Rockwood Children CH19

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Clavicle and Scapula Fractures and Acromioclavicular and Sternoclavicular Injuries Benton E. Heyworth and Joshua M. Abzug

Midshaft Clavicle Fractures

Distal Clavicle Fractures

INTRODUCTION  720

INTRODUCTION TO DISTAL CLAVICLE FRACTURES  730

ASSESSMENT OF MIDSHAFT CLAVICLE FRACTURES  720 Mechanisms of Injury for Midshaft Clavicle Fractures  720 Injuries Associated With Midshaft Clavicle Fractures  721 Signs and Symptoms of Midshaft Clavicle Fractures  721 Imaging and Other Diagnostic Studies for Midshaft Clavicle Fractures  721 Classification of Midshaft Clavicle Fractures  722 Outcome Measures for Midshaft Clavicle Fractures  723

ASSESSMENT OF DISTAL CLAVICLE FRACTURES  730 Mechanisms of Injury for Distal Clavicle Fractures  730 Injuries Associated With Distal Clavicle Fractures  730 Signs and Symptoms of Distal Clavicle Fractures  730 Imaging and Other Diagnostic Studies for Distal Clavicle Fractures  731 Classification of Distal Clavicle Fractures  731 Outcome Measures for Distal Clavicle Fractures  731

PATHOANATOMY AND APPLIED ANATOMY RELATED TO MIDSHAFT CLAVICLE FRACTURES  723

PATHOANATOMY AND APPLIED ANATOMY RELATED TO DISTAL CLAVICLE FRACTURES  731

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR MIDSHAFT CLAVICLE FRACTURES  723 Nonoperative Treatment  724 Operative Treatment of Midshaft Clavicle Fractures  724

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR DISTAL CLAVICLE FRACTURES  732 Nonoperative Treatment of Distal Clavicle Fractures  732 Operative Treatment of Distal Clavicle Fractures  732

AUTHORS’ PREFERRED TREATMENT FOR DISTAL CLAVICLE FRACTURES  734

AUTHOR’S PREFERRED TREATMENT FOR MIDSHAFT CLAVICLE FRACTURES  726

MANAGEMENT OF EXPECTED ADVERSE OUTCOMES AND UNEXPECTED COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO DISTAL CLAVICLE FRACTURES  736

MANAGEMENT OF EXPECTED ADVERSE OUTCOMES AND UNEXPECTED COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO MIDSHAFT CLAVICLE FRACTURES  729

SUMMARY, CONTROVERSIES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS RELATED TO DISTAL CLAVICLE FRACTURES  736

SUMMARY, CONTROVERSIES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS RELATED TO MIDSHAFT CLAVICLE FRACTURES  729

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