MayJune Associate Magazine.2018.FINAL

The Magazine of the FBI National Academy Associates

May/June 2018 | Volume 20, Number 3



May/June 2018 Volume 20 • Issue 3 The Magazine of the FBI National Academy Associates A S S O C I A T E

Features 8 Women in Law Enforcement: Recognizing Unique Aspects of Nurturing

Female Wellness Theresa Adams-Hydar

12 Practical Considerations When Developing an Unmanned Aerial System Dave Ellis 14 Training to Prevent Police Suicide: A Continuum View Mary VanHaute 16 FCC Technological Advisory Council Subcommittee Report 20 Estate Planning: A Guide for Law Enforcement Columns 4 Association Perspective 18 Chapter Chat 22 Historian’s Spotlight 24 A Message from Our Chaplain

Each Issue 6 Strategic & Academic Alliances Ad Index – American Military University 7 CRI-TAC – JFCU



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“Continuing Growth Through Training and Education”

3rd Vice President, Section III – Joe Hellebrand Chief, Brevard County Sheriff’s Office (FL), Representative, Section I – Tim Braniff Undersheriff, Thurston County Sheriff’s Office (WA), Representative, Section II – Scott Rhoad Chief/Director of Public Safety, University of Central Missouri (MO), Representative, Section III – Grady Sanford Chief Deputy, Forsyth County Sheriff's Office (GA),

The Magazine of the FBI National Academy Associates A S S O C I A T E EXECUTIVE BOARD Association President – Scott Dumas Chief, Rowley Police Department (MA), Past President – Joey Reynolds Police Chief (retired), Bluffton Police Dept. (SC),

Representative, Section IV – Ken Truver Chief, Borough of Castle Shannon (PA), Chaplain – Jeff Kruithoff Chief, City of Springboro (OH),

Historian – Patrick Davis Chester County Department of Emergency Services (PA),

1st Vice President, Section I – Johnnie Adams Chief, Santa Monica College (CA),

FBI Unit Chief – Jeff McCormick Unit Chief, National Academy Unit (VA)

2nd Vice President, Section II – Kevin Wingerson Assistant Chief of Police, Pasadena Police Dept. (TX),

Executive Director – Howard Cook FBI NAA, Inc. National Office (VA),







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May/June 2018 Volume 20 • Number 3

FBINAA WEBINAR SERIES July 17, 2018 Policing toward the W.I.N. through Complete Collaboration CO-HOST: NC4 August 9, 2018 Verizon’s® Public Safety Private

The National Academy Associate is a publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc.

Howard Cook / Executive Director, Managing Editor

© Copyright 2018, the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this magazine without express written permission is strictly prohibited. The National Academy Associate is published bi-monthly by the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Office, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135. The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. is a private, non-profit organization and is not part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or acting on the FBI’s behalf. Email editorial submissions to Suzy Kelly : skelly@fbinaa .org. Submissions may vary in length from 500-2000 words, and shall not be submitted simultaneously to other publications.

Core Network CO-HOST: VERIZON®

Email Chapter Chat submissions to Susan Naragon: by the 1st of every even month.

September 13, 2018 Racial Intelligence CO-HOST: RITE ACADEMY

The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., the Executive Board and the editors of the National Academy Associate neither endorse nor guarantee completeness or accuracy of material used that is obtained from sources considered reliable, nor accept liability resulting from the adoption or use of any methods, procedures, recommendations, or statements recommended or implied.

Future Topics, TBD - Opioids and Other Legal/Illegal Drug Issues - Technology and Social Media - Innovations in Policing and New Technologies

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On the Cover: Flo Simon, Deputy Chief, Bellingham Police Department FBINAA Washington Chapter Treasurer, FBI NA #211.



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by Scott Dumas

Greetings all,

I cannot express fully into words the honor it has been to represent the National Academy Associates in furtherance of our Mission of providing and promoting law enforcement leadership through training and networking and our Vision of continuously developing the world’s strongest law enforcement leadership network. It is hard to believe in six short weeks, my year as President of this great Association will be coming to an end when we come together in Quebec City July 21-25. Having just got off of a conference call regarding the agenda for the conference, I am very much looking forward to gathering for the second time in the history of our Association, in Canada. The NY/EC chapter’s conference committee, with the assistance of the National Office, FBI, and the Eventive Group has put together a training conference that will long be remembered. I want to personally thank conference chair Dan Kinsella (241), and his conference committee, co-chair Gilles Martel (242), Mark Gates (232), Randy Carter (257), Scott Fraser (226), Paul Sandy (220), Tony Karam (228), Brett Flynn (253), Bill Carbone (217), Mitch Paurowski (228), Tim Owens (256), Tony Ovchinnikoff (220), Heidi Schelhorn (262), Shawn Blaj , Debbie Clark (219), Sophie Gougeon , Joe Gannon (126), Mike Ryan (238), and Bill Leahy (227), for putting together some world class training and for their tireless effort in preparing for the entirety of this conference. One of the privileges of being the President of the Association is I get to travel back to Quantico and speak with each graduating class to reinforce the importance of staying involved with the National Academy Associates after they graduate. The police officers, military personnel, FBI agents that I have met during these encounters have been nothing short of remarkable. When asked what they thought of the National Academy experience, each have expressed to me, in their own way, that it has been the most valuable experience in their law enforcement career. During my most recent visit, Director Cook and I were taking in all that the “Louisiana Night” had to offer with the 272nd session and were speaking to Ed Mclean out of Missoula, Montana. Ed was showing us pictures of the view from his deck which overlooks a majestic mountain range explaining to us this is where he has coffee every morning and what he is looking forward to getting back to. Ed, who is in his 22nd year of law enforcement, went on to say how reinvigorated he felt by the experience and was enthusiasti- cally looking forward to getting back to work because he already knew some of the things that needed to be addressed in his agency by what he had learned here. He knows any resources he would need would be available at his fingertips with the network that is available through the National Academy Associates. This was a common theme I had heard over the course of the year. Above, I mentioned I had the opportunity to “reinforce” the im- portance of staying involved with the National Academy Associates because it has been our staff that has been impressing it upon each ses- sion for the 10 weeks leading up to my visit the value of the National Academy Associates. In my last article addressing our membership, I

wanted to briefly highlight these folks that work so hard for our As- sociation. Some are more recognizable than others either due to their longevity or their role, but each is vital for our continued success. Howard Cook | Executive Director – Despite the musical chairs we have had at the helm during my tenure on the board, I believe Howard will be here for a long while. Howard is a graduate of the 224th session and is the first member to ever lead our Association. Howard brings with him a southern hospitality pleasantry and distinctive and sharp business acumen along with a deep understanding of the NAA brand. His leadership will continue to bring our Association forward. Laura Masterton | Executive Assistant to the Executive Director/ Director of Special Projects – Laura is our longest tenured staff mem- ber. What does Director of Special Projects mean? It basically means anything and everything. Laura is a very talented and will take on every challenge and excel at it. One of her lesser responsibilities but of vital importance to the board, is one of her roles during the National Con- ference; she directs us where to be, when to be there, who we will be meeting, and how to dress. Korri Roper | Chief Financial Officer – Korri has the overall respon- sibility of building and tracking our annual budget. She also has the unenviable task of educating the board on the difference between ac- crual accounting and cash accounting. Korri works with the finance committee and Executive Director throughout the year discussing ex- penses and revenues to make sure we are as fiscally sound as we can be. Denise Maclane | Comptroller – Denise serves as our Comptroller which basically means, she is the person who is in charge for paying all the bills and making sure we keep the lights on. Denise also acts as the liaison with Verizon® and the fallen officer’s fund. She is on top of find- ing out the best contact person when one of these tragic events occurs and sees to it the check is sent out timely. Susan Naragon | Academy and Membership Liaison – Susan is loud and proud and that’s why we love her. She sits up front in the academy office and is the first person the session members see when they walk in. She greets them with big smile and big personality and begins the relationship we are seeking with our members. Susan was also the re- cipient of the first ever coffee club brick presented to her by the 272nd session.

continued on page 5


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Association Perspective continued from page 4

Renee Reynolds | Director of Retail Operations – Prior to coming to the National Academy Associates, Renee worked for several years with Walmart in a similar role. Renee has been working hard on optimizing the output in the store to realize its fullest potential not only for the quality of mementoes memorializing your experience here but also as a revenue stream for the Association. Renee is also the primary protector of the NA seal. Misha Melton and Jennifer Naragon – Misha and Jennifer are two part-time employees that work hand and hand with Renee in the store. You will find these two folks either behind the cash register or engaging with our members when they come in the store helping them to find exactly what they need. Jennifer Watson | Director of Membership Engagement – Jennifer has developed strategies for membership enrollment to assist our Chapter Membership Coordinators, Secretary/Treasurers, and Chapter Presi- dents in communicating with our members that may have fallen off the grid for one reason or another. Did you all know Jennifer does Roller Derby? She may not look it, but she’s a killer and ready to employ any tactic necessary to keep our membership rolls up! Shirlene McCormick – Shirlene is our newest part-time employee, and was hired to assist Jennifer with membership engagement. Not a killer yet, but a killer in training. Shirlene brings a great deal of energy and knowl- edge of both the National Academy and the National Academy Associates. Suzy Kelly | Director of Marketing and Communications – Her title indicates she is involved in the branding and marketing of our Association as well as being responsible for our social media footprint. She is. Suzy is always looking for a better way to present the National Academy Associ- ates to both our members and partners. What is not immediately evident in her title is the role she plays in partner development, which is what we develop here. Partners are family and Suzy makes sure they know that.

John Kennedy | Director of Education and Training – With the re- focus on meaningful training directed towards contemporary law en- forcement issues, John’s experience working with other non-profit law enforcement entities has been an invaluable find. John’s education and background in training has and will continue to allow our members to flourish throughout their career. As every graduate has heard, the National Academy is just the beginning of a journey. That’s our staff. We could not be more fortunate to have the quality of employees we have here at the National Academy Associates. I wanted to give the membership just a little glimpse of the professionalism and commitment each player brings to the table. Take what I have given you and multiply it tenfold. Although none have worked in the field of law enforcement, they certainly understand the concept of doing more with less. At each event put on for the members here at the academy and particularly at our annual National Conference, it is an all hands on deck event. Each staff member, although assigned a role, does whatever it takes to make the event all it can be for our membership. Presidents and board members will come and go but our staff is truly the founda- tion, the mortar, and the strength of our Association. When you have the opportunity please let them know you appreciate them as well. I want to thank you all again for this once in a lifetime oppor- tunity to lead this Association. I hope to see you in Quebec City to welcome in our new President, Chief Johnnie Adams .

Be safe, be strong, be vigilant, and be proud!

Scott A. Dumas President FBINAA Chief of Police, Rowley Massachusetts


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Theresa Adams-Hydar

I n the last twenty years research has shown that women use a style of polic- ing that relies less on physical strength and deployment of force and more on communication and de-escalation of scenes. With this type of finding, one would assume law enforcement agencies would be clamoring to hire and retain qualified females. Unfortunately, many agencies are missing the boat in this area, even though it could be easily remedied with small tweaks to those agencies who have already established some sort of wellness program. The tweak- they need to make sure they are not putting square pegs in round holes as it pertains to identifying appropriate approaches to wellness for men and women. Just as women police differently from men in some respects, they are also likely to deal with workplace stress, worries and conflicts differ- ently. Therefore, a one-size fits all wellness approach will not work. A law en- forcement agency which understands these differences and makes appropriate changes in their Employee Wellness Program , will most likely see an increase in the hiring, advancement and retention of their female officers. In turn, these agencies will reap benefits in years to come with respect to a healthy, bal- anced and diverse workforce as well as improved community relations. EMOTIONAL WELLNESS Ask any law enforcement professional why they selected their profession and they will respond with something akin to, “I wanted to serve my commu- nity and help people.” This calling is no different between men and women. Likewise, workplace stress does not discriminate, as both men and women are expected to deal with death, tragedy and conflict day after day; year after year. As a result, police officers are expected to keep their emotions in check while out in the field, regardless of their own feelings or reactions to the scene in front of them. Often, these emotions are never really dealt with due to lack of time as officers respond from call to call. Additionally, there exists a self- imposed concept that acknowledging emotion is not acceptable in the police culture and officers learn to mask their feelings to their own detriment. According to an American Psychological Association (APA) study, women are more likely than men (28% vs 20%) to report having a great deal of stress and about half of those surveyed (49%) indicated their stress level was increasing as compared to 39% of men. Additionally, women are more likely to report physical and emotional symptoms of stress like headaches (41% vs 30%), feeling the desire to cry (44% vs 15%) and having an upset stomach or indigestion (32% vs 21%). The study confirmed that married women report higher levels of stress than single women and married women report feeling like they are not readily able to address the stress unlike their single counterparts.

For about the last decade, there has been a big push to increase the number of women among the rank and file of law enforcement. According to the most recent Bureau of Justice statistics, women accounted for about 13% of the full-time law enforcement work- force in 2013, which is up from 8% in 1987. Sadly, this is only a 4% increase over the course of 26 years and is even lower than the all-time high of 14.3% in 1999. Despite the gains women have made in policing since joining their male counterparts in the field in the 70’s, the twenty-first century has seen something akin to a plateau for overall numbers and retention. According to Val Van Brocklin , a federal prosecutor and contributor to , the yearly gain of female police officers has been less than half of 1 per- cent since 1971. Many sociologists and experts have studied this trend and come up with a myriad of rea- sons for the stall in numbers, such as biased recruit- ing, the lack of desire to balance work and home life and even an overall disinterest in law enforcement by younger generations of women. This may account for why women are not joining the ranks, but why are they leaving; especially when they are in demand more than ever?

Pictured (L): Flo Simon, FBINAA Washington Chapter Treasurer and graduate of FBI NA #211 pictured here in the newly renovated Hall of Honor at the FBI National Academy.

continued on page 10


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Women in Law Enforcement continued from page 9

It is also explains the likelihood of women to handle investigations related to domestic violence, child abuse and sexual assault with a softer approach which tends to be better received by victims. THE TWEAK Law enforcement agencies need to recognize this “tend and befriend” ap- proach in policing as a common go-to for females. Obviously, a female must rec- ognize when she needs to engage in physical force, to protect her life, her partner’s and the community she serves. There is no argument that all officers, men and women, must be physically fit and meet all physical training requirements in or- der to do their job safely. This is not a justification to alter physical requirements for females in law enforcement. It is a call to action for law enforcement agencies to acknowledge and incorporate the biological differences of men and women in the field and the benefits these differences bring to modern day policing. Unfortunately, there are times when a male partner may question the decision of his female counterpart due to lack of understanding of the dif- ferent thought processes. It is commonplace for females in law enforcement to try to measure up to their male counterpart within a historically male dominated society. Some women may question their own decisions and place a great deal of stress on themselves in order to fit into this society, which only compounds the daily stress of policing. Law enforcement agencies should include basic training on the ap- plicable biological differences and policing methods of men and women. Even the slightest awareness of these differences would help create a more effective workforce. Officers spend a great deal of time getting to know the mindset of criminals to be more effective in the field. It is only logical that officers should understand each other and recognize different perspectives in order to achieve this same level of efficacy as well as increased officer safety. Supervisors should also recognize these differences and conduct de- briefings of critical events accordingly. For example, a female officer with small children may deal with a radio call of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome very differently than a young male with no children. Training and extended counseling should be made available to all officers who may continue to struggle with inadequacies or work-related stress and it is important any follow-up addresses these obvious differences. As more agencies recognize and give voice to these differences, and pro- mote them as strengths rather than weaknesses, many of the preconceived notions of policing will disappear. An agency which creates an internal envi- ronment of awareness, diversity and support is far more attractive to a female officer, where she feels her skillset is acknowledged and appreciated. PHYSICAL WELLNESS Studies have shown that chronic stress may take a greater toll on the physical health of women compared to men. As noted earlier, the human body produces cortisol which is a positive thing for additional energy when engaged in fight or flight situations. However, that same cortisone release may have a negative impact on other parts of the body and more so on women and their hormonal system. Some of these long-term health prob- lems include reduced sex drive, irregular menstrual cycles, acne breakouts, hair loss, poor digestion, depression, insomnia, weight gain, decreased fer- tility and increased risk of heart disease and stroke. The APA study confirmed men are far more likely than women to deal with stress by playing sports or engaging in some sort of physical activity (16% vs 4%). Most women opted for more sedentary activities like reading or spending time with a friend. Conversely, women are more likely to eat as a way of managing stress (31% vs 21%) and many admitted to overeating and eating unhealthy foods. As a result, women are more likely to be overweight,

These APA findings are also supported by the science of hormones. Men are more likely to respond to stress by producing adrenaline and cor- tisol which can create the flight or fight response, which is a well-known concept in law enforcement. Women also produce adrenaline and cortisol in moments of stress, but they also produce oxytocin, a chemical that can produce bonding and affection for others. As noted in a Healthgrade article by Lorna Collier , “women are more apt to react to stress with a ‘tend and befriend’ response, seeking to protect others in their lives and reaching out for social connection and support.” This response is most likely the reason why women officers are less apt to use force than their male counterpart.

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Women in Law Enforcement continued from page 10

wellness programs extend to the family members of officers as well. The same stress which directly impacts officers will inevitably have an indirect impact on that officer’s family. Often times, women in law enforcement are also the care- taker of children at home and must balance both stressful responsibilities. If a woman feels things are good at home, she can focus on her job with fewer distractions, which increases productivity and decreases accidents. Conversely, if a woman feels respected and supported in the work place she can focus on and enjoy her children and/or spouse and avoid stress. Supervisors need to be trained to recognize when the life-work balance is skewed and address any concerns in a time- ly manner. Those who are working too many hours need to be forced to take time off or at least ensure they are not working past the point of maintaining a safe and healthy environment. This will keep employees, especially women from becoming mired in the vicious cycle of stress. Police officers are an invaluable resource and it is imperative they are kept healthy in order to keep the community safe. Women, with their unique skill sets bring more diversity, compas- sion and capability to an already noble profession. However, sometimes this noble profession can take a toll on an officer’s wellness and cause them to break. A broken officer is no good to society or themselves. A female officer cannot nurture, befriend and tend her community or her family if she is broken and ignoring the signs for fear of being labeled as weak. Unfortunately, the broken female officer will be forced to choose between work, family and more often than not work is the first thing to go. A law enforcement agency which identifies the unique attributes women bring to law enforcement and makes a commitment to en- hance the emotional, physical and occupational wellness of its female employees will be able to recruit, retain and promote for years to come. References American Psychological Association. 2017. Gender and Stress. Retrieved from Collier, Lorna. 2018. How Men and Women Deal with Stress. Healthgrades Retrieved from Gregoire, Carolyn. December 22, 2014. Ten Ways Stress Affects Women’s Health. HuffPost Retrieved from Harrington, Penny and Moore, Margaret. Date Unknown. National Center for Women and Policing. Retrieved from Sangberg, Elizabeth Lang; Sole, Corina Brito; Luna Morrozoff Andrea and McFadden, Shannon. September 2010. A Guide to Occupational Health and Safety for Law Enforcement. Executives Bureau of Justice PERF. Retrieved from Van Brocklin,Val. October 23, 2013. Cop Gumbo Why Aren’t There More Women in Policework? Retrieved from Wells, Sandra and Sowers, Betty Alt. 2005. Police Women: Life with the Badge. Greenwood Publishing Group

out of shape and lacking in energy, which does not bode well for the physically demanding job of police work. To compound issues, many women state they are unable to find time to exercise or plan healthy meals due to balancing the needs of children, home responsibilities and work; which starts a vicious cycle of stress. THE TWEAK Law enforcement agencies could help com- bat this vicious cycle and improve the physical wellness of women by incorporating and encour- aging a physical fitness and nutrition regime. Women are more apt to work out if they are en- couraged and have guidance. Partnering with a local gym or bringing in personal trainers to get women (and of course men) started on an appro- priate diet and exercise routine would be the first step to improved physical wellness. Additionally, if women are allowed to exercise on duty, even a couple of hours a week, they would be able to work it into their busy schedules without find- ing excuses at home to avoid it. Even two hours a week helps develop positive habits which will spill over into other areas of their life and work as an additional stress reliever. Some more creative tweaks would be the creation of friendly compe- titions for weight loss or training for 5k races as a group. Since women are more prone to group socialization this would be an ideal program. Obviously, any exercise and nutrition pro- gram would have to be approved by each indi- vidual agency and it is understood many agen- cies are afraid to adopt them due to unforeseen liability, related to injury. If this is the case with an agency, it is incumbent upon the supervisors to educate their staff on the importance of prop- er exercise and nutrition and highly encourage them to work out at home. A motivated supervi- sor or law enforcement leader could coordinate voluntary walks, runs or yoga sessions off duty, which encourages physical fitness as well as so- cialization. Even though the workouts are not on duty, it will still help develop a positive, support- ive and healthy culture within the agency; which is highly attractive to female officers. OCCUPATIONAL WELLNESS Occupational Wellness can be viewed from a couple of perspectives. The most obvious one includes the lawful requirement for a law en- forcement agency to provide a safe working envi- ronment for all employees. This usually includes the policies regarding handling of safety equip- ment, exposure to hazardous chemicals, treat- ment and prevention of on duty injuries and a litany of other health and safety standards. Most agencies cover this area fairly well, and where they may falter, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) usually fills the gap.

The area of occupational wellness that is often overlooked is the placement and mainte- nance of an employee in an occupational envi- ronment adapted to his or her physiological and psychological capabilities. In other words, law enforcement agencies must make sure they are investing in the emotional and physical wellness of their staff as well as: • Make a work environment conducive to personal growth and succession planning. • Maintain an environment with high morale and productivity. • Recognize the impacts of policing on the entire family as well as the employee. One of the common complaints of many women in law enforcement is the lack of support and mentoring over the course of their career. Un- fortunately, the failure to mentor female leaders is an oversight by both male and female leaders. Some men may feel unequipped or uncomfortable about mentoring a female and the only time they partner up with them may be during their initial training. In some cases, females also feel they lack networking opportunities after hours with their male counterparts because of family responsibili- ties. This also prevents them from bonding with their male partners and developing relationships which may benefit them in the workplace. Females may fail to mentor other females due to jealousy and internal competition. Since their overall num- bers are small, women often compete for the same positions and are not always supportive of each other as a result. In the book P olice Women: Life with the Badge , the authors interview several fe- male officers throughout the United States and ask them about their relationship with other females. Many stated they received little support from high ranking females due to jealousy. They indicated there was not an “old boy network” for females like there was for males. Regardless of why, the lack of mentorship and development of females in the ranks creates low morale and is a lack of invest- ment in vital personnel. THE TWEAK The obvious tweak for occupational well- ness is to ensure a strong mentoring program is developed and continually monitored for suc- cess. Investment in the personal growth and ad- vancement of employees is the best way to set up people and the agency for success. Employees who feel supported and empowered are far more creative, loyal and efficient. Special attention must be given to the mentoring of women at all levels. Likewise, women at all ranks need to learn how to be supportive of one another rather than focus on their own advancement. In addition to a strong mentoring program, law enforcement agencies need to make sure

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Dave Ellis

The purpose of this paper is to serve as an article submission to the FBI- NAA magazine regarding considerations that should be made prior to the development of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) program. I currently serve as the Western Region Director for the Airborne Law Enforcement As- sociation, and helped create the Spokane County Sheriff’s Office Air Support Unit (which operates three helicopters, and is in the process of acquiring two UAS). With the acquisition cost for UAS dropping to the levels where almost every agency can now operate an aerial asset, it is important that those agencies who are not familiar with airborne law enforcement, make wise choices prior to the implementation of a UAS program.


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A cross the country, agencies are looking up to the sky to use cutting edge technology to assist in how they perform their functions. As the acquisition cost of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) drops, agencies that previously could not afford traditional aviation assets like planes or helicop- ters are now able to enter the world of airborne law enforcement. It is estimated that 347 governmental agencies have acquired UAS, with 167 agencies in 2016 acquiring them. This was more than all previous years alone, and double the acquisitions in 2015 (Gettinger, 2017). As hundreds of agencies consider adding these small aviation assets to their tool boxes, there are many items that need to be considered prior to acquisi- tion and implementation.

TYPES OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS One thing an agency will need to determine is what type of UAS it wants to operate, and the pros and cons that each system provides. The vast majority of agencies operating UAS are utilizing Vertical Takeoff and Land- ing (VTOL) aircraft, which resembles a micro version of a helicopter. The advantage of this style is it allows the aircraft to take off and land in smaller and more confined spaces, as opposed to a fixed wing UAS which requires a larger open space to land and take off. The downside to a VTOL aircraft is they generally have a shorter amount of flight time being available before the aircraft needs to land and have a new battery installed. Many of the VTOL UAS being operated by public safety agencies only have a maximum flight time of approximately twenty-five minutes. UAS POLICY CREATION Agencies establishing a UAS program will want to create a policy on its usage. A strong UAS policy will help ensure the preservation of citizen’s privacy rights, help minimize the potential of costly aircraft accidents, and ensure that operations are being conducted within established best practices. There are multiple resources available for helping in the creation of a solid UAS policy. The International Chiefs of Police (IACP) provides recom- mended guidelines for the use of UAS which offers guidance on community engagement, system requirements, operational procedures, and image reten- tion (IACP, 2012). In addition, the Airborne Public Safety Association (formerly known as the Airborne Law Enforcement Association) offers agencies the ability to become accredited, with an on-site assessment being conducted to ensure that the agency is operating its UAS in accordance with their required guide- lines and best practices.

For agencies stepping foot into the aviation world for the first time, they will also want to meet with established members of the manned avia- tion sector, like police aviation units and news helicopter operators, in order to ensure safe flight operations when operating in the same vicinity. Manned and unmanned aircraft can fly in the same restricted airspace, as long as close coordination is conducted and an airspace deconfliction plan is developed and followed (Quistorf, 2015). TYPES OF ANTICIPATED APPROVED MISSIONS Agencies considering purchasing a UAS will want to identify what types of missions it will be utilized for, and if any additional specialized equipment or training will be needed to conduct those types of operations. Possible uses for a UAS include crime scene documentation and reconstruc- tion, missing persons search, natural disaster damage assessments, critical in- frastructure protection and security, and providing aerial situational aware- ness in tactical situations. If an agency wishes to use the UAS for crime scene reconstruction, they will likely need to acquire a 3D mapping and reconstruction software from

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TRAINING TO PREVENT POLICE SUICIDE : A CONTINUUM VIEW Mary VanHaute While no one would disagree on the value of educating officers in self- care, the warning signs of suicide, and seeking appropriate help, many disagree on the logistics for such education. Leaders within the law en- forcement community may want to provide suicide prevention train- ing; however, with mandatory training demands and limited resources, it becomes a low priority. H ere is an analysis of some viewpoints on the subject in a continuum format. Recommenda- tions for implementing suicide prevention with minimal impact on training resources or funds conclude each analysis. Gathering data on the effectiveness of a suicide prevention training program is a daunting task. It is not easy to measure what didn’t happen. Because data on the number of officers who died by suicide is nebulous and not gathered in the same manner as line-of-duty death, there is no baseline standard of measurement. Thus, measuring a reduction in death is also not easy. This concept may lead to the viewpoint that suicide prevention training is not a law enforcement issue, and leadership may rely on initiatives and programs outside the department presuming officers are receiving the information as part of the community at large. This is a big assumption and does not consider that programming for the general public may be ineffective for law enforcement. On the other side of the spectrum is the thought that the root cause of police suicide comes from the endemic risk factors of the job, and suicide prevention awareness and training should be developed by officers for officers. In this line of thinking, the developers of the training may be unaware of existing research and data or become siloed in their thought process. A customized program can be beneficial, but it could lack flexibility, transferability, sustainability, and/or credibility regarding its effectiveness. OFFICER SAFETY AND WELLNESS The Executive Board of the FBI National Academy Associates is dedicated to furthering the conversation on officer safety and wellness issues that impact the law enforcement profession. The Associates Magazine highlights challenges that are inherent to the profession and present solutions to those looking to enhance their own personal resiliency or that of their agencies. LAW ENFORCEMENT SUICIDE PREVENTION TRAINING RESIDES WHOLLY WITHIN THE PROFESSION PREVENTING SUICIDE AMONG OFFICERS IS NOT A LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING ISSUE


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training could be seen as ripe for all types of li- ability. Hence the avoidance of law enforcement suicide prevention training. This viewpoint could also be seen as fiscally responsible as it re- quires no investment in development or procure- ment of a program. On the other hand, having a suicide pre- vention program in place is a logical fit to any agency’s risk management plan. Suicide happens once every 12 minutes in the US, and there is no way to guard against it touching the lives of your officers or their families. Like other poli- cies or procedures developed with the hope that they are never used (a line-of-duty death manual, for example), suicide prevention training equips officers with tools to minimize injury or death. Teaching emotional survival tactics in the same manner as other tactical skills, will keep person- nel in tune to their surroundings, knowledgeable of the risk, and empowered to act. RECOMMENDATIONS • Consult with your municipality’s risk management personnel regarding suicide prevention. Get input from other vested parties such as the department’s insurance company, health care provider, occupational health nurse, and corporate counsel. • Examine department policies that may have been designed for officer safety long before support services for emotional health were available. Are there policies on prescription drug use that are outdated and may prohibit an officer from seeking help? Is there a policy in place that requires an officer to relinquish their duty weapon, and if so, when was it last updated? • Study trending articles that discuss awarding officers a disability for post-traumatic stress. Investigate why/how some states are streamlining the process for first responders to receive appropriate care. (State of Florida SB 376, for example.) How do these apply in your agency? • Visit a colleague who has dealt with suicide death within the agency. The colleague might welcome the acknowledgment, and you can learn from their experience. If you have experienced a suicide in the agency, demonstrate your growth mindset by making it an educational tool. Could you write an article, address a regular meeting of administrators, or speak at an FBI NAA



RECOMMENDATIONS • Collaborate with local, state, and federal suicide prevention coalitions who use training programs with proven efficacy and endorsements. Adapt existing suicide prevention training to meet law enforcement needs. • Emphasize to collaborators that your mission is to reduce death among officers, not to reiterate what law enforcement already does to reduce suicide in the community. Using an existing public health model and modifying it for law enforcement suicide prevention is a benefit to both the agency and the community it serves. • Find a coalition near you by contacting your social services, health department, or visit . A cognitive trap that some leaders experi- ence is the view that suicide prevention training is already covered in an existing support sys- tem such as psych services, chaplaincy, or EAP. A high-functioning support system for officers should have components that lead to overall good health. Yet leadership should not assume that suicide prevention training is provided by the system. Most often these facets are comple- mentary to suicide prevention but do not replace it. For example, resiliency training provides offi- cers with tools to develop pre- and post-traumat- ic growth. That is upstream suicide prevention and will hopefully keep an officer from heading into acute crisis. Suicide prevention training should be a stand-alone product that works in cohort with existing services such as peer sup- port, CISM, and mental health screening. The opposite view is the absence of a sui- cide prevention programming and assuming it is not necessary. If a department has not experi- enced a suicide or leadership believes the climate is healthy enough to ward off a threat, this view- point is understandable. Yet it could be fatal if it leads to cognitive restriction, “It can’t happen here.” To counteract this viewpoint, examine the data on suicide in the US. A synopsis reveals the highest number of suicides occur in white males between 35 and 60. Statistically, anywhere there is a population that meets that criteria, the risk of suicide is elevated. Does your agency match this demographic? Then factor in life-altering

events in a law enforcement career during this age span that exacerbate the risk. Suicide is an equal-opportunity form of death. It knows no boundaries. It can happen anywhere. RECOMMENDATIONS • Experience the support services of your department. Call the number you provide to personnel to see if it is cumbersome. Visit the EAP website to see if it is intuitive and helpful. Ask for a tour of the facilities. Remember that you expect personnel to use these services in time of crisis and they may not be thinking clearly. • Examine the guidelines, policies, or curricula used by peer support teams, honor guards, chaplains, or department psychologists to understand how they integrate and to identify any gaps or barriers to the support. • Think proactively, not reactively in terms of suicide prevention. • Foster a climate of wellness with messages that promote seeking help as a viable option to problem solving. • Send messages of hope on the effectiveness of early intervention rather than messages of despair that imply suicide is inevitable or part of police culture. • Use discernment when receiving or repeating data about police suicide deaths. Rely on factual data from credible national sources and apply it to law enforcement. • Implement some form of suicide prevention awareness by emersion into existing trainings and practices. This starts the conversation until time and resources are available to develop stand-alone training. With heightened scrutiny of law enforce- ment, leadership might avoid adding another potential liability stemming from training that enters into the affective domain. Even tacti- cal survival training for officers using tools and equipment has unknown variables impacting risk management. Therefore, emotional survival



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Cell phone theft has been an issue for several years. These personal devices hold an immense amount of private information which, in the wrong hands, can lead to a spiral of other crime if not stopped imme- diately. The Major City Chiefs Association adopted a Resolution on February 10th, 2012 encouraging the FCC to help. THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION T he Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates in- terstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories. An independent U.S. government agency overseen by Congress, the commission is the United States' primary authority for

communications law, regulation and technological innovation. Facing economic opportunities and challenges associated with rapidly evolv- ing advances in global communications, the agency capitalizes on its competencies in: • Promoting competition, innovation and investment in broadband services and facilities • Supporting the nation's economy by ensuring an appropriate competitive framework for the unfolding of the communications revolution • Encouraging the highest and best use of spectrum, both domestically and internationally • Revising media regulations so that new technologies flourish alongside diversity and localism • Providing leadership in strengthening the defense of the nation's communications infrastructure THE TECHNOLOGICAL ADVISORY COUNCIL The FCC’s Technological Advisory Council (TAC) provides tech- nical advice to the FCC. The TAC is organized under the authority of the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The current TAC, which is the continued on page 17


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