a temple and was asked to bring a large stone. 1.3 Integrative Knowledge and Ideas 1.3.1 Primary Sources Primary sources are firsthand records of events, theories, opinions or actions which are found in the form of published or unpublished documents, recordings or artifacts. They must be contemporary to the events, people or information they are about. When using primary sources, several challenges arise. Documents written hundreds of years after an event has happened are not primary sources (they are secondary sources), but sometimes those are the only kinds of records available about an event. They may not be accurate if they are only written from one person’s point of view and are based on the writer’s perceptions. Also, they can be fragmented or vague which make them difficult to analyze. Websites can be considered primary sources if they are the firsthand records of an event theory, opinion or action. Websites with a non-biased approach to presenting information are the most reliable when it comes to primary sources. Examples of these include government sites,
Nursing Preparation Study Guide organizational sites and websites of educational institutions. The final type of source, tertiary, is a mixture of both primary and secondary source. For example, a history textbook may contain information presented by the author, in addition, to journal entries and transcripts from live witnesses. 1.3.2 Culture and Themes in Literature We’ve discussed previously that themes of a story is its central idea or message about life. Sometimes the theme is expressed as a moral or lesson of a story and it’s very common for these works to have more than one them. Themes may even be cultural in nature. A cultural them is an idea that is specific to a certain culture. For example, a cookbook that focuses on popular French cuisine has a cultural theme. Or perhaps you partake in Bollywood movie-thon. Either way not all themes are culturally specific. Some themes are universal such as love, peach, truth, happiness, kindness, etc.
Chapter 1 Review Questions 1. In which forms can primary sources be found? a. Published documents b. Unpublished documents c. Recordings d. Artifacts e. All of the above f. Both A and B 2.
What is a requirement of primary sources? a. They must be published documents. b. They must be contemporary to the events, people or information they are about. c. They must be physical artifacts. d. They must be written. 3. A film critic has just viewed a new movie called Tropical Paradise and is reviewing it based on his viewing of the film. Identify which statement(s) contain only facts, without a trace of the film critic’s opinions. a. Tropical Paradise was reported on by Movie Insider magazine to have had a bumpy production process. It wrapped up production in March and appeared in theatres in May. b. Tropical Paradise will bore most viewers as the back-story is quite long before the actual plot begins. c. Considering all the other movies out there with a beach vacation theme, Tropical Paradise will struggle to find an audience. d. Tropical Paradise was made by a reputable director who used high-quality studio equipment. 4. An opinion poll asked figure skating fans who would win this year’s World Championship. The following are the responses of four people who picked the same skater to win. One of these fans revealed a bias in their response. Which one was it? a. This skater has won the past two World Championships and will win again. b. The media has picked the other skater to win, but they are always wrong. I tend tobet on whoever they don’t pick to win, so this is who I picked. c. This skater is heavily favored to win according to all the online bloggers. I will go along with them. d. This skater has faced no injuries in the past year, so this helped me to decide who will win.
Use the following passage to answer question 5. Two Travelers and a Big Tree Two men were traveling along a dusty road. They're traveling to attend the wedding feast. This summer sun was shining hot that day, so the two men decided to find a shady tree and rest. There weren't many shady trees in sight. They found an old large tree with long branches and many leaves. The two men sat down and rested. One man commented that the tree was very ugly, old and useless as it bore no fruit. Upon hearing this the tree became angry. The tree said in a loud voice: “You are a useless man! How ungrateful of you, to use my shade and make such mean remarks!” The two men were very frightened when they heard the tree talk and ran away. 5. What type of writing is this? a. Use the following passage to answer question 6. Adopting a Pet from an Animal Shelter Adopting a pet from an animal shelter is a great idea. These animals need homes to stay in as they have been rescued from unsafe environments. If the animals are not adopted, they may have to stay in cages or may even be put to sleep. Adopting a pet can be a very positive experience in your life. It can give you a new friend and teach your children responsibility. It is better to adopt a pet from a shelter than to purchase one from the pet store or an animal farm because the pets at the shelter need you more. If you're looking for a new pet, make the best choice and choose a pet from an animal shelter. 6. What type of writing is this? a. Narrative b. Persuasive c. Technical d. Expository
Narrative b. Persuasive c. Technical d. Expository