2023 Q4 FBINAA ASSOCIATE digital magazine

FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Academy Building 8-102 Quantico, VA 22135


FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

F EATURE S 08 Changing the Paradigm: The Implications for Law Enforcement Training and Education – Dr. Ed Guthrie 10 What Is Your Measuring Stick? – Captain Kevin Chabot, Ed.D. 14 Civilian Active Shooter Basic Response Methodology Discussion – Anthony Giaimo and Dale Retzlaff


16 Building Trust Through Technology: Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) – Stephanie Stoiloff 18 Body Armor: The Right Fit Matters – David Higginbotham COLUMNS 04 Association Perspective 07 National Office Update 20 FBINAA Charitable Foundation 23 Historian’s Spotlight 27 A Message from Our Chaplain 31 National Academy Update

EACH ISSUE 06 Strategic / Academic Alliances


AD INDEX – 5.11 12 eco-ATM 25 Axon 26 Cri-Tac

29 T-Mobile – Bio-One – JFCU


NATIONAL BOARD Association President / SCOTT RHOAD Chief/Director of Public Safety University of Central Missouri (MO) (Ret.), Past President / TIM BRANIFF Manager-Emergency Management Sound Transit (WA),

Representative, Section II / LARRY DYESS Captain, Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office (LA),

Representative, Section III / TIM CANNON Special Agent Supervisor, Florida Lottery (FL),

Representative, Section IV / STEPHEN HRYTZIK Chief, Powell Police Department (OH),

1st Vice President / CRAIG PETERSEN

Chaplain / MIKE HARDEE Senior Manager, Covert Investigations Group (FL),

2nd Vice President / WILLIAM J. CARBONE Detective (OSI) NYS. Attorney General's Office, New York City Police Department (Ret.), 3rd Vice President / JIM GALLAGHER Associate Director, Office of Sex Trafficking Intervention Research, Arizona State University, Phoenix Police Department (Ret.),

Historian / JOHN SIMMONS Chief of Police (Ret.), Mission (KS) Police Department, FBI Acting Assistant Director / WAYNE A. JACOBS FBI Training Division (VA) Executive Director / JEFF MCCORMICK FBINAA National Office,

Representative, Section I / BILL GARDINER Deputy Director, Idaho State Police,


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Q4 2023 | Volume 25/Number 4 The National Academy Associate is a publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc.

FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

CALL FOR ASSOCIATE MAGAZINE ARTICLE SUBMISSIONS Call for Article Submissions on 21st Century contemporary trends, challenges, and issues facing the global law enforcement community. The National Academy Associate Magazine, the official publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, is seeking subject matter experts 21st Century Policing Topics for Consideration: LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT TRENDS COMMUNITY POLICING BODY-WORN CAMERAS LEGISLATION AND IMPLEMENTATION EXTREME RADICAL GROUPS AND INTERACTIONS ON BOTH LEFT AND RIGHT HOMEGROWN RACE = BASED VIOLENT EXTREMISM CIVIL UNREST AND PROTEST ISSUES: PROTEST PROCEDURES/ACTIONS TACTICAL RESPONSE RECRUITING MEDIA RELATIONS FINANCES/BUDGETS DURING TIMES OF CRISIS RECRUITING DIVERSITY OFFICER HEALTH AND WELLNESS RETIRED MEMBER FITNESS to write original, unpublished, continuing law enforcement-related education articles.

Jeff McCormick / Executive Director John Kennedy / Publisher Bridget Ingebrigtsen / Editor Dave Myslinski / Design

© Copyright 2023, the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this magazine without express written permission is strictly prohibited.

The National Academy Associate is published quarterly by the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Office, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135.

The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. is a private, non-profit organization and is not part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or acting on the FBI’s behalf. Email editorial submissions to Submissions may vary in length from 500-2000 words, and shall not be submitted simultaneously to other publications. Please see our submission guidelines for more information. The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., the National Board and the editors of the National Academy Associate neither endorse nor guarantee completeness or accuracy of material used that is obtained from sources considered reliable, nor accept liability resulting from the adoption or use of any methods, procedures, recommendations, or statements recommended or implied.

Photographs are obtained from stock for enhancement of editorial content, but do not necessarily represent the editorial content within.






















For submission guidelines, please visit

On the Cover: Miami-Dade Police Department Forensic Services Division.



Scott Rhoad

Hello FBINAA family and friends,

A fter being sworn in as president on August 1, 2023, I have been impressed by so many members, friends, and sup porters of this great association. Members and staff continue to do outstanding work for their chapters, communities, and organizations. Although I have been a part of this Board for 7 years, I continue to learn more about this association and how far reaching it really is. After attending several chapter confer ences both domestic and international I have heard many stories of cooperation in solving criminal cases and assisting members in need. The chapters of this association are our strength. Networks at the local, regional, state and national levels is what builds our truly global network of law enforcement. This was even more apparent to me after attending some of our international chapters’ training conferences. Hearing how our members from other countries use this network to solve criminal cases and find new investigative methods or policies was impressive to say the least. Not to mention the resources and information they can provide to our domestic members and federal agen cies. If you ever have an opportunity to attend one or all of our international chapters, please do so. I assure you it is a learning experience you will always treasure. Additionally, our European chapter has stepped up and made a significant donation to our charitable foundation after selling t-shirts for their annual 5K at their recent training conference. As I’m certain many of you have noticed we have a new, fresh, more intuitive website. As we continue to add content and update information there will be new information and tools available for our members to utilize. As mentioned in the previous magazine and newsletters we are moving to a new database management system also. As with most projects of this magnitude the transition has been very taxing on staff as well as members. Anyone in law enforcement who has been a part of a new system or database upgrade has seen firsthand how the process always highlights new issues to deal with along the way. Whether it is cleaning up data, renaming fields, or some other issue to deal with, we can all relate to this huge undertaking that continues to move forward. Just a couple of the new features of the new database management system are members will be able to ‘Auto Renew’ by simply checking a box during this year’s renewal process and saving their request for future years. They will also be able to search the website for content simply by clicking on the global search button on the top right corner of the home page. Ad ditionally, the new website is much easier to navigate with better graphics and will give our members and constituents better access to our programs and services. Not to mention it is much more cell phone friendly.

It was great to see such a large turnout for our FBINAA event held during IACP in the Pendry Hotel in San Diego. Our long time partner Justice Federal Credit Unio n did not disappoint as they continue their support for this association by providing our members another opportunity to make new and re-new friend ships. Thank you to all who participated in this great event. Chapter leaders, please remember to get your upcoming confer ence dates and contact information to the National office as soon as possible. This allows our partners and other members to plan their travel and support to attend your conference. I look forward to seeing many of you at your chapter conferences as well and will try to attend as many as possible.

Stay safe and continue your support within your communities.

Joining you in Service,

Scott Rhoad FBINAA President FBINA 217

4 FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

FBINAA Members... Did you know?

Members will be able to Auto Renew during the 2024 renewal season!

2024 renewals will be available on December 1, 2023 Renew by December 31, 2023, and take advantage of the early bird incentives to be announced in the November FBINAA Newsletter.

Visit the FBINAA website Membership page to learn more.











6 FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023


FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

Jeff McCormick

H ello to the members of the World’s Strongest Law Enforce ment Leadership Network! I would like to start my first magazine article as the FBINAA’s new executive director by thanking your National Board for their trust and support in selecting me for this position. It is a responsibility I do not take lightly. While it’s been a busy first few weeks since I came aboard, it has been made easier by the fact that I already have some his tory with the FBINAA. I first became connected with the FBINAA nearly eight years ago, when I was selected to serve as the Unit Chief of the FBI National Academy. Over the next three years, I became immersed in the culture of the National Academy, inter acting with students from 12 Sessions during their 10 weeks at the NA. I have been fortunate to attend several Chapter and Na tional Retrainers since 2016 and meet people who had graduated from the NA years and even decades before. I saw the awesome bonds created by attendance at the NA, and how those bonds are maintained and even strengthened by continued engagement through membership in the FBI National Academy Associates. I became a vocal advocate for the FBINAA, using every opportu nity to encourage the NA students to continue their involvement long after graduation, and even longer into retirement. It is this lifelong commitment to the NAA by its members that makes me so proud of this organization.

In these first few weeks I have also seen that working for you in your National Office are talented and dedicated team members who share my admiration for this Association. We recognize our shared responsibility to help maintain relationships, provide op portunities for training and education, and provide benefits for our members. I look forward to strengthening relationships with our Strategic, Academic, and Training partners, as we continue to look for new ways to serve and support the members of our Associa tion. Please remember the National Office is here for you, and we look forward to hearing from and working with all of you!


Jeff McCormick FBINAA Executive Director


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FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

DR. ED GUTHRIE, NA Session 162

Since the Wickersham Report in the 1930s and the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice in 1967, the need for reform in law enforcement education and training has been identified as crucial for police reform. Specifically, in the “Task Force Report” (1967) the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice stated, “That the quality of police service would not significantly improve without higher educa tional standards. The Commission (1967) further cited a need to raise entry-level standards to a minimum of two years of college for persons serving in a law enforcement capacity.”

T he Wickersham Commission (1937) had also cited a need for educational standards recommending two alternatives. One was a “two-year police college” to include general educational subjects in conjunction with technical and specialized subject areas. The second alternative was a college or university. Later research reflected that “Higher education gives police personnel greater dignity, improves their image, enhances per formance and is important for advancement in the field of law enforcement.” While early studies showed the effects of a college degree on law enforcement conduct were limited, subsequent studies reflected that officers with the benefit of higher education had fewer complaints, and the number of complaints were re duced as the education and training levels of the officer increased. Education alone does not make one officer better then another; however, it can take a good officer and provide a founda tion to develop even more personally and professionally. A college education can increase the general knowledge and sensitivity of police officers and it can also improve communication skills and performance. According to the International Association of Chiefs of Police, 99.9 percent of reported police calls for service and thus conflict resolution are resolved through communications skills and without the use of force. Less than one-half of one percent of the calls for service nationwide, require or result in the use of force. Enhanced communications skills, understanding human behavior and diversity are not only crucial for law enforcement

personnel, but more importantly, for the communities they serve. Cultural competence is integral in building neighborhood coali tions and cohesion, which will only be accomplished through effective change in providing officers the skills they need. Requiring college degrees or credits can cause a challenge with entry-level recruitment. But with agency and government support -- such as employer-tuition support or reimbursement for officers who may not have a degree and a timeline to complete it-- can level the field and increase opportunity. Credit for military and work experi ence coupled with the higher education requirement can, over time, facilitate diversity in hiring and retention. In addition, POST or other state Training Certifications with tiered rigor and levels, in lieu of or supplementing a college requirement, can also enhance an officer’s skillset. Federal, state, and local governing bodies need to consider funding for training and education for law enforcement personnel. Without fiscal support, it will be challenging to effect change in providing officers with the training and education necessary. Training models traditionally emphasizing paramilitary protocols can conflict with community needs and the mindset of the modern officer of this century. Emphasis on communication, diversity and building community cohesion are crucial. This can also reinforce the understanding and need for intervention and defusing situations involving colleagues that may act outside the scope of their lawful duties.

continued on page 24




How do you define success at your agency? How does your elected officials or the officers that work for your department define success? Policing effectiveness is subjective. Most of us rejoice when there is a large drug arrest – we take to social media with a picture of our fruits with a patch in the middle of it. I’m certainly not disputing the hard work that goes into making the streets safer for all of us – those busts are certainly wins. However, take a step back from that and look at the broader picture: success in your community should be defined as your legitimacy. T here are several reasons a person obeys the law. Going way back, early philosophers such as Plato and Hobbes preached a loss of the ability to do what we please in return for security from the state. One of the largest motivators to follow the rule of law is the moral and ethical values instilled into children by society. One example of respect for the law and awareness of the consequences is the legitimacy of the police. However, when mass law-breaking occurs, the de-legitimization of police is often a central cause. When citizens no longer believe the police are work ing in their best interest, the rule of law breaks down as police legitimacy fades away. The fundamental principles laid down by Sir Robert Peel in the mid-19th century stay true today; the law enforcement arm of government needs the support of citizens to be effective in the mission of deterring and combating crime. As policing evolves with new technology, the core of public satisfac tion and legitimacy of policing remains unchanged.

continued on page 24

10 FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

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FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

I n addressing this article and focus methodologies, we will first look at the early and sometimes the still currently accepted civilian instructional model of “Run, Hide, Fight”, highlight pivot points in the current instructional platform and then suggest some new terminology and methodologies that may lead to better overall understandability, implementation, better outcomes, with lower casualty rates as we are still experiencing ever increasing event mortality rates. In a recent FBI study, it was indicated that “[c]asualty counts are higher for 2021 (243) when compared with 2020 (164), indicating a 48% increase” (FBI Press Release, May 2022, para 2.). EARLY METHODOLOGY Run, Hide, Fight There are several concerns with this early (and sometimes cur rent) widely adopted methodology. 1. Run: Instructing civilians to “Run” creates a few (possible) negative concerns. a. Running can create a mass disorganized response akin to a stampede. b. Running can certainly draw attention from the shooter and cause an immediate target acquisition with attack response. c. Running can cause “group think” mentality where the group erroneously follows the lead and enters harm’s way (field of fire). d. Running alone does not provide any heightened safety methodology, in that groups in mass engaged in running can cause falls (immobility) and injuries adding to possible casualties. 2. Hide: Instructing civilians to hide can be a vague and shallow instruction methodology. a. Hiding alone cannot provide an assured measure of safety unless several key factors exist. 3. Fight: Instructing unarmed civilians to “Fight” an armed aggressor can lead to a diminishing outcome. a. Statistically, the mortality rate with an unarmed civilian(s) attempting to subdue (attack) an armed assailant is extremely high. b. Further, the success rate of an unarmed civilian attempting to subdue (attack) an armed assailant is extremely low. c. Thus, instructing civilians who may not have any formal training in tactics to “Fight” with some degree of success can be a losing proposition from the start. Statement of Fact: As we know as law enforcement professionals, in active aggressor events, the best strategy for civilians in the cri sis area/zone is to maintain their personal safety and successfully gain the needed time for responders to arrive. In crisis situations, due to psychophysical responses which in many cases are associated with heightened fear/safety responses,

As our fellow law enforcement profession als will attest, the methodology for virtually every facet in law enforcement is continu ally progressing and in many cases chang ing to meet the needs of our current mis sion. As professionals in the first responder community, we commonly reach out on an instructional platform to our respective communities to help guide them and or educate them in “what to do” in crisis situ ations. Though active shooter events have been documented since the mid 1700’s, more and more has been done nationally in our recent past to curtail these reoccur rences and to certainly reduce the overall casualty rates. Sadly, the deaths continue to increase noting that “[i]n 2021, the FBI designated 61 shootings as active shooter incidents. In these incidents, 103 people were killed and 140 wounded, excluding the shooters. For the period 2017–2021, active shooter incident data reveals an up ward trend. The number of active shooter incidents identified in 2021 represents a 52.5% increase from 2020 and a 96.8% in crease from 2017” (FBI Press Release, May 2022, para. 1). Authors’ note: This article signifies a discussion starter to refresh some of the previously held methodologies to better address our current environment. This article by no means seeks to degrade or denounce previous methodologies but to offer some alternative ideas to further enhance the civilian active shooter basic response.

continued on page 28




In today’s world, the workforce generally comprises Generation X, Millennials, Genera tion Z, and most currently, Generation Alpha. Why is this important? The advances in technology since the beginning of Generation X in 1965 have improved our ability to perform almost every task. Technology has enhanced the capability and capacity for individuals to perform their jobs both faster and safer. The successful adoption of these advances often hinges on the ability to understand how the technology can be implemented within an existing process or procedure, including the need for proper information technology infrastructure and data storage capacity. As a result of com peting priorities and procurement delays, the new technology can be significantly dif ferent than the existing process.

M any new technologies are also marketed directly to law enforcement agencies; as a result, agencies may acquire technology and not understand how it should be properly imple mented. Further, the adoption of a new technology can create a domino effect of required updates and upgrades, all of which require a funding source. With proper planning, jurisdictions can utilize shared resources to provide an efficient, robust response that benefits the affected community. EMERGENCY OPERATIONS First responders are trained to protect citizens, neutralize threats, save lives, and rescue those in need. The main goal of emergency operations commonly deployed immediately follow ing mass disasters such as tornados, hurricanes, tsunamis, and, of late, massive, unexpected weather events ranging from extreme heat and fires to extreme rain and flooding, is to save as many lives as possible. In many mass disaster situations, the process of search and rescue often quickly transitions to search and recovery. The identification of the unknown deceased is a critical function that

occurs in each of these scenarios. The frequency of such events is increasing, and the need to provide identifications as quickly as possible is critical as family members wait for information. Methods often used to identify individuals include fin gerprints and DNA analysis. Identification via fingerprints is dependent on a set of prints for comparison; fingerprints taken, for example, for the purposes of a VISA, a passport, or a TSA pre-check application or for a job application or relating to a past arrest can be compared to fingerprints of unknown deceased. Fingerprints have been used as a means of identification for more than 100 years; however, what if the hands are badly decomposed or if fingerprints are not available? Identification via DNA analysis requires family DNA reference samples for comparison to the DNA profiles of the unknown individual. However, some individuals may not have family reference samples available and may be iden tified via DNA from a deduced reference sample such as a medical sample, a toothbrush, or a hairbrush. Other means of identifica

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Whether it's law enforcement officers, military personnel, or other public safety professionals, the crucial role of body armor in safeguarding lives cannot be overstated. However, what often needs to be addressed is the significance of ad equately sizing this critical protective gear. The right fit matters. R egarding body armor, one size certainly does not fit all. Inadequate body armor can pose severe risks to officers' safety and mobility. It's not just about comfort; it's about ensur ing that officers and military personnel have the best protection while maintaining their ability to move and respond effectively in high-stress or life-threatening situations. Body armor that is too loose can shift during movement, leaving vulnerable gaps in protection for mission-specific assignments. Armor that is too tight can restrict mobility and lead to discomfort or even injury. Achieving the right balance between safety and mobility is crucial. Traditionally, the process of sizing body armor has been cumbersome and often inaccurate. It typically involves manual measurements taken in-store or onsite. These methods can be time-consuming, and human error can lead to inaccuracies in sizing. The consequence of these inaccuracies can be severe, as it might result in officers or personnel wearing armor that could potentially put an officer's life in danger. Recent technological advancements have changed the manner in which first responders can be sized for body armor. New touchless and automated methods redefining how body measurements are captured have emerged in the industry. By utilizing new fitting technology, agencies and departments can use a smartphone app to decrease the risk of marginal error and streamline how officers are fitted for body armor. This trans formative technology employs aspects such as the power of artificial intelligence to create an instant and precise fit guide, even from the convenience of a mobile phone. This revolution ary approach ensures optimal fit and simplifies the entire sizing process. Currently, the only available touchless, automated method of capturing body measurements, XpertFit by Safariland, provides an instant and accurate fit guide using only a mobile phone. This swift and efficient procedure not only saves time and money but also ensures a level of accuracy that was previ ously unimaginable. The careful development of the algorithms, rigorous testing in real-world scenarios, seamless process flow, and app aspects have been scrutinized to guarantee the utmost precision and maintain customer data privacy.

Technology like this expedites the measurement and fitting process and exemplifies the seamless convergence of technolo gy and safety. Officers now have the flexibility of working directly with armor distributors, a departure from the conventional need for onsite fittings. This groundbreaking approach signifies the pinnacle of innovation and the commitment to first responder safety. In the world of public safety, there's no room for com promise when it comes to body armor. Ensuring officers and military personnel have properly sized body armor is critical to their safety and effectiveness. With innovative solutions like the XpertFit, achieving the perfect fit has never been easier or more accurate. As technology continues to advance, we can expect to see even more innovative solutions that prioritize the safety and well-being of those who protect and serve our communities.

About the Author: David Higginbotham is a Product Marketing Manager for Safariland. After a career in aca demia, he moved into the firearms industry, creating content, and editing for multiple publications. Now, as a specialist in everyday carry and armed self-defense, he’s contributing to Safariland’s mission by consulting on product design and education.



A s we come to the close of another year, your FBINAA Chari table Foundation has worked hard to ensure our active members are assisted in their time of need. Your personal sup port and the generosity of the chapters at the Chapter Leader ship Summit allowed the Foundation to increase our assistance from $2000 to $3000. Year to date we have assisted three mem bers with disaster relief, 10 active members with an illness or injury and one LOD death. Additionally, we have continued to as sist our active members with high school family members with $1,000 higher education scholarship awards, totaling $20,000. As we approach a time of thanksgiving, the Foundation owes a huge thank you to our two Business Board members: Ed Fuller, retired president of Marriott International, with his donation and support for the Kauai and Maui vacation trips and the vision to have a private labeled wine to enjoy and promote the Foundation. Ed donated the wine for the four sessions to enjoy during the 5.11 steak dinner and at the Chapter Leadership Summit in 2023. Brian Tripp, vice president of 5.11, continued to coordinate annual donations in the amount of $51,100! This also includes the Board and Ambassador shirts. Lastly, we thank Joe Hellebrand, past president and founda tion board member. Joe worked with a not-for-profit organiza tion that dissolved and was able to secure a donation of $80,000

to the FBINAA Charitable Foundation. I couldn’t be prouder of the board members on the Foundation. We all volunteer our time and take pride in assisting our active members and their families in their time of need. I would ask that you please continue to support your Foun dation and encourage those attending the FBINA to also consider donating to the wonderful family of which we are all a part.

T hank you again and wishing everyone a Happy Thanksgiving, a very Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays and a wonderful 2024!

Doug Muldoon Chairman, FBINAA Charitable Foundation

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FBI National Academy Associates, Inc.

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FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

T hanks for all of the congratulatory notes I’ve received since being appointed historian. It is with great pride I join the Executive Board – and an extreme honor to be tasked with sharing historically relevant topics. One of my goals is to not only share important historical facts about our Association but also recollec tions from past graduates. Also, I look forward to sharing items under the category of “making history.” We have some NA and YLP graduates who are doing just that. All of these stories should prove to be both interesting and inspiring. Many of you know Ed Ross , NA Session 79, and longtime member of the California Chapter. But did you know he became a Honolulu police officer before Hawaii became a state? Ed was sworn in as a Honolulu police officer in 1957, two years before Hawaii became a state in 1959. He attended the NA in 1967, years before the current Academy at Quantico was built. Ed attended classes in the old Department of Justice building in Washing ton, D.C. and had the good fortune to meet FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover twice during that time. Ed remained very active in the FBINAA and served as Hawaii Chapter president in 1976-77, then served as the Chapter secretary-treasurer for 25 years. He retired from the Honolulu PD in 1985, relocated to California and most recently attended the Hawaii Chapter Retrainer in Honolulu. (Thanks to the California Chapter Newsletter for this information!) In keeping with the theme of being inspired, it was brought to my attention we have a currently serving Chapter president who also served as president of another chapter! Dean Smith , NA Session 209, president of the Wisconsin Chapter, also served as president of the Virginia Chapter. I’m not aware of any other members who served as president in more than one chapter. I recently visited with Duke Adkins , NA Session 226 and active member of the Texas Chapter, regarding an international incident that took place in 2006 while he was attending the NA. In a revered and emotional showing of state pride a Texas state flag mysteri ously appeared hanging from the top of the Jefferson Dorm. Soon thereafter it disappeared without a trace. Duke searched high and low for the errant flag, thinking it had been removed by staff or an act of God. This marked the beginning of a drama with both national and international intrigue. Allow me to provide some important background. Session 226, as with all sessions, was passionate about raising money for a good cause. They chose Cops Kids as the benefactor of their fundraising efforts. Their NA226 Silent Auction raised $16,800! Un fortunately, someone in the class wasn’t completely satisfied with this figure and decided to do something to raise the ante. A note was found in one of the elevators in Madison that read as follows: TEXAS, I have your flag... yes the one that so proudly flew on the west side of Jefferson Dorm for all to see. If you want the symbol of your “republic” returned unharmed you will meet all my demands... you need to secure $200.00 in small bills or change... you will be given future directions... you must do exactly as you are told if you want your flag back... You have 48 hours. Signed, “Kidnapper for the Kids” Duke stated this “kidnapping” created quite a stir. He showed me numerous letters of support that began appearing on elevator walls. States, nations, military services and federal law

enforce ment agencies (well, at least their honorable representa tives) all proclaimed their shock and horror at this appalling crime and pledged their undying support to the cause of rescuing the kidnapped symbol of Texas honor. Of particular note, the U.S. Navy stated they were moving two Carrier Strike Groups “to an undis closed location near Virginia Beach” and placed Seal Teams Five and Six on movement orders. The ordeal took on a life of its own! Fortunately, Duke reported the necessary funds were collected and the ransom “paid.” This entire episode proved to be an amaz ing fundraiser – they didn’t raise a mere $200 but a total of $731, bringing their total donation to over $17,500. The flag was officially returned to Duke during the session graduation ceremony. Director Mueller commented how the theft of the Texas flag on FBI prop erty was potentially going to negatively impact his annual budget request. President Bush – another proud Texan - was in office... Lastly, I’m always touched by how small our world is. I’m al ways running across people who ate some of the same dirt, lived in some of the same places or knew some of the same people as I. A recent email from John “Jack” Hammell , NA Session 137, underscores this point. He congratulated me on my new position as historian before identifying our many similarities. We were both “Buffalo Soldiers” assigned to D Troop, 10th US Cavalry in the U.S. Army (he in Vietnam in the 1960s and I at Fort Knox in the 1980s); we were Army Military Police Officers commissioned through Officer Candidate School at Fort Benning; we both were assigned to the Army’s Criminal Investigation Command (he as a staff officer and I as a CID Special Agent); and we both have ties to Leavenworth, Kansas. I can’t tell you how much I enjoyed hearing from Jack and learning of our shared background. The creativity, dedication and depth of service of our NA brothers and sisters never ceases to amaze me! I’d like to hear about – and share – more examples of “commotion for a greater good” within the hallowed halls of the National Academy, self less service by our members and sense of oneness within our as sociation. Feel free to share your stories with me at jsimmons@ .

John Simmons FBINAA Historian


Continued from "Changing the Paradigm", on page 9

The Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) recently pub lished, “Transforming Police Recruit Training: 40 Guiding Principles” (PERF, November 2022), which addresses the need for changes in training protocols. Critical thinking and decision-making are crucial for today’s officer in a complex society that is ever chang ing. The report also recommended “developing recruits’ commu nications skills, critical-thinking capabilities, decision making, and creativity in working with communities to reduce crime and build trust” (p. 70). Centralizing training where possible with a curricu lum that shares core standards from across our country is another consideration included in the study. As a chief, I remember that listening and trusting in those you are responsible for is crucial to community and officer safety. Spe cifically, I remember being at the scene of a “barricade situation” where a suspect wanted on a warrant ran into a home, locked the door, and could be heard drilling screws through the door and into the frame. The normal protocol was to call a SWAT Unit and crisis negotiators after securing the area and evacuating neigh bors. While the crime scene tape was being put up, an experienced patrol officer approached me and said, “Chief, I know this man, it is a warrant for a property crime. He is not violent and I know his and the other neighbor’s routines in my sector. Why don’t we walk away and I will have him in custody in a day or two.” We did exactly that and canceled any escalation and cleared the area. The suspect was in custody in less than 48 hours. Because the patrol officer understood his community and displayed critical-thinking skills the situation was handled in a manner that was safer for the neighborhood. Finally, one of PERF’s comments also recommends to examine the length of police training and education in other countries, which sometimes takes two to three years or more and not weeks or months, as is common in the United States. The men and women serving their states, counties and communities each day, deserve the support they need to be effective. Centralizing or consolidating law enforcement training programs with uniform standards with emphasis on durable skills such as decision Measuring sticks such as Uniformed Crime Reporting are often used to measure effectiveness, but I would challenge you to think of legitimacy within your community being the ultimate gauge of effectiveness. How often do you read about a police chief being fired for too much crime in the city? Now how often do you read about a loss of confidence through scandal – perceived and actual. Former President Obama formed the President’s Task Force on 21st century policing (2015) which declared a need to shift policing mentality from a “Warrior” to that of a “Guardian.” The warrior was defined as an occupying force and is argued to exhibit an “us versus them” mindset. Instead, the report calls for law enforcement to shift to a guardian mentality, which calls for procedurally just tactics to legitimize police efforts. The guardian mentality supports a servient attitude of police engaged with the public. Efforts to build legitimacy go beyond collaboration with stakeholders, providing guardianship to a community means engaging in active feedback from citizens on job performance. The guardian mentality reverses in part traditional crime fighting man tras such as the “War on Drugs” and focuses on the relationship and contacts between members of the public and law enforce ment. Based on a national needs-assessment from the President’s Task Force, law enforcement needs to shift to police practices that

making, critical thinking, and collaboration and most importantly, communication skills are crucial. Changing the training paradigm to one that is collegial and encompasses contemporary as well as advanced adult learning strategies, will provide a stronger foun dation for the challenges of law enforcement personnel today and in the future. References Carter, D.L., Sapp, A.D. and Stephens, D. (1989). The state of police education: policy direction for the 21st century . Washington D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum.

Casio, W.F. (1977). Formal education and police officer performance. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 5, 89-96.

Locke, B., Smith, A., Walker, W. (1969) Authoritarianism in Police College Students and Non-Police College Students. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol 59, (3).

The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1967). Task force report: the police. United States Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C. National Commission (Wickersham Commission) on Law Observance and Enforce ment (1937). Report on police . United States Government Printing Office. conduct/?ref=74c466d4414277cdb94828ec57e042bf (Feb 2023)

International Association of Chiefs of Police; Police Use of Force in America (2001)

CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING SERIES: Transforming Police Recruit Training: 40 Guiding Principles. Police Executive Research Forum (November 2022)

About the Author: Dr. Ed Guthrie served 29 years in law enforcement starting as a patrol officer and retiring as a Chief of Police. He is a graduate of the 162nd Session of the FBINA and now serves as the Dean of the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at Wilmington University. He is a member of the Maryland/Delaware Chapter of the FBINAA, the Delaware Chiefs of Police Foundation Board, IACP, PERF and the American Council of Academic Deans.

Continued from "What is Your Measuring Stick?", on page 10

help legitimize policing through outreach and transparency with enforcement seen as procedurally just – fair, empathetic, honest, and transparent. The premise of the broken window theory is slum and blight breeds crime; if a community does not care about blight, such as a broken window, then more vandalism, drunkenness, and misdemeanor crime will occur and lead into serious felonious crime. Some policing strategies based on the broken windows theory have proven problematic in distancing or gentrifying parts of the community with heavy enforcement of minor violations. Such strategies tend to encompass the warrior mentality. Zero tolerance or quality of life enforcement strategies were created to combat petty crime and better shake down minor vagrants to stop the broken window effect; these strategies were hailed as a suc cess because they reduced crime. One criticism of quality-of-life enforcement is that it does not address the root causes of most crime and proportionately targets minorities while hampering trust and legitimacy within the community; these policies have had unintended consequences. Police work that relies on enforce

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24 FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023


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FBINAA.ORG | Q4 2023

Mike Hardee

A Spiritual Partnership

J ust as you don’t have to have a specific religious affiliation to have a spiritual relationship with God, you also don’t need to hold any particular political point of view to recognize other human beings suffering and desire to reach out to them. A recent event occurred that perhaps follows this concept of spirituality, hope, and faith. I was taken by surprise when the head of the Ukrainian Chaplaincy for Law Enforcement Agencies for the Ukraine, Chaplain Yarsolav Malko recently reached out to me through social media to introduce himself and the Ukrainian Law En forcement Chaplaincy Program. He explained that a brigade of law enforcement officers is currently serving on the front line in the war, supporting the soldiers and providing aid the citizens in war torn communities. Few of us think about the role our fellow law enforcement officers play when a war is fought on one’s own soil—our country has been fortunate to never have experienced that. I was astonished to learn that one of their critical needs right now is trauma kits for these police officers. Since police don’t usually serve on the front lines, there are not enough kits in supply to provide adequate protection. Chaplain Malko described a few other issues and needs facing Ukrainian law enforcement officers, their families, and the communities they serve: • Spiritual prayer and support for the brigade of Ukrainian law enforcement officers now fighting in the war and support of their military efforts to protect their citizens throughout the war-torn communities. • The need for spiritual prayer and support for the orphaned children of the Ukraine who they must tend to, and for the other vulnerable groups among them: the aged, wounded citizens and soldiers, people with limited capabilities, and those who lost their families in the war. • Spiritual prayer for the repair of the severe damage that has destroyed the very fabric of their lives—their economy, infrastructure (water supply and electrical grids), and food supplies. People are starving and lack the necessities we take for granted every day. • Spiritual prayer for the areas now freed of Russian occupation that were utterly destroyed. These areas have no hospital buildings, no schools, no preschool, or any other social infrastructure. The situation hits close to home when you consider that to date the FBI National Academy has graduated 18 Ukrainian police officers representing various law enforcement agencies throughout the Ukraine – some of whom are actively supporting the war effort. It is with this connection of brotherhood and spirit that our very own Spiritual Leadership Network is reaching out to those in need. There is currently a movement within the Ukrainian law enforcement community to build a strong faith-based Chap laincy program for all law enforcement agencies to support not only the officers who are serving on the front lines of the war, but also their families, friends, and colleagues. Their need to bring

about an awareness of spiritual need throughout the country, especially now for all law enforcement, has reached out to our FBI National Academy Associates Spiritual Leadership Network for support, partnership, and spiritual friendship. On Aug. 24, the people of the Ukraine celebrated their 32nd year of independence from the former Soviet Union and for the past 18 months they have lost thousands of innocent Ukrainians in the war fighting to retain that independence from Russia. Police officers are facing the horrors of war as the stress contin ues, coping with the constant fear as their air-alarm system starts warning of a possible missile attack. As first responders to bomb attacks on civilian populations, many are also suffering the long term trauma of human loss. United in our common beliefs and faith we recognize the most vulnerable people of war are the el derly, wounded citizens and police officers, children, and people who have lost their homes. Each of these issues alone have a devastating impact on the law enforcement communities, and combined are both physically and emotionally overwhelming. I must believe that God speaks to each of us in a very special and intimate way if we open our hearts and minds to Him each day. As we approach another opportunity to serve our membership at home and around the world, our Spiritual Leadership Network is helping bridge relationships by responding to our membership needs in a of moment of solidarity and kindness. Our goal has been to develop a national and international network of those who serve in an official or unofficial capacity as clergy, chaplain, minister, or spiritual leader for their state and/ or international chapters. Both here in our own backyards as well as abroad, the need for us to unite in a faith-based, spiritual way is so very important today. Connecting our state/international chapter spiritual leaders with the National Office will bring sup port to those in need, unite us in spiritual thought and prayer more efficiently, and bring us closer together in times of celebra tion and in times of need. That’s why I am again asking each Chapter to consider recognizing a current member to represent you in our Spiritual Leadership Network. Preference will be given to those applicants who are active FBINAA members and affiliated with a Chapter. To vet all the requests, we ask that you complete the following FBINAA Chaplain endorsement application. https://fbinaa.form

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