Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. - Product Detail Binder (January 2013)

Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. 

800‐222‐5537

ALPHA TECH PET, INC. www.alphatechpet.com 119 Russell Street, Suite 21 • Littleton, MA. 01460 (978) 486-3690 • Fax: 486-3693

We’re the most well‐known provider of sanitation supplies to the animal care industry in the United States. 

We’ve been in business specializing in this area since 1989. 

Our owner is a veterinarian, who’s an entrepreneur continually developing environmentally friendly  solutions to enhance animal care facility sanitation awareness and effectiveness. 

We sell in both the ethical (veterinary) market, as well as in the OTC (non‐veterinary) animal care facility  industries (animal shelters, humane societies, boarding facilities, pet resorts, zoos, sea world, etc.).  We sell  directly, through distributors, and through buying groups of aggregate distributors. 

We sell our own products, as well as representing those of others who pass our own internal high level of  scrutiny for appropriateness to the industry. 

We provide unmatched customer service, and superior sanitation protocol awareness education. 

We know what we’re doing, we’ve been doing it a long time, and we do it very well.

Contents:

1. Sanitation Education 

2. Basic Sanitation Protocol  ‐ Products & Info

3. Enhanced Basic Sanitation Protocol – Products & Info

4. Intermediate Level Sanitation Protocol – Products & Info

5. Professional Level Sanitation Protocol – Products & Info

6. Enhanced Professional Sanitation Protocol – Products & Info

SANITATION EDUCATION

SANITATION PROGRAM ASSESSMENT TOOL (use our assessment tool to see how your facility ranks) 

BASIC * 

HSD (Hard Surface Disinfectant/Cleaners) only 

KennelSol + OdorPet 

ENHANCED BASIC  **  INTERMEDIATE  ***  PROFESSIONAL  ****  ENHANCED  PROFESSIONAL  ***** 

HSD + HLD/S (Higher Level Disinfectant/Sterilant) 

Lotus PRO Aqueous Ozone, YGIENE, Trifectant, Clorox  Healthcare Bleach 

HSD + HLD/S + Touch‐less Hand Sanitizers +  Microfiber Products & color coding  HSD + HLD/S + Touch‐less Hand Sanitizers + APS (Air  Handler and Air Treatment)  HSD + HLD/S + Touch‐less Hand Sanitizers + APS +  LPLF (Low Pressure Low Flow) chemical applicators  (as opposed to high pressure sprayers) & Touch‐less  Restrooms 

Purell & GOJO  Microfiber mops, cloths, mitts 

KennelSol APS (Chlorine Dioxide) treatment of air handlers  and facility air. 

Alpha HydroMAID  + Touch‐less Restroom conversion kits. 

Alpha Tech Pet is proud to be your expert in establishing a sanitation program tailored specifically for your needs; a program  that’s environmentally sensitive, superior in its efficacy, and maintains the highest standards of safety for animals under your  care and for your employees. 

          119 Russell Street ‐ Littleton, Massachusetts  01460     ∙     800‐222‐5537     ∙ www.alphatechpet.com

TECHNICAL BULLETIN

Super Animal Care Solutions

The Ideal Disinfectant

surprises me the number of times facility and practice managers continue to miss the mark on these simple principles. Failure to understand how environmental variables affect disease transmission, and/or failing to understand how infectious diseases are transmitted will be a recipe for failure no matter what sanitation program you may be employing or what disinfecting options you may be considering. A LOOK AT ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES Stress is a leading contributor to disease and animal care facilities are inherently stressful environments. Understanding some of the environmental contribu- tors to stress will prove helpful for effectively minimiz- ing disease transmission and creating a healthier en- vironment. Major environmental contributors to stress include, among other things, ventilation, temperature, humidity, and space. Ventilation: Proper ventilation is necessary to minimize spread of disease and reduce unwanted odors. As a rule-of-thumb, facilities should be capable of exchang- ing air 10 – 15 times per hour, and variably adjusting the ratio of recycled air to fresh air. Therefore a 10,000 CF facility should have an air-handler capable of mov- ing 100,000 – 150,000 CF of air per hour with the ability to adjust the proportions of recycled air to fresh air. Iso- lation wards should always be ventilated on a separate system from the rest of your facility, and some sort of quality air filtration system and/or air sanitizing pro- gram should be employed throughout the entire facility. Because hard surface disinfectants have little effect on air quality, it is important to recognize that numerous microorganisms are known airborne pathogens, and the very act of cleaning itself (when using high pres- sure sprayers) aerosolizes microorganisms and debris. Clean fresh air equals healthier happier animals. Temperature: To minimize stress, ambient tempera- tures should be maintained above 60°F and kept be- low 80 F (15-27°C) at all times, however, as a rule-of- thumb, temperatures should ideally be kept in a range normally considered comfortable for staff, animals, and the public (68-75°F).

We’ve all heard the saying, “You can’t see the forest for the trees.” When focusing too much on a single detail, it can be difficult to accurately access the bigger pic- ture. For example, I would assume that for the majority of those reading this article, the first thought that pops into the mind when thinking about or evaluating a dis- infectant is; “What does it kill?” Now as appropriate as this question might be, can an overemphasis upon a single disinfectant characteristic alone interfere with the ability to adequately access its overall appropriate- ness? I would suggest it most certainly does, and in fact is a major reason for so many “supposed” disinfectant failures. In this article I’m going to help you decipher and distill the world of disinfectants into a manageable toolset for evaluating the various options available to- day. In the course of doing so, we’ll be reflecting upon, among other things, the following two major questions: 1. Is there a bigger picture to look at for understanding the role disinfectants play in reducing disease trans- mission in animal care facilities? 2. What are the properties of an ideal disinfectant, and does such a disinfectant actually exist? Understanding these questions will provide tools to easily and effectively evaluate the many disinfectant choices available today. You will then be able to better parse past and future conference recommendations and marketing information into the raw materials nec- essary for decoding and deciding what’s best for your own facility. Is there a bigger picture to look at for understand- ing the role disinfectants play in reducing disease transmission in animal care facilities? As stereoscopic vision allows for depth perception, a proper understanding of environmental variables, plus an understanding of the basic principles of disease transmission, are both important for understanding disinfectants and their role as contributors to the big- ger picture of combating disease transmission. Disin- fectants by themselves are only part of the equation. Having been a veterinarian for 32 years now, it still

25 Porter Road, Suite 210, Littleton, MA 01460 Alpha Tech Pet, Inc.

www.alphatechpet.com (978) 486-3690 • Fax: (978) 486-3693

Humidity: Relative humidity should be maintained in a range between 30% and 70%. If your floor is still wet 10-15 minutes after cleaning, your facility humidity lev- el is likely too high and should be promptly adjusted. Space: Because facilities differ radically in age and design, overcrowding and other housing variables like size of space, proximity to other animals, visibility of other animals, design comfort, light levels, and sounds, can all add to stress levels and act as an ongoing and huge potential contributor to infectious disease trans- mission regardless of the sanitation program being em- ployed. If it’s not what a pet is used to at home, then stress will definitely be a factor affecting any animal staying in your facility. Did you know a sneezing cat can project aerosolized particles up to 5’ away from where it sneezes? BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR MINIMIZING DISEASE TRANSMISSION Minimizing transmission of infectious diseases involves an awareness of numerous principles affecting how successfully microorganisms are transmitted. Over- looking any of these principles will alter your level of success at combating infectious disease transmission in your facility. • An effective and diligent program must be in place as recommended by your consulting veterinarian for monitoring the health of animals entering a facility and the current health status of animals already in your facility. This program should minimally include mandated core vaccinations with ample opportuni- ty given for conferred immunity prior to an animal’s stay. • Stress levels of the population, environmental vari- ables such as ventilation, temperature, humidity, and space; and age and facility design as already men- tioned, all play significant roles warranting ongoing attention. • It’s also important to recognize the various vehicles for spread of contagions. Microorganisms are trans- mitted directly from animal to animal through feces, urine, saliva, and via aerosol transmission (hard sur- face disinfectants offer little help here), and indirect- ly through a process called “fomite” transmission; whereby employees and visitors pick up contam-

inated material from one animal, and unwittingly transmit it to other animals on hands, feet, hair, and clothing. • The trafficking management of animals within a facil- ity has significant potential for transmission of infec- tious disease if not managed and monitored correct- ly. This is an area I’ve often found to be completely overlooked in some sanitation programs. • Other variables are more obvious and would include, function and capabilities of sanitizers and disinfec- tants, equipment being used for cleaning and dis- infecting, quality of employee compliance with labeling directions , and a facility’s husbandry prac- tices for care of its animals. • Biofilms are an emerging topic of interest and war- rant mention here because failure to understand the protectant effect biofilms confer upon microorgan- isms may result in failure of a sanitation program at controlling disease transmission. Biofilms are ag- gregates of microorganisms adhering together in a matrix of self-produced extracellular polymeric sub- stances referred to as slime. This slime is a mixture of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides, and is extremely resilient to penetration by numer- ous hard surface disinfectants. If a sanitizer or disin- fectant can’t get at a microorganism, it can’t kill the microorganism. To highlight the importance biofilms play in disease transmission, the CDC has suggest- ed biofilms contribute to over 2 million infections, 90,000 human deaths, and $4.5 billion dollars in ex- cess human healthcare costs each year. Now that you have an understanding of how environ- mental variables contribute to disease transmission, and you also understand how infectious diseases themselves are transmitted, it’s now time to move on and discuss disinfectant characteristics themselves and the role these characteristics play in reducing dis- ease transmission in animal care facilities. What are the properties of an ideal disinfectant, and does such a disinfectant actually exist? Before diving into this section, let me first make a com- ment about customer perception. If you were to poll several hundred first time visitors to your facility, three dominant themes would emerge that control custom-

25 Porter Road, Suite 210, Littleton, MA 01460 Alpha Tech Pet, Inc.

www.alphatechpet.com (978) 486-3690 • Fax: (978) 486-3693

ers’ perceptions about your facility: What’s it look like? What’s it smell like? And how am I treated? You cannot afford to underestimate the power of these three per- ceptions. The first two of which are directly dependent upon your particular sanitation program and the prod- ucts you choose to accommodate that program in your facility. Let me begin by saying, the “ideal” or perfect disin- fectant does not actually exist. This is because the ex- tremes of safety and efficacy are often at odds with one another in use applications and during product development. A flamethrower would do an excellent job removing unwanted microorganisms, but the im- mediate and long term effects and damage created in the process would be completely unacceptable. Being able to define what an “ideal” disinfectant should look like however, will help you sort out the many options available for sanitizing and disinfecting your facility and allow you to adequately evaluate any product on the market for its suitability as part of your facility’s over- all sanitation program. Keeping in mind, there’s much more involved than just, “What’s it kill?” What you’re looking for is balance. As you evaluate products, avoid the extremes. Use the list that follows as a compari- son metric against which you will be able to evaluate the many disinfectant options you’ll encounter in the marketplace. Following are characteristics of an “ideal” disinfectant: PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL DISINFECTANT • Neutral pH (preferably in the range of 6.5 to 7.5). The pH scale is a measurement of how acidic or basic a substance is, and ranges in scale from a numeri- cal value of 0 to 14. The lower the number the more acidic a substance (hydrochloric acid has a pH of 1), the higher the number the more basic or caustic a substance is (sodium hydroxide has a pH of 14). The farther one moves away from neutrality (pH of 7.0), the greater the likelihood a substance will burn, cor- rode, or irritate; and the harsher a chemical will be on the surfaces it is applied, and the more dangerous it could be as an irritant to animals and people. Water has a neutral pH of 7.0. • Excellent cleaning ability. Though cleaning is not generally considered, in itself, a process of disin- fection; it is estimated that the combined effects of the removal of the medium in which contagions

grow, along with a reduction in actual microorgan- ism counts and the direct cellular actions surfactants have upon microorganisms, account for reducing overall microorganism contamination by up to 90%. Cleaning ability should rank near the top of your list of concerns in choosing a disinfectant as it accounts for upwards of 90% of your ability to control con- tagions. As a rule-of-thumb, if you can smell it, you haven’t cleaned it well enough. • A 1:64 concentrate (2 ounces of solution per gal- lon of water). Though super-concentrates (1:128 and 1:256 solutions) do have a place for use, those solu- tions do not contain enough material after diluting for effective widespread cleaning ability and odor control. Super-concentrates also lack dye concen- trations sufficient for satisfactory color upon dilution and are therefore easily wasted, especially in facili- ties lacking automated dilutors; as personnel often pour solutions until they see a satisfactory color. It’s just human nature. • Cost effective. Ready-to-use solutions are not cost effective options for widespread usage consider- ations. And as already suggested, super-concen- trates, due to waste and inadequate cleaning ability, may not be genuinely suitable solutions for wide- spread usage consideration either. • One-Step Functionality. You should ideally be look- ing for products with the ability to clean, disinfect, and deodorize in a single step; without rinsing or pre-cleaning being necessary for demonstrated effi- cacy. There is obviously a time and place for rinsing, as any substance will accumulate over time, but the key here is in having a product able to function in spite of rinsing or pre-cleaning being necessary. • Facility Sparing. Products you choose need to be compatible with the various materials commonly found in animal care facilities, like stainless steel, galvanized steel, carbon steel, aluminum, copper, vinyl, etc. With significant money invested in your fa- cility, you don’t want to destroy your investment by using products with the capacity to easily damage your facility. • Ability to function in an organic load. This is an of- ten easily overlooked characteristic of a disinfectant.

25 Porter Road, Suite 210, Littleton, MA 01460 Alpha Tech Pet, Inc.

www.alphatechpet.com (978) 486-3690 • Fax: (978) 486-3693

• Hard water compatibility. Hard water is water that has a high mineral content. This mineral content makes some disinfectants less efficacious. If your facility is in an area with hard water, check labeling before simply assuming a particular disinfectant is appropriate for use in hard water. • Spectrum of Activity. Without a doubt you want to utilize products having a superior spectrum of activi- ty against the major pathogens of concern within the animal care industry. And you want to also have an ILD (Intermediate Level Disinfectant) or a HLD (High Level Disinfectant) available and on hand when and as may be needed during periods of disease out- break, for use in isolation wards, and for intermittent facility treatment. This will be a disinfectant that is a step above the routine disinfectants generally uti- lized. It’s the “big gun” if you will. It should be clear however as you’ve been reading through this article that “Spectrum of Activity” alone is an insufficient basis for choosing a disinfectant. Remember…you need a complete and balanced package. In summary, the ideal disinfectant doesn’t actually ex- ist because the extremes of safety and efficacy are often at odds with one another in usage applications and during product development. Even still, numer- ous products are available today that are appropriate for use in animal care facilities and come close to the metric given in this article for identifying what an ide- al disinfectant should look like. By keeping this list in mind, you’ll be equipped to easily evaluate disinfecting options and decide what’s best for your own particular facility. Remember that balance is key, and don’t forget there’s a much bigger picture to consider in developing an overall sanitation program than just, “What’s it kill?” Shawn E. Seitz, D.V.M. President, Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. 25 Porter Road, Suite 210 Littleton, MA 01460 ©2017 Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. – Dr. Shawn E. Seitz

I still run into facilities using chlorine bleach who be- lieve they’re using a product that will “kill everything,” not realizing that bleach use requires pre-cleaning, as bleach is significantly inactivated by the presence of organic debris. • Environmentally friendly. As animal care facilities utilize significant amounts of disinfectants, choose solutions as environmentally friendly as possible. Many don’t realize how environmentally unfriendly some products are. Take bleach (sodium hypochlo- rite) as an example again. Bleach combines with or- ganic substances to create carcinogenic byproducts (thihalomethanes, etc.). Not good news for the en- vironment! These facts are putting pressure on nu- merous state government and local municipalities to rethink chlorine use and the levels permitted for var- ious applications. We could in fact see an emerging movement toward limiting or banning chlorine use altogether. • Ease of Use. Time is money, and the more steps it takes to do a job, the more it generally costs a facility to do that job. Products like powders that are cum- bersome to handle and dilute, or products requiring pre-cleaning, add unnecessary confusion and ex- pense to a sanitation program. You want to utilize products easy to use and safe to use. • Pleasant Fragrance. Remember what I said earli- er about customer perception. What’s it look like? What’s it smell like? And how am I treated? If an odor bothers you, you can bet it also bothers animals who have a much more heightened sense of smell than we do. Odors create a negative impression of your facility and also add unwanted stress to animals as well as to your staff. • Safe. You want to use products in your facility gen- erally regarded as safe for use around animals and people. But remember, safety is often in conflict with efficacy. The key here is balance. Utilize the entire metric of this article when evaluating a disinfectant and strive for as much balance as possible.

25 Porter Road, Suite 210, Littleton, MA 01460 Alpha Tech Pet, Inc.

www.alphatechpet.com (978) 486-3690 • Fax: (978) 486-3693

What about Quats & Parvo

TECHNICAL BULLETIN

Super Animal Care Solutions

What about Quats and Parvo?

Can Quats kill parvo? Oh not again, not another ar- ticle about Quats and parvo. Well, before you put this article down, hold on for a moment and read on, be- cause there’s a good chance you’re going to learn some things that might shed newer light on years of controversy. Without a doubt the Quat/parvo subject has been a convoluted mess containing a storied his- tory with lots of debate spanning a considerable num- ber of years now. This is because there have been substantial misunderstandings about testing, reporting inaccuracies, numerous competitor combatants, and confusions between criteria, methodologies for meet- ing established criteria, and various products whose only common denominator happens to be that they re- side within the same family of chemicals. Now for those of you who don’t want to spend the time wadding through this article, the short answer is both YES and NO. It all depends upon which Quat formula- tion you’re talking about, understanding what testing methodologies actually reveal about efficacy claims, and who you choose to believe and what information they are referring to. As a lone chemical, Quats by themselves definitely have difficulty killing parvo. But the beauty of Quats is that they play well with other chemicals and they most certainly can be formulated to kill virtually anything, including canine parvovirus (if done properly). It’s the reason Quats have been so popular over so many years in a wide variety of indus- tries. That’s the short answer. For the longer answer, read on. Up until 1997 the efficacy testing criteria recognized by the EPA for bacteria and viruses was the AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists) Use Di- lution Test Methodology. In 1997 the EPA expanded the scope of allowable testing, moving beyond the modified AOAC Use Dilution Test Methodology (for viruses), to also include virucidal effectiveness testing (ASTM E1053-97), and during this time methodology enhancements for meeting established criteria further evolved which tightened the belt for meeting testing compliance. And herein lies the rub that has created

the controversies – the confusions surrounding testing methodology refinements and evolutions, the timing of the changes, the differences in performance between laboratories and individuals employing these changes, and the fallout resulting from these methodology en- hancements over the years. And to make matters even more confusing, depending upon whom you speak with, you will get different stories about the specific history of these issues. As testing methodologies were refined and enhanced, canine parvovirus testing (which is one of the toughest microorganisms to kill) at the then current Quat label- ing dilution rate (2 ounces per gallon of a 1:64 con- centrate, ½ ounce per gallon of a 1:256 concentrate) experienced failures which resulted in various compa- nies (who had experienced failures) removing canine parvovirus from their labels. This should be no surprise. If a test methodology is tougher to conform to, more failures will be experienced. It is important to point out at this juncture that the AOAC Use Dilution Test Methodology has always been a controversial methodology due to its validation in- consistency from one test to another even when per- formed under ideal conditions (allowing for a fail rate of only 1 out of 60 tests). In other words, if a product is able to demonstrate a satisfactory microorganism kill 58 out of 60 times (yet a fail rate of only 1 out of 60 is allowable), according to the EPA, the product would be deemed to have been a failure against the microorgan- ism it is tested against (but is it really?). The AOAC Use-Dilution Test methodology is notorious- ly variable, on the basis of statistics alone (a product that produces a “passing” 1+/60 on average will fail the test some appreciable percentage of the time). Antimi- crobial Testing Laboratories – Round Rock, TX Furthermore in real life, surfaces can only support 10 2 microorganism growth; yet the EPA picked a require- ment of 10 4 microorganisms for satisfactory bacte- rial labeling kill claim capabilities (a factor 100 times

25 Porter Road, Suite 210, Littleton, MA 01460 Alpha Tech Pet, Inc.

www.alphatechpet.com (978) 486-3690 • Fax: (978) 486-3693

greater than what would be experienced in reality even under the dirtiest of conditions). And if that were not enough, the controversy is so significant, that the EPA is considering further changes whereby manufacturers may soon be required to meet a 10 6 log kill requirement on bacteria (but with a failure allowance of 6 out of 60 tests). The mere fact that the EPA is considering this magnitude of change, voices evidence of the current methodology’s inconsistency. So where does that leave us? As companies sought resolution to the parvo issue, it was determined a stron- ger 4x concentration (along with proprietary formula- tion enhancements) from the then standard labeled di- lutions for canine parvovirus could solve the problem, stand up under the scrutiny of enhanced methodology requirements, and provide 100% viral inactivation (for some of the companies). As a result, there are again now multiple Quat products on the market with labeling claims (at stronger dilutions) for canine parvovirus effi- cacy (ready-to-use products as well as concentrates). Because of the substantial misunderstandings that have gone on for such a long period of time, ongoing controversy surrounding canine parvovirus will likely continue to exist for a good while. This is because: (1) a proper understanding of the history of testing meth- odology evolutions on Quats has been lacking (which hopefully this article sheds additional light upon), (2) some have simply referenced outdated information, forming conclusions based upon that information, (3) others have performed independent testing on prod- ucts at dilutions not truly capable of killing parvo, or they’ve utilized formulations not capable of performing as stated on their product labels, (4) testing for canine parvovirus is very particular and mandates stringent controls and approved validated techniques to have reproducible confidence in the methods employed in testing, (5) some Quat manufacturers have not been able to realize these same newer results. And the only way those Quat manufacturers can compete against others who can substantiate claims is by creating FUD (fear, uncertainty, and doubt) about their competitor products. This only serves to further fuel the fire of the illusion that Quats cannot kill parvo, and finally, (6) Oth- er non-Quat formulation manufacturers do the same thing and are more than happy to join in “Quat-bash- ing” as it only serves to further their own cause by pro- moting their own products.

So the better question isn’t, “Can Quats kill parvo?” But, “Why can’t all Quats kill parvo?” The main reasons for this are as follows: • There are three major Quat manufacturers in the world. Only one of the manufacturers utilizes a 99% pure Didecyl Quat. The other two utilize a Didecyl Quat that is only 80% to 81.5% pure. Quat purity is one reason why some Quat products can validate parvo claims while others still cannot. • A second major parvo differentiator rests in the concentration of Quats utilized in individual formu- lations. Some Quat formulations just don’t employ a sufficient concentration to kill parvo, and this bullet point is also directly related to the one above it, Quat purity. • A third major parvo differentiator resides in the formulation itself; the particular combination of surfactants, solvents and other in-actives utilized in individual proprietary formulations. As stated earlier, “the beauty of Quats is that they play well with other chemicals and they most certainly can be formulated to kill virtually anything, including canine parvovirus.” It’s the combination of Didecyl Quat purity, overall Quat concentration, and a particular formula- tion’s surfactants, solvents, and other in-actives, that makes the difference on whether a particular Quat for- mulation can validate efficacy for parvo or not. Plus, at least one of the major Quat formulators is in pos- session of verified EPA validated data under AOAC and ASTM E1053-97 testing that’s as current as of the end of 2005; testing on canine parvovirus that’s recent enough to be sufficient for the upcoming EPA RED (Re- registration Determination) that will be visiting Quats over the next couple years. Shawn E. Seitz, D.V.M. President, Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. 25 Porter Road, Suite 210 Littleton, MA 01460 ©2017 Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. – Dr. Shawn E. Seitz

25 Porter Road, Suite 210, Littleton, MA 01460 Alpha Tech Pet, Inc.

www.alphatechpet.com (978) 486-3690 • Fax: (978) 486-3693

Dilution Chart

Diluted Cost Per Gallon Divide dilution into cost per gallon

Dilution Ratio Ounces/Gallon Percent

1:1 1:2 1:4 1:6 1:8

128

50% 33% 20%

64 32

Example:

(1:128 dilution selling at $13.40 per gallon) $13.40 ÷ 129 = 0.1038 or 10.4 ¢ per diluted gallon

21.3

14.3% 11.1%

16

Dilution Ratio

1:10 1:12 1:16 1:20 1:24 1:32 1:40 1:50 1:64 1:80 1:96

12.8 10.7

9.1% 7.7% 5.8% 4.8% 4.0% 3.0% 2.4% 2.0% 1.5% 1.2% 1.0%

Divide ounces per gallon into 128

8

6.4 5.3 3.2 2.5 4

Example:

(4 ounces per gallon dilution)

128 ÷ 4 = 32

Answer: 1:32 ratio

Ounces Per Gallon Divide dilution ratio into 128

2

1.6 1.3

1:128 1:170 1:256 1:512

1

0.78% 0.58% 0.39% 0.19%

Example:

0.75

(1:32 dilution) 128 ÷ 32 = 4

0.5

Answer: 4 ounces per gallon

0.25

Commonly used for Disinfectants Active Parts Per Million

Hard Water Measurements Hard water contains ions of magnesium and calcium.

Step 3: Divide the result by the dilution rate Step 1: Add all active ingredients together on label Step 2: Multiply by 10,000

1 grain of hard water = 18 ppm hard water

Example:

Example:

(450 ÷ 18 = 25) 450 ppm hard water = 25 grain

Step 3: 169,000 ÷ 257 = 658 ppm active Quat (Using KennelSol HC 1:256 dilution Quat) Step 1: 10.14% + 6.76% = 16.90% active Step 2: 10,000 x 16.9 = 169,000

© Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. 2010

most susceptible

COMMON EXAMPLES

mycoplamsas

haemobartonella

gram-positive bacteria gram-negative bacteria

staphylococcus, streptococcus escherichia coli, salmonella, bordetella

pseudomonads

pseudomonas aeruginosa rocky mountain spotted fever

rickettsiae

enveloped viruses

feline leukemia, FIP, FIV, FVR, Rabies, Distemper, parainfluenza

chlamydiae

feline pneumonitis, psittacosis

giardia

giardia

non-enveloped viruses

feline calicivirus

fungal spores

aspergillus, microsporum canis, trichophyton mentagrophytes

picornaviruses (FMD)

foot & mouth disease

parvoviruses

canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia

acid-fast bacteria bacterial spores

mycobacterium

anthrax, clostridium perfringens isospora, toxoplasma, cryptosporidium

coccidia susceptibility of microorganisms to chemical disinfectants ▼ prions

BSE

most resistant

© Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. 2010

BLEACH (sodium hypochlorite)

 Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl - ) is a halogen.

 Inexpensive, broad spectrum of activity, works by oxidation, denaturing proteins.

 Household bleach concentrations vary from 2% to 6%. Normally a 1:32 concentration (about 1600 ppm) is recommended for general disinfection, but levels as high as 1:10 are recommended for ringworm (microsporum canis) & 1:9 (5600 ppm – 14 oz/gallon as per EPA label dated 7/19/2010) for TB. Kate Hurley of UC Davis recommends the following formula for determining correct 1:32 dilutions: 21 divided by the % active = the # ounces of solution / gallon of water required  Because bleach degrades so quickly the EPA requires special labeling language stating the following: “Degrades with age”  Because liquid bleach is so unstable it needs to be stabilized by adding lye , a very corrosive chemical, resulting in a high pH of 11.5. Therefore bleach is very corrosive.  Because of its instability and quick inactivation, bleach solutions should be discarded every couple of hours.  Bleach loses its content continuously from the moment of manufacture, losing up to half its active by the time of purchase within 60 days of being manufactured.  When using bleach, pre-cleaning is necessary, and it must remain in contact with surfaces for 10 to 30 minutes.  In bleach 2 forms of free chlorine are present in a pH dependant equilibrium. The most potent of the two is HOCL (hypochlorous acid), found only in trace amounts when a solution has a pH of 9.0 or higher. Because bleach has a pH of 11.5, not much HOCL is actually available as a disinfectant. Instead what’s mostly present is the less effective form of free chlorine OCL - (the hypochlorite ion). Unfortunately the OCL - is 120 times less effective than HOCL as a disinfectant. This is why bleach has documented failures in eliminating dangerous pathogens like hepatitis and parvovirus, and it’s also why high levels and strict controls are required for confidence when using bleach as a disinfectant.  There is no sustained release of active.  Bleach is significantly inactivated by organic matter, light, and extended storage.

 Bleach is a very potent mucous membrane, tissue, and upper respiratory irritant.

 Bleach should never mix with acids as toxic chlorine gas will be released.

 A movement is gaining momentum where States and Municipalities are moving away from (discouraging) chlorine use due to the formation of carcinogenic trihalomines and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s).

Calcium Hypochlorite

 Calcium hypochlorite is a halogen.

 Relatively inexpensive, broad spectrum of activity, works by oxidation, denaturing proteins.

 Works in either cold or hot water.

 Loses only 5% of its potency in 18 months.

 75 ppm use solution as opposed to 1600 ppm required with bleach use. Each 200,000 ppm caplet lasts about 3 ½ hours. ( 1 tablet per 875 gallons of water, at a flow rate of about 250 gallons per hour )  No mixing required, no residues, no rinsing, biodegradable, no scalding, no bleach staining, environmentally friendly.

 Will not harm septic systems.

 Contains no lye as in bleach, therefore it is not nearly as corrosive as bleach.  Because it has a pH below 8.5, more HOCL (hypochlorous acid) is available than found in bleach, making it 120 times more effective than bleach.

 Inactivated by organic matter, therefore pre-cleaning is necessary.

 There is no sustained release of active.

 Should never mix with ammonia.

 The amount of chlorine dispensed is influenced by the rate of flow (water pressure). Never exceed 70 psi.

 Rapidly loses effectiveness at high pH

 A movement is gaining momentum where States and Municipalities are moving away from (discouraging) chlorine use due to the formation of carcinogenic trihalomines and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s).

 No actual parvo virus label claim.

Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate - NADCC

 NADCC is a halogen.

 Moderately priced, broad spectrum of activity, works by denaturing proteins.

 Contains a detergent so it cleans as well as disinfects.

 Tablets dissolve in about 2 ½ minutes requiring 1 tablet per gallon of water. There are 270 tablets per bucket.  Solution is good for 24 hours once activated and the tablets have 1 year stability prior to activation.

 No deleterious effects on floor finishes.  50% less corrosive to metals than bleach, but still corrosive .

 Does not bleach color-fast fabrics.

 Biodegrades to ammonia and CO 2 .  Not inactivated by organic matter.  Because it has a pH around 6.5, more HOCL (hypochlorous acid) is available than found in sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite making it much more effective.

 Does not kill spores.

 A movement is gaining momentum where States and Municipalities are moving away from (discouraging) chlorine use due to the formation of carcinogenic trihalomines and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s).

CHLORINE DIOXIDE (ClO 2 )

 Though it has Chlorine in its name, the chemistry of ClO 2

is radically different from that

of Chlorine.

 ClO 2 is generally accepted to be more powerful, easier to use, and more environmentally friendly than equivalent Chlorine treatments.  ClO 2 is less corrosive than Chlorine and almost negligible at use concentrations.  As an electron receiver, ClO 2 is an oxidizer. However ClO 2 has the ability to absorb 5 electrons whereas Chlorine can only absorb 2 electrons. This makes Chlorine Dioxide chemically 2.5 times more active than Chlorine. Unlike other disinfectants acting dominantly on cell walls, ClO 2 penetrates into cells, displaying a high affinity for sulfur and hydrogen bonds of proteins destroying the organisms. In addition ClO 2 reacts directly with the amino acids and RNA of a cell, killing microorganisms even when they are inactive.  ClO 2 is effective against Giardia and Cryptosporidium oocysts, and all bacteria, viruses and spore formers at 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm. It is effective against anthrax at 20 ppm.  ClO 2 has a neutral pH.  Biocidal properties are not influenced by pH. As a result ClO 2 rapidly inactivates most microorganisms over a wide pH range.  Many researchers have cited the excellent biofilm removing properties of ClO 2 . Chlorine Dioxide effectively penetrates and disperses the “polysaccharide glue” of biofilm. By effectively killing and stripping off biofilm, bacteria are much slower to reestablish than when biofilm is left intact. This is something most other disinfectants have particular problems doing!  Unlike Chlorine, ClO 2 will not adversely react with organic compounds and as a result ClO 2 does not produce unwanted carcinogenic chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC) and trihalomines. In fact, instead of combining with the aromatic rings of organic compounds, ClO 2 actually breaks these rings apart reducing levels of chlorinated organics. This makes ClO 2 use environmentally sparing! Also, because ClO 2 does not react or combine with organic compounds, much more of it remains available as a biocidal agent.  ClO 2 can be used for odor control and air disinfection, and was the principal agent used in the decontamination of buildings in the United States after the 2001 anthrax attacks.  ClO 2 is highly soluble in H 2 O, in fact it is 10 times more soluble than Chlorine, i.e., ClO 2 loves and looks for water/moisture. In neutral or near neutral solutions (4< pH <10) chlorine dioxide is relatively stable and exists as a free radical in water.  ClO 2 generation forms byproducts of chlorite and chlorate, decomposes in sunlight and is highly biodegrabable.

Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide

Ingredients:

Hydrogen Peroxide 2-hydroxybenzoic acid

(oxidizer) (lowers pH) (lowers pH)

Phosphoric acid

 A strong oxidizing compound

 Broad Spectrum of activity, oxidizes proteins.

 1:16 recommended use solution (viruses, bacteria, fungi, some spores).

 Expensive! Expensive! Expensive!

 Solution is stable for up to 10 days after diluting.

 Registered as a Category IV product by the EPA – all ingredients listed by the EPA as GRAS (generally regarded as safe).

 Biofilm reducer – but not an actual label claim!  Moderate activity in the presence of organic debris.  Biodegradable to CO 2 & H 2 O 2 .  Releases phosphates (Pollutants) in sewer water.

 Low pH of 1.0 concentrate & 1.9 in dilution makes this a very acidic product to use.

 Damaging to some metal (anodized aluminum, copper, brass, carbon steel).

 Parvo claim is only on the concentrate.

 1 to 5 minute contact time for many organisms, 10 minutes for fungi, 20 minutes for spores.

Accel, Oxivir Five 16

TRIFECTANT (chemical combination)

Ingredients:

Potassium peroxymonosulfate

(oxidizer) (lowers pH) (lowers pH)

Sulfamic Acid Malic Acid

Sodium hexametophosphate Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate

(Buffering agent)

(Surfactant)

 An oxidizing compound

 Broad Spectrum of activity, oxidizes proteins.

 0.5% to 1.0% (1:100 - 1.3 ounces per gallon of water) recommended use solution.

 A 10# bucket makes 123 gallons of end-use solution.

 Expensive! Expensive! Expensive!

 Solution is stable for up to 7 days after being activated, and has moderate activity in the presence of organic material.  A yellow powder with a citrus scent that is readily soluble in warm water. The powder is corrosive.

 Effective on porous surfaces.

 Biofilm reducer – but not an actual label claim!  Moderate activity in the presence of organic debris.

 Leaves a residual film.

 Biodegradable.

 Releases phosphates (Pollutants) in sewer water.

 Low pH of 2.5 makes this a very acidic product to use.

 Damaging to some metals.

 Not approved for use in California.

PHENOLICS

Environ, Tektrol, PineSol, etc: Not effective against non-enveloped viruses or spores, and concentrations above 2% are highly toxic to all animals, especially cats. Effective in the presence of organic matter. These products are not recommended and are no longer permitted to be used as laboratory disinfectants.

IODINES

Due to excessive cost, not widely used in animal care environments. Iodines are in short supply.

BIGUINIDES

Chlorhexidine, Nolvasan, Virosan: These alter membrane permeability. They only function in a limited pH range of 5–7, and are toxic to fish and therefore an environmental concern.

Aldehydes

Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde: Denatures proteins, alkylates nucleic acids, broad spectrum, carcinogenic, potent mucous membrane and tissue irritants, only use in well ventilated areas. Efficacy is reduced with organic matter. Effective on spores.

OTHER NOTES:

Efficient cleaning can remove 99% of bacteria present. Cleaning is the most crucial step in the disinfection process. Foot baths can instill a false sense of security if not used properly!

BASIC SANITATION PROTOCOL 

HSD (Hard Surface Disinfectants) + Cleaners/Degreasers

KennelSo ® Germicidal Detergent & Deodorant Disinfects,Cleans and Deodorizes in one labor saving step! ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride..................................................................... 2.535% n-Alkyl (C 14 50%, C 12 40%, C 16 10%) dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride........... 1.690% OTHER INGREDIENTS......................................................................................... 95.775% TOTAL ................................................................................................................... 100.000% KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN DANGER (See side panel for additional Precautionary Statements, First Aid and Direction for Use) Net Contents: One Gallon (3.784 litres) EPA Reg. No. 62472-1 EPA Est. No. 10634-MA-1

STORAGE AND DISPOSAL Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or disposal. PESTICIDE STORAGE Store in original container in areas inaccessible to children. Open dumping is prohibited. Do not reuse empty container. PESTICIDE DISPOSAL Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous. Improper disposal of excess pesticide, spray mixture or rinsate is a violation of Federal Law. If these wastes cannot be disposed of by use according to label instructions, contact your local State Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency or the Hazardous Waste representative at the nearest EPA Regional Office for guidance. CONTAINER HANDLING Nonrefillable container. Do not reuse or refill this container. Triple rinse container (or equivalent) promptly after emptying. Triple rinse as follows: Fill container 1/4 full with water and recap. Shake 10 seconds. Drain for 10 seconds after the flow begins to drip. Follow Pesticide Disposal instructions for rinsate disposal. Repeat procedure two more times. Then offer for recycling if available or puncture and dispose of in a sanitary landfill, or by incineration, or, if allowed by state and local authorities, by burning. If burned, stay out of smoke. *PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS HAZARDS TO HUMANS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS DANGER. Corrosive. Causes irreversible eye damage and skin burns. Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Avoid breathing spray mist. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Wear protective eyewear (goggles, face shield or safety glasses), protective clothing and protective gloves (rubber or chemical resistant). Wash thoroughly with soap and water after handling and before eating, drinking, chewing gum, using tobacco or using the toilet. Remove contaminated clothing and wash clothing before reuse. FIRST AID IF IN EYES: Hold eye open and rinse slowly and gently with water for 15 – 20 minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present, after the first 5 minutes, then continue rinsing eye. IF ON SKIN OR CLOTHING: Take off contaminated clothing. Rinse skin immediately with plenty of water for 15 – 20 minutes. IF SWALLOWED: Call a poison control center or doctor immediately for treatment advice. Have person sip a glass of water if able to swallow. Do not induce vomiting unless told to do so by the poison control center or doctor. Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. IF INHALED: Move person to fresh air. If person is not breathing, call 911 or an ambulance, then give artificial respiration, preferably by mouth-to-mouth, if possible. Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice. Have the product container or label with you when calling a poison control center or doctor or going for treatment. NOTE TO PHYSICIAN: Probable mucosal damage may contraindicate the use of gastric lavage. Measures against circulatory shock, respiratory depression and convulsion may be needed.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE It is a violation of Federal Law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling. DIRECTIONS FOR DISINFECTING: (Bactericidal, Fungicidal, Virucidal) For use on hard, non-porous non-food contact surfaces such as floors, walls, metal surfaces, stainless steel surfaces, glazed porcelain, and plastic surfaces. Remove gross filth and heavy soil deposits then thoroughly wet surfaces. Use 2 oz per gallon of water (8 oz per gallon against Canine parvovirus and Porcine parvovirus) for a minimum contact time of 10 minutes in a single application. Can be applied with a cloth, mop, or sponge, as well as by coarse spray or soaking. The use solution is prepared fresh for each use then discarded. Rinsing is not necessary unless floors are to be waxed or polished. FUNGICIDAL DIRECTIONS: For use in areas such as locker rooms, dressing rooms, shower and bath areas and exercise facilities follow disinfection directions. MILDEWSTATIC INSTRUCTIONS: Will effectively control the growth of mold and mildew plus the odors caused by them when applied to hard, nonporous surfaces such as walls, floors, and table tops. Apply solution (2 oz per gallon of water) with a cloth, mop, sponge or coarse spray making sure to wet all surfaces completely. Let air dry. Repeat application weekly or when growth reappears. VETERINARY CLINICS / ANIMAL CARE / ANIMAL LIFE SCIENCE LABORATORIES / ZOOS / PET SHOPS / KENNELS / BREEDING AND GROOMING ESTABLISHMENTS / EQUINE FARMS DISINFECTION DIRECTIONS: For disinfecting the following hard non-porous surfaces: equipment used for animal food or water, utensils, instruments, cages, kennels, stables, catteries, etc. Remove all animals and feeds from premises, animal transportation vehicles, crates, etc. Remove all litter, droppings and manure from floors, walls and surfaces of facilities occupied or traversed by animals. Thoroughly clean all surfaces with soap or detergent and rinse with water. Saturate surfaces with a solution of 2 oz of KennelSol per gallon of water (or equivalent dilution) (8 oz per gallon against Canine parvovirus or Porcine parvovirus), using a cloth, mop, sponge, spray, or soaking for a period of 10 minutes. Ventilate buildings and other closed spaces. Do not house animals or employ equipment until treatment has been absorbed, set or dried. *FOR CANINE PARVOVIRUS (AND PORCINE PARVOVIRUS) ACTIVITY: KennelSol is effective against Canine Parvovirus (and Porcine parvovirus) at 8 oz per gallon. Follow Veterinary Practice / Animal Care / Animal Laboratory / Zoos / Pet Shops / Kennels Disinfection Directions. **SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR INACTIVATING AVIAN INFLUENZA: Remove all poultry and feeds from premises, trucks, coops, and crates. Remove all litter and droppings from floors, walls, and surfaces of facilities occupied or traversed by poultry. Empty all troughs, racks, and other feeding and watering appliances. Thoroughly clean all surfaces with soap or detergent and rinse with water. Saturate surfaces with the disinfecting solution (2 oz per gallon of water) (660 ppm active quat) (equivalent use dilution) for a period of 10 minutes. Immerse all halters, ropes and other types of equipment used in handling and restraining animals as well as forks, shovels, and scrapers used in removing litter and manure. Ventilate buildings, coops, and other closed spaces. Do not house poultry or employ equipment until treatment has been absorbed, set, or dried. Thoroughly scrub treated feed racks, troughs, automatic feeders, fountains, and waterers with soap or detergent, and rinse with potable water before reuse.

KennelSol ® Germicidal Detergent & Deodorant A multi-purpose germicidal detergent and deodorant effective in hard waters up to 400 ppm hard water (calculated as CaCO 3 ) plus 5% organic serum. Disinfects, cleans, and deodorizes in one labor saving step. For use in kennels, pet shops, tack shops, veterinary clinics, animal life science laboratories, breeding & grooming establishments, schools, colleges, equine farms, airports, hotels & motels. For use in households. Bactericidal against the following pathogenic bacteria according to the AOAC Use-Dilution Test method, current edition, modified in the presence of 400 ppm synthetic hard water (calculated as CaCO 3 ) plus 5% organic serum: Proteus vulgaris Bordetella bronchiseptica Serratia marcescens Escherichia coli Staphylococcus aureus (antibiotic resistant) Fusobacterium necrophorum Klebsiella pneumoniaea (antibiotic resistant) Streptococcus pyogenes Proteus mirabilis Salmonella enterica Salmonella typhimurium Escherichia coli (antibiotic resistant) Fungicidal against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans according to the AOAC fungicidal test, modified in the presence of 400 ppm hard water (calculated as CaCO 3 ) plus 5% organic serum. Virucidal against *Canine parvovirus, Canine distemper, Feline leukemia, Feline panleukopenia, Feline picornavirus, Influenza A/Hong Kong, Herpes simplex type 1, Herpes simplex type 2, Vaccinia, Rubella, Adenovirus type 4, Rabies, Porcine parvovirus, Pseudorabies, Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Infectious bronchitis (Avian IBV), **Avian Influenza A (H3N2) virus (Avian Reassortant) (ATCC VR-2072), and **Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus according to the virucidal qualification, modified in the presence of 400 ppm hard water (calculated as CaCO 3 ) plus 5% organic serum. Shigella sonnei Staphylococcus epidermidis (antibiotic resistant) Enterobacter cloacae Pasteurella multocida Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella typhi Chlamydia psittaci Shigella flexneri Enterobacter aerogenes Streptococcus faecalis (antibiotic resistant) Klebsiella pneumoniae Streptococcus faecalis

Alpha Tech Pet, Inc. 25 Porter Road, Suite 210 Littleton, MA 01460 • 800-222-5537 Manufactured for: © 2019 Alpha Tech Pet Incorporated • Made and Printed in U.S.A.

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