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nell, 2006), the Salem-Kaiser Model (VanDreal, 2017). There are resources available to assist with your operational planning such as the North Eastern Massachusetts Law Enforcement Council (NEMLEC) School Threat Assessment Response System Toolkit (North Eastern Massachusetts Law Enforcement Council, 2017) and Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence (US Secret Service, National Threat Assessment Center, 2018). Active shooter incidents are not predictable however, they are preventable. We have all heard of the slogan, “See Some- thing, Say Something.” (Kay, 2002) We now need to take it to the next level and add, “Do Something.” Be more aware and report any suspicious behavior to law enforcement. We as a society need to have more situational awareness and realize when something is outside the norm. Be aware of people, what they usually do and when they usually do it. If the behavior seems suspicious or concerning, tell someone. “For the majority of the attackers, the concern others felt was so severe that they feared specifically for the safety of the individual, themselves, or others.” (National Threat Assessment Center, 2019, p. 11) According to past analysis done by the FBI Behavioral Analysis Unit, when concerning behaviors were noticed by others, “83% communi- cated directly with the active shooter, 54% did nothing, and 41% reported behavior to law enforcement.” (Silver, 2018, p. 2) As a society, we need to do much better than only reporting 41% of concerning behavior. In instances such as an active shooter inci- dent, community stakeholders at the local level play a direct role in the threat assessment and management effort. We all have to work together, in concert, in order to prevent these tragedies. No longer can anyone afford to sit idly by and be a complacent bystander, we need to get more involved, step up and intervene. The general public is the force multiplier that is needed to ad- dress this issue (Behavioral Analysis Unit—National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, 2017, p. 11). Active shootings and mass killings are an area where it really does take a village. Be more involved. Your individual actions could make a drastic dif- ference to the severity and overall outcome of an active shooter incident. The life that you save might just belong to someone you know and love.

be noticeable to those who know the offender. Often attackers don’t just “snap” but follow The Pathway to Violence (Calhoun, 2003) which has several stages. They are Grievance, Ideation, Research and Planning, Preparation, Breach, and Attack. The Grievance can be either real or perceived. It may be in the form of revenge, righting a wrong, or wanting notoriety and fame. It is the why that drives the potential attacker. Ideation includes the belief that violence will be the solution to the problem and the decision to engage in violence. Research and Planning is the who, what, when, where, and how. It’s selecting targets and determining the means. “77% of shooters spent a week or longer planning an attack (Silver, 2018, p. 2). ” “In 73% of the cases there was a direct link between the attacker and the site (Silver, 2018, p. 8). ” Preparation includes procuring the means to carry out the attack such as securing weapons, ammunition, practicing with those weapons, and maybe the obtaining of special clothing. “46% of the shooter actually spent a week or longer preparing for the attack (Silver, 2018, p. 2). ” Breach is taking affirmative steps to get ready, such as conducting surveillance, making a dry run, and testing security at the site. Attack speaks for itself, it is tak- ing action. There are opportunities for intervention at each one of these stages. Success in this endeavor depends on people’s awareness and the willingness to act on their suspicions. Law enforcement is not all knowing. We need the as- sistance and input of everyone in the community to be more vigilant and assist the police in doing our job, which is to protect others. In this day and age, family, friends, neighbors, teachers, counsellors, managers, supervisors, coworkers, and law enforcement all play a vital role in keeping our communi- ties safe. We, as a society, need to be more attentive and trust our instincts. One of the ways that society can aid the efforts of law enforcement is to be more aware of the leakage that can occur prior to these incidents. Leakage is the “intentional or unintentional clues to feelings, thoughts, fantasies, attitudes, or intentions that may signal an impending violent act. These clues can take the form of subtle threats, boasts, innuendos, predic- tions, or ultimatums. They may be spoken or conveyed in stories, diary entries, essays, poems, letters, songs, drawings, doodles, tattoos, or videos (FBI Critical Incident Response Group, 1999, p. 16). ” Trust your gut, share your concerns and follow up on those red flags. Stopping violence before it starts is a learnable and necessary skill. It is what is required to make a difference and stem the flow of attacks. We have some information of concern, now what? Employ- ing a threat assessment model is one way to get community based input involved before an attacker is able to put their plan into action. Getting stakeholders from all aspects of the com- munity involved early in the process can potentially mitigate the situation and allow for the subject to receive the assistance they need to develop coping skills and reduce the effect of the stressors they may be feeling. The FBI has many resources avail- able online to guide you in this endeavor that can be located at www.fbi.gov/activeshooterresources. Reports such as Making Prevention a Reality: Identifying, Assessing, and Managing the Threat of Targeted Attacks (Behavioral Analysis Unit—National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, 2017) can help com- munities work cooperatively in order to prevent further tragedy. Other references are available as well that will provide guidance and aid in creating a threat assessment team in order to better address issues at the local level. Some examples that have been applied to educational facilities are the Virginia Model (Cor-

About the Author: James Cullen is a veteran police officer having served full-time since 1993 and is the Deputy Chief of the Groton Police Department in Groton, Massachusetts. Through the Police Executive Fellowship Program, he is also a Task Force Officer assigned to the FBI Violence Reduction Unit Active Shooter Team. He holds certifications as an Active Shooter Instructor in both Law Enforcement and Civilian disciplines. He was a 12 year member of the North Eastern Massachusetts Law Enforcement Council (NEMLEC) Regional Response Team and graduated from the FBI Crisis Negotiation Course. Chief Cullen has earned two Master’s Degrees,

one in Criminal Justice Administration fromWestern New England College and the second in Leadership from Norwich University. He is a proud graduate of the 243rd Session of the FBI National Academy in Quantico, Virginia. Chief Cullen is a present- er at the FBINAA’s ongoing School Shooting Prevention Leadership Forum series.

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