Associate Magazine - FBINAA - Q4 - 2022
(L-R) FBINAA Executive Director Howard Cook, NA Session 224; FBI Assistant Director Timothy Dunham, FBI Training Division
FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Academy Building 8-102 Quantico, VA 22135
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F E A T U R E S 08 The FBI Academy’s 50th Anniversary John F. Fox, Jr. 12 Public Safety and 5G – What You Need to Know Dale Stockton 16 De-Escalation Through Community Service David R. Thompson, MPA 18 Combating Gun Violence in Your Community: How You Can Implement Smart Technology to Make an Impact Jason Potts
22 Making Ends Meet: An Officer’s Perspective Eric Charles
26 Empowering Arrestee Booking with Rapid DNA Major Todd Morris, Sheriff Sid J. Gautreaux, III, Philip Simmers, Joanie Brocato, Ph.D C O L U M N S
04 Association Perspective 07 National Office Update 25 A Message from Our Chaplain 28 Historian’s Spotlight 30 FBINAA Charitable Foundation 33 National Academy Update 39 Life After Law Enforcement E A C H I S S U E 06 Strategic / Academic Alliances A D I N D E X – 5.11 14 T-Mobile 24 Verizon-The Fallen Officers Fund
35 eSOPH 40 CRI-TAC – JFCU
NATIONAL BOARD Association President / TIM BRANIFF Program Manager-Emergency ManagementSound Transit (WA), firstname.lastname@example.org
Representative, Section II / LARRY DYESS Captain, Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office (LA), email@example.com
Representative, Section III / TIM CANNON Special Agent Supervisor, Florida Lottery (FL), firstname.lastname@example.org
Past President / KENNETH M. TRUVER Chief, Borough of Castle Shannon (PA), email@example.com
Representative, Section IV / STEPHEN HRYTZIK Chief, Powell Police Department (OH), firstname.lastname@example.org
1st Vice President / SCOTT RHOAD Chief/Director of Public SafetyUniversity of Central Missouri (MO) (Ret.), email@example.com 2nd Vice President / CRAIG PETERSEN Sales Account Manager, ProLogic ITS (MS), firstname.lastname@example.org 3rd Vice President / BILL CARBONE Detective (OSI) NYS. Attorney General's Office, New York City Police Department (Ret.) (Ret.), email@example.com Representative, Section I / JIM GALLAGHER Chief of Police, Central Arizona Project Police, firstname.lastname@example.org
Chaplain / MIKE HARDEE Senior Manager, Covert Investigations Group (FL), email@example.com Historian / CINDY REED Special Agent (Ret.), Washington State Gambling Commission, firstname.lastname@example.org
FBI Assistant Director / TIMOTHY DUNHAM Assistant Director, FBI Training Division (VA)
Executive Director / HOWARD M. COOK Chief (Ret.), FBINAA National Office (VA), email@example.com
2023 DENVER/CO JULY 29-AUG 1
HOSTED BY THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN CHAPTER WWW.FBINAACONFERENCE.COM/2023
FBINAA NATIONAL ANNUAL TRAINING CONFERENCES | SAVE THE DATE FOR 2023
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Q4 2022 | Volume 24/Number 4 The National Academy Associate is a publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc.
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CALL FOR ASSOCIATE MAGAZINE ARTICLE SUBMISSIONS Call for Article Submissions on 21st Century contemporary trends, challenges, and issues facing the global law enforcement community. The National Academy Associate Magazine, the official publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, is seeking subject matter experts 21st Century Policing Topics for Consideration: LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT TRENDS COMMUNITY POLICING BODY-WORN CAMERAS LEGISLATION AND IMPLEMENTATION EXTREME RADICAL GROUPS AND INTERACTIONS ON BOTH LEFT AND RIGHT HOMEGROWN RACE = BASED VIOLENT EXTREMISM CIVIL UNREST AND PROTEST ISSUES: PROTEST PROCEDURES/ACTIONS TACTICAL RESPONSE RECRUITING MEDIA RELATIONS FINANCES/BUDGETS DURING TIMES OF CRISIS RECRUITING DIVERSITY OFFICER HEALTH AND WELLNESS RETIRED MEMBER FITNESS to write original, unpublished, continuing law enforcement-related education articles.
Howard Cook / Executive Director, Publisher John Kennedy / Director, Communications & Grants, Editor in Chief Bridget Ingebrigtsen / Editor Dave Myslinski / Design © Copyright 2022, the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this magazine without express written permission is strictly prohibited.
The National Academy Associate is published quarterly by the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Office, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135.
The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. is a private, non-profit organization and is not part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or acting on the FBI’s behalf. Email editorial submissions to firstname.lastname@example.org. Submissions may vary in length from 500-2000 words, and shall not be submitted simultaneously to other publications. Please see our submission guidelines for more information. The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., the National Board and the editors of the National Academy Associate neither endorse nor guarantee completeness or accuracy of material used that is obtained from sources considered reliable, nor accept liability resulting from the adoption or use of any methods, procedures, recommendations, or statements recommended or implied.
Photographs are obtained from stock for enhancement of editorial content, but do not necessarily represent the editorial content within.
Editor’s Note: The picture captions and names on the Q3 FBI National Academy – A Retrospective Through the Eyes of a NA Grad article, pages 24-25, were missing. Page 24: Photo with the medal: (L-R) Ed O’Carroll, Arnie Daxe, and Joel Leson; Page 25: Photo (L-R) Ed O’Carroll, Arnie Daxe. Our apology for the omissions.
CYBER CRIME AND MANAGEMENT LAW ENFORCEMENT AND COVID-19 LIFE AFTER LAW ENFORCEMENT OTHER
On the Cover: FBINAA Executive Director Howard Cook, NA Session 224, and FBI Assistant Director Timothy Dunham, FBI Training Division, in the courtyard at the FBI National Academy.
For submission guidelines, please visit www.fbinaa.org.
A s we all prepare for the joyful holiday season, it doesn’t go without a heartfelt reminder and prayer for those who have given the ultimate sacrifice in the line of duty, and to their fami lies doing without their presence over the holiday, plus our first responder brothers and sisters experiencing various struggles and loss as a result of Hurricane Ian. We owe it to the families, loved ones, and close law enforcement colleagues to remember and pray for them during these difficult times. We also need to revere and appreciate the work being done by our men and women working the streets and answering the call, while several of us cherish family holiday traditions. On behalf of the FBINAA National Board and Staff, we welcome our newest members from Session #283, and the upcoming grad uation from Session #284 on December 8th. It was a tremendous honor for me personally, to meet each of them, and welcome them into the finest law enforcement association in the world. “Why Membership Matters” – one of my many roles this presidential year is being the best advocate and ambassador for not only our National Office Team, but our Membership Commit tee and their innovative work being done to increase member benefits. I realize I continue to put this on the forefront of each chapter, but as I initiated our first of many Virtual Engagement Meetings (VEM) , with each chapter within each of the four sec tions, I wanted to provide a regular opportunity for the chapters to hear about the great things happening within our association, but also summon ideas, thoughts, suggestions, and successes from our chapter leaders. This tremendous opportunity for chapter leaders to jump on from their office or home and virtu ally connect provided a new norm and allowed them to con nect more regularly to help build consistent and strong models throughout our association. "Our Membership Purpose” although important, for a stronger membership program is greater than the connectivity through a computer screen. My in-person visits over the past several months, along with our board members visiting chapters within their sections has reinforced my faith and persistence in our goal to increase membership chapter by chapter, and sec tion by section, and what our role as an association means to our law enforcement agencies, communities, and network. The importance of networking opportunities, consistent association business, member outreach, and training continues to drive our ability to effect positive change. To listen and hear about mem ber milestones, successes, challenges, and our role is critical to everyone, not just an individual chapter or area of our work. Additionally, as promised, our Membership Committee is working diligently to help develop new ideas and value for our life membership program. As we roll out some new Life Member benefits this January, I asked our committee to recognize that these benefits should be a moving target and continually look at new incentives and member value, and to present them to the National Board. We must continuously recognize and reward those life-long members who continue their unwavering support for our association. I emphasized to them, this programmust be evaluated on a constant basis, to ensure we are providing the
quality and value of member benefit to award those sustain ing members and encourage all members to strive toward this triumph. Member value is more than when one receives their membership, it is the training, shared network, personal devel opment, being a part of the strongest law enforcement network and so much more. Unlike any other, the power of our active members means our association has a shared influence throughout the world. Beyond our mission or purpose, our association is often used as a leverage for a member’s expertise or resource to address critical need or advice through a collective attribute of FBINAA Membership. We must continue to focus on the positive aspects of investing in relationships that help us flourish. As we compare ourselves to other associations, we face similar challenges for member engagement, but the generational makeup of our asso ciation and organizational structure continues to help strength en our motivational fulfillment and support. This attitude and dedication only motivates our engagement with each member and our association as a whole, while we identify gaps and op portunities for our members to stay engaged. As you “Think Membership” , I continue to be inspired by your work, and look forward to visiting with several of you over the next few months and hear about your success stories with increased membership and value. Have a blessed holiday season, and Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!
Tim Braniff FBINAA President FBINA 226
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RENEW YOUR MEMBERSHIP NOW
W W W . F B I N A A . O R G REACH OUT & RE-ENGAGE!
FORUM-DIRECT ® YOU’RE COVERED
ACADEMIC ALLIANCES MAGNA LEVEL ALLIANCES
PLATINUM ACADEMIC ALLIANCES
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A s 2022 winds down, it's time to celebrate and build on our successes, as well as remember our fellow NA grads who have endured many challenges throughout the year. The FBI Academy just celebrated its 50th anniversary of being located at Quantico. We are fortunate to be working with a great group of professionals at the Academy and outstanding group of incoming students, as well as being located at a state-of-the art training facility. Each day when we walk through the halls, we feel the excitement of the new and innovative programs and experiences being shared with law enforcement executives. The 58th National Annual Training Conference in Cleveland was one of the most successful in our history. Congratulations to the Co-Host Committee, Ohio Chapter, Eventive Group, and the National Team for a job very well done! A special thanks to all of our exhibitors and sponsors for their continued support and friendship. We can’t wait for another exceptional conference next summer in Denver. We are back on track with full sessions for the 10-week pro gram. Session #284 is now at the Academy, the fourth session of 2022. While the pandemic postponed a few sessions, we are back on schedule and look forward to a full schedule in 2023. In January, we introduced the FBINAA Leadership Certifica tion Program. The program is a series of courses, open to all law enforcement professionals, that encompass the latest strategies, techniques, and real-world leadership scenarios to prepare each attendee to better lead their respective unit, shift or agency into NATIONAL OFFICE UPDATE FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Howard Cook
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the unpredictable future of law enforcement. So far this year we have 1,500+ enrolled in the program and 92 graduates. The 2022-2023 National Board has hit the ground run ning. This is an exciting time as we grow our membership under President Braniff’s direc tion of Reach Out & Re-Engage! With your help, we’ll grow our membership with new mem ber benefits and networking opportunities.
Let us never forget and support our members and their fami lies who continue to endure the conflict and unrest in Ukraine and those who have suffered because of the natural disasters that have devastated their communities. We continue to keep our friends and families in our thoughts and prayers.
Howard M. Cook FBINAA Executive Director FBINA 224
JOHN F. FOX, JR.
O f course, our facility is just a small part of the extraordinary U.S. Marine Corps Base that we have been honored to share since the 1930s. Our place there began to gel after the passage of the National Firearms Act, confirmed Bureau personnel authority to carry firearms as federal agents and to arm and train them in the use of those arms. At the time, a rapid mobilization was needed: firearms ranges and training expertise had to be found to bring us up-to-snuff as we faced Dillingers, Baby Face Nelsons, and Pretty Boy Floyds robbing banks and killing police with impunity. The U.S. Armed Services and police partners were there for us. Camp Ritchie, Camp Sims, Fort Washington, and Quantico were all offered and experienced Army, Marines, and veteran law enforcement trainers engaged. New training regimens were integrated into the New Agent curriculum. The late Hank Sloan , an FBI grown firearms legend, remembered what these early days looked like, recording in his
This year we celebrate the anniversary of the modern FBI Academy campus. In May 1972, 50 years ago, our new Academy opened its doors and soon welcomed the first New Agent and National Academy classes to take advantage of its state-of the-art facilities. Quantico, as we usually refer to our school, has become not just an institution, but its image and myth have permeated our popular culture in print and screen.
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The Korean War led to another surge in training needs, leading to additional expansion at Quantico including setting up auxiliary ranges on the new expansion of the base West of U.S. Highway 1. It was the expansion of the foreign training side of the FBI National Academy program a few years later that set in motion the events leading to 1972. Our aging Academy buildings were not up to the demands for training that the Kennedy and Johnson administration pressed. Discussions on the need to expand and modernize the FBI Academy presence at Quantico ensued. As ever, the USMC was on board and in 1966 the General Services Admin istration broached the idea with Congress, noting that “current facilities for the Academy at Quantico are wholly inadequate and the new project is one of high priority.” President Johnson wanted the Bureau to greatly expand its NA training but was in the midst of pushing a federal austerity pro gram to offset his “Great Society” spending. In the end, according to former Bureau executive Cartha De Loach , the Bureau traded a GS 14 position for a Johnson signature on a $40 million appropria tion to get the campus going, a typical LBJ type deal. With this appropriation passed, plans for a new academic style campus in the Guadalcanal Area of the expanded Quantico base took off. Construction began soon after, and on May 7, 1972, the FBI Academy opened its doors. The campus covered hundreds of acres and included ten new buildings and six firearms ranges. Like a college campus, it had two dormitory buildings, an exten sive and central library, an auditorium, a lecture hall, a gymna sium, a cafeteria, 23 fully equipped classrooms, and more. A bit more than a month later, on June 26, 1972, the first expanded FBI National Academy class commenced at Quantico with 200 students attending the session. It was the 90th Session of the NA and the first new training cohort to begin since the Academy opened its doors. Two weeks later, the first new Agents class began, opening with yet another milestone in Bureau his tory – the first women FBI agent trainees. Following these firsts, the number of NA classes per year doubled, eventually increasing ten-fold from our 1960s highs. New Agent classes increased too as the Bureau’s agent rolls increased, but the rate did not match the multiplication of NA classes. continued on page 11
diary at the time that on his second day as a new agent (May, 1935), his class “Left Wash 4:00 p.m.; Arriving Fort Washington by bus at 5:00 – Show at nite – living in tents – Rain.” At 5:00 a.m. the next morning, Sloan and classmates were up and shooting pistols at 25 yards, alternating slow and rapid shooting. Hank was “highest at Rookies” as he and his colleagues turned into bed early, “nearly frozen.” The next day “pistol work continued” as well as instruction in the 30.06 rifle and Colt Monitory Machine Guns. And the third day, the .351 Auto was added with “bobbing and walking targets with pistol,” one of the early forms of Hogan’s Alley training first introduced by Army and law enforcement in the 1920s. Sloan’s experience was at Camp Ritchie, where his NA Class was trained, but it was the same across all facilities the Bureau used and Quantico soon became a clear favorite due to the quality of its facilities and availability of former Marine Corps instructors to help. The birth of the FBI’s National Police Training School (soon to be known as the FBI National Academy) occurred not long after Sloan graduated. On July 29, 1935, the NA’s predecessor wel comed a class of 23 U.S. law enforcement officers to share its prac tice and vision of professional police training with them in order to spur the creation of more local and state training opportunities for American police. Not surprisingly, the need for access to firearms ranges dramatically increased and the Bureau remained indebted to generosity of various Services and local police who made their facilities available to us. International peace was short lived. The military threats of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan were rising, and our service personnel numbers were ticking up and Service facilities were more in demand. A more important factor in the need for Bureau specific training spaces was that the average firearms use of military and police shooters were very different. In a nutshell – police experience more quick, short-range engagements; military infantry sees more long gun based shooting. Dedicated, law enforcement-oriented firearms ranges were needed, and local law enforcement ranges were neither sufficient in quality nor quantity to help address the problem. The USMC leadership at Quantico had a solution, offering us space on Barnett Avenue, the heart of the base at Quantico, and land on the base to begin developing ranges specific to our training needs. Congress was brought on board and an appropriation was quickly approved. In the fall of 1939, construction began, and in the spring of 1940 a multi-story building that included dormi tory space for 64, two classrooms, dining and kitchen facilities, a gymnasium, and a small gun-cleaning room and vault was finished and immediately put into use. Training for both NA and NAC programs alternated between Washington, D.C.’s Old Post Office Building and Quantico, as a steady stream of agent and law enforcement training classes made use of Quantico. The world was at war, and the United States had been on the brink of joining. With the Pearl Harbor attack, needs exploded. The Bureau doubled beds in the dormitory and even borrowed space in nearby Marine dorms even as Marines needs multiplied too. Despite such growing needs, the USMC continued to help us meet our training needs even as it addressed its own. Additions to our Barnett Avenue Academy Building and regular expansion of our dedicated firearms ranges led to the paving of “Mud Flats” and a multiplication of additional ranges in order to keep pace with Bureau and National Academy growth.
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Nor was the Academy simply a new facility. Along with the image of a modern academic campus, the Bureau worked with the University of Virginia (UVA) to develop a deeper relationship. By 1972, the Bureau and UVA were finishing a two-year affiliation and accreditation study and agreed to formally partner to advance police professionalization. Now, the National Academy could work with UVA instructors as well as provide its students access to UVA course work and credit. Our training was shifting from the old emphasis on the “nuts-and-bolts”/”how-to” skills that National Academy students could adapt to creating professional police training upon their return home to the development of in-depth academic studies aimed to help modern police managers function in an increasingly complex world. The first NA classes at the Academy emphasized the latest in sights into police work/criminal studies in the fields of behavioral science, education, forensic science, law, and management sci ence. Within a few years, in large part due to our arrangement with UVA, the Academy was able to offer some 30 academic courses and earn up to 16 semester hours of undergraduate credit or nine hours of graduate credit. New facilities also made training for police management possible. In 1976, Director Kelley instituted the National Executive Institute to meet the needs of the chief executives of the largest of the U.S. police agencies. By 1981, this managerial training had become so important that the Academy’s Management Science and Leadership Unit of the Training Division offered the first Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar [LEEDS]. The course was offered at the Bureau’s Academy at Quantico in coop eration with the University of Virginia. LEEDS was aimed at chiefs of mid-level police departments and remains an important spur to developing professionalism at all steps of the law enforcement career ladder. Nor were the latest developments and applications of foren sic science forgotten. It remained a key link between the founding purpose of the FBI Academy and National Academy of the 1930s and the new Academy. Although the Bureau’s Forensic Science Unit only offered one course as the new Academy opened, that changed rapidly. Training in fingerprint identification, for exam ple, led to the development of the Administrative Advanced Latent Fingerprint Course, the first specialized police course taught at the Academy to be accredited by the University of Virginia. The Latent Print Photography course was granted accreditation too. In 1977, the Bureau began to pursue funding for the development of a Forensic Science Training Center at Quantico and in 1981 the new center opened its doors on the campus to increase both the training offerings in forensic science and the investigation of new applications that would advance our application of the latest scientific and technical advances. By the 1980s, more than forty forensic science related courses were available. Another key connection between old and new Academies, was an embrace of fitness. The tally of weight lost by class had been a feature of pride for our classes, a key marker of the training rigor that students embraced. In 1981, a new tradition was intro duced – the NA Fitness Challenge. Pride at completing the 6.1-mile obstacle course was a pinnacle step for Academy trainees; and in 1988 it was immortalized with the award of a “yellow brick” in memory of the course markers challengers followed as they tackled the course. As we know, NA graduates world-wide proudly display their bricks, a sign both physical and ineffable of their achievement at Quantico.
The Quantico Campus continued to develop through the 1980s. Most significantly, in 1987, a new Hogan’s Alley was opened. The town with the most robbed bank in the world was an evolu tionary jump of such magnitude that it became an immediate pop culture sensation. When Army and police gun trainers started to use amusement park shooting gallery type scenarios to develop shoot/don’t shoot skills and named them after a turn of the century comic strip about New York slum kids, real-life scenario firearms training took its first small step. By the 1950s, the Bureau had incorporated a novel firearms range consisting of a street filled, on one side, with store fronts where mechanical pop-outs controlled by instructors tested trainees as they faced “threats” from the gangster era or simply a random store clerk. With the adoption of SWAT training in the 1970s and the creation of the FBI’s Hostage Rescue Team in 1984, such training was inadequate at best. Plans to create realistic facilities, populated by trained actors and instructors playing anything from a scared victim to a devious but hidden criminal played out in buildings and rooms set up like real life tactical situations was clear advance in training. The inclu sion of real-life FBI offices, store fronts, and even a small restaurant in the town of Hogan added to the realism. Demand continued to grow. Through the 1990s the inter national training aspects of the Academy increased rapidly and yellow bricks were now found in police offices across the post Cold-War world. As Director Freeh noted, the need for “cop-to-cop bridges” was critical to successfully addressing the global threats and the NA was building these bridges. Training demands after the 9/11 attacks only increased the demand placed on the now-aging facilities at Quantico. By 2009, FBI was leasing local hotel space to cover deterioration of existing facilities and over-capacity demands for student beds. The once state-of-the-art classrooms struggled to keep up with advances in computers and digitization in education. There were similar issues across all Bureau programs and facilities, but they were starkly clear and publicly manifested as we celebrated the Academy’s 40th anniversary in 2012. In 2012, Director Mueller petitioned for upgrades to the origi nal infrastructure, largely unchanged since 1972. They had been designed for a 500,000 square foot complex, but the FBI now man aged a 2 mil sq ft complex. Some of the firearms ranges date to the 1950s. The estimate for repair/upgrade projects could top $250 million and were desperately needed. A long-term repair, retrofit, and construction project began as problems from leaky founda tions and windows to upgraded HVAC and electronic systems was instituted. Staples like the dorms, the cafeteria, and the board room were renovated and new state-of-the-art firearms ranges were installed. Today as these projects are finalized, most having been completed at this point, we may consider how our Academy has changed and hasn’t changed. Sen. Roman Hruska was the keynote speaker at the June 7, 1972, graduation of the 89th National Academy Class, the last session to pass through the old Academy structure. He reminded the class of a clear, but no less important point: The NA has “been a principal means by which there has developed close working relationship among all levels of law enforcement in this nation.” A similar epitaph echoes this and remains engraved on the FBI Headquarters courtyard wall: “The most effective weapon against crime is cooperation …
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PUBLIC SAFETY & – WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
Wireless connectivity facilitates fast, effective communication and public safety agencies around the country have been increasingly embracing mobile technology to support a variety of mission critical and mission essential operations. Until recently, those operations have relied upon 4G, which was first introduced in the United States more than 10 years ago. Now, however, 5G is widely available and provides significant improvements over the previous generation of wireless.
F ew technologies have received as much attention as 5G, but the benefits of the technology are still being realized as agencies migrate to 5G-capable devices. The safety of first responders depends on fast, reliable access to critical applica tions and data no matter the assignment, whether it’s a rapidly evolving tactical situation, a fast-moving wildfire, or a search and rescue operation during a natural disaster. With 5G, data transfer rates improve significantly, and latency is substantially reduced. This means high volumes of data can be delivered in near real time and overall situational awareness can be expanded and improved significantly. Some examples of emerging areas that utilize 5G include real time video feeds for evolving critical incidents, facilitated emergen cy response based on timely assessment of vehicle location and routing (green wave), and live-streamed, on-demand, body-worn camera feeds during an emergency. It’s likely that the use of body worn cameras will expand beyond law enforcement to both fire and EMS operations, allowing scene commanders to better assess rapidly changing fire environments, and emergency rooms to see the actual condition of a patient in the field. Expansive single pane-of-glass command centers can now display levels and quality of information that dramatically improve decision making. MAKING A DIFFERENCE WITH SENSORS Another area where 5G is showing great benefit is in sensor utilization, and there is a unique aspect that merits consideration for public safety tech planners, especially within the context of
smart cities. Orthogonal sensor cueing refers to a situation where one sensor tells a second sensor to execute an action or initiate a process. Conventional
4G transmissions can introduce a degree of latency during which a situation could change and make the action of the second sensor inconsequential. Imagine a ground sensor that detects vibration and notifies a pan/tilt/zoom camera to move to the affected area. With low-latency 5G, the subject is captured on video in near real time and the image can be immediately reviewed (by a human or AI-assisted video analysis) for criteria such as carrying an object or being armed with a weapon. In this example, any significant de gree of latency could result in missing potentially critical informa tion. Suffice it to say that 5G supports a much wider deployment of integrated and intelligent sensor networks that will help public safety professionals operate proactively and mitigate risk. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING 5G As public safety agencies consider the wide array of potential use cases, it’s instructive to understand the different frequency bands that comprise 5G. There are three general band groups of 5G frequency - low, mid, and high. Unless you’re a commu nications engineer, this is an area that can be confusing and it’s important to not focus solely on the incredible data transfer rates
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4G networks. The wide set of spectrum bands available to be stacked together are unique to 5G, allowing network flexibility and effective functionality in a variety of operational environments. THE LARGEST 5G NETWORK ADVANTAGE After the 2020 merger with Sprint, T-Mobile deployed a great variety of spectrum to create America’s largest 5G network. This 5G capability is becoming increasingly beneficial to public safety and the potential is clear: first responder agencies can expand operational capabilities and improve overall information access and exchange. Because of 5G, many agencies are already seeing significant opportunities and realizing operational advantages in ways that would have been difficult to envision only a few years ago. The widespread adoption of 5G by public safety will be both transformational and revolutionary, with new capabilities continuing to evolve as agencies communicate their operational requirements to public safety technology vendors. DATA PRIORITY IS NOW A REALITY Access to mission-critical data is essential for first respond ers and T-Mobile recently announced an important develop ment regarding data prioritization on its network. During the recent FBI National Academy Associates Annual Conference, T-Mobile Sr. Vice President George Fischer told conference attendees that effective immediately, first responder agencies who have voice priority and preemption as a result of their enrollment in the Wireless Priority Service (WPS), will also have priority for their data on smartphones, hotspots and tablets. And in a situation where a natural disaster or major incident may impact service, T-Mobile will provide network resources to them first. Similarly, if a first responder is using data in a low-cov erage area, the network will automatically reallocate resources to help maintain that critical connection. A press release was issued
made possible by the high-band frequencies of millimeter-wave (mmWave) transmissions. Although mmWave can deliver remark able speeds, it has limitations. It does not effectively penetrate structures or other physical objects such as glass or even trees, and it has very limited range. This means that the use of mmWave technology is most appropriate for situations like a large stadium where the density of mobile devices is extremely high or on an open street corner with very heavy pedestrian traffic. At the other end of the 5G spectrum is low-band, also com monly known as the “coverage layer” because it is used to deploy substantial 5G coverage effectively across large areas. This is the approach used by T-Mobile to leverage the 600MHz spectrum nationwide and has resulted in the nation’s largest 5G network. A low-band cell site can cover very large areas and it’s very effective at passing through buildings. This makes it a practical and effec tive way to provide solid coverage to rural areas that previously lacked effective broadband coverage. Critical incidents can occur anywhere, including small rural communities. The rollout of the T Mobile 5G network to these underserved areas is remarkable and will allow many agencies to effectively leverage cellular technol ogy to improve operational capabilities. In between the high- and low-band layers is, not surprisingly, the mid-band spectrum and it delivers long range for broad cover age. Mid-band offers a balance of speed, capacity, coverage, and penetration that’s especially suited for densely populated urban areas where connectivity demand is high. This is why mid-band has often been called the “sweet spot” spectrum and it is espe cially well suited for many public safety operations. The high-capacity T-Mobile wireless network makes extensive use of both mid-band 2.5 GHz and low-band 600 MHz frequencies to deliver broad reach with signals that can penetrate structures and provide data transfer rates that are substantially faster than
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the same day that Fischer made this announcement. Continued from "Public Safety & 5G – What You Need to Know, on page 13
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the efforts of all law enforcement agencies with the support and understanding of the American people.” Director Hoover’s and Senator Hruska’s words are no less true of the FBI Academy today as it was in 1972. About the Author: John F. Fox, Jr., has been with the FBI since 1999 and was named FBI Historian in 2003. He was awarded a PhD in modern American history from the University of New Hampshire in 2001 and an MA in political science from Boston College in 1993. His articles have appeared in a number of journals, the FBI’s website, and other venues. He has contributed chapters to several books and co-wrote The FBI: A Centennial History. Fox has been involved in several cooperative museum proj ects, including the temporary exhibit on the FBI and the media that was on display at the Newseum from June 2008 until June 2016 and the various iterations of the FBI Tour/Experience. He has appeared in many documentaries in the US and Europe, ap pearing on BBC-4, C-Span, CBS Sunday News, CNN, Netflix and Turner Classic Movies, among others.
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T-Mobile is the first and only wireless provider to add data pri ority in collaboration with the DHS Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), which oversees the WPS system. T-Mobile has been working closely with CISA to streamline the enrollment process for all first responder agency customers. As a result, data priority will now be automatic for mobile devices already enrolled in WPS and there is no fee or requirement for additional registration to obtain data priority. For agencies that have data-only devices, such as tablets, T-Mobile has begun enrolling those lines in WPS to ensure data priority will be available if it’s needed. While at the conference, Fischer did a short video interview during which he emphasized the importance of data prioritization for public safety. “When there’s a major incident, often towers or parts of other networks are down,” he said. “The ability to prioritize data for the first responder means they get the available bandwidth that’s out there and they can operate effectively when it counts the most.” T-Mobile Vice President Dave Bezzant was also at the FBINAA Conference. He has been a key part of the collaborative effort with DHS/CISA and has strongly supported providing WPS enrollment assistance to first responders. Bezzant did a short video interview during which he stressed the importance of prioritizing data for public safety. “Tablets, mobile device terminals, whatever form of data that first responders want to use throughout the United States, will have priority data and it does not de-prioritize on the back end. That’s especially important because it works on 5G,” he said. Bezzant also provided some insight on T-Mobile Connecting Heroes and the reasoning behind the program’s 10-year com mitment to provide free, subsidized, and low-cost smartphone connectivity and technology assistance to state and local first responder agencies. “We did research and we looked at where government institutions needed assistance,” he said. “Far too many times, we saw that there were first respond ers who did not have the proper equipment or the proper gear to be able to do their job. We want to make sure that every first responder does not have to compromise on budget and has access to the tools that they need to keep America safe.” Forward-thinking public safety leaders across the country are recognizing that empowering front-line personnel with mobile de vices provides increased operational efficiency, improved safety, and more effective community engagement. The sheer utility of a smartphone is a game changer for first responders and the return on investment is quickly realized, especially when agencies are part of the Connecting Heroes program. You can learn more about how public safety agencies are improving operational effectiveness and the T-Mobile Connect ing Heroes program designed just for first responders by visiting T-Mobile.com/PublicSafety. About the Author: Dale Stockton is a 32-year veteran of law enforcement and has frequently assisted both agencies and vendors in effectively leveraging technology for public safety. Capable device required for 5G; coverage not available in some areas and may be impacted by emergencies; check your response area. Some uses may require certain plan or feature; see T-Mobile.com. WPS eligibility must be confirmed by USDHS. Functionality for WPS users (including priority access, preemption, and data priority) may not be available while roaming. Completion of calls not guaranteed. Connecting Heroes available to qualifying agencies’ first responder lines; eligibility verified.
FBINAA GRAVE MARKER
We must never forget the leaders who came before us and made this great association what it is today. As stewards of the membership, it’s our duty to recognize these leaders and our history and build on their successes to make this association stronger for future NA grads. When you hear of a member’s passing in your Chapter, please consider honoring the member with a FBINAA grave marker. The grave marker will serve as a permanent tribute to having served their family, community, and the law enforcement profession.
Actual Size – 3.04" x 3.4"
DE -ESCALATION THROUGH COMMUNITY SERVICE
DAVID R. THOMPSON, MPA
I was extremely excited and just as nervous on my first day of patrol after being released from field training. After all, I was a lean, mean United States Marine (veteran) who was ready to chase bad guys, take people to jail, and save the world. No one was more prepared or qualified for this task, at least in my mind! After patrolling for about an hour, I received my first radio call. I immediate ly picked up the microphone and acknowledged my availability. To my disappointment, it was an animal com plaint. I checked my speedometer while driving to the call and discovered I was traveling well over the posted speed limit. M y heart was racing, and I had to calmmyself down and slow down. I arrived at the residence to find an elderly woman in the front yard flagging me down. Exiting my vehicle, she directed me to the backyard, where to my surprise, there was an alligator lying under a palm tree. Now this beast, in my mind, was 12 feet long and vicious. In actuality, the gator was approximately 6 feet in length and lying perfectly still, as if sleeping. I was scared to death, had no idea what to do or how to do it; however, I had an ego and a reputation to uphold. After all, I was a lean, mean United States Marine, a crime fighter ready to take on the world. I assured the woman that I had things well in hand and shooed her into her house. Not knowing what to do, I grabbed my shotgun and took up a cover position behind an adjoining tree. As time ticked by with nothing happening, the shotgun beginning to get very heavy and the alligator ignoring me, I realized it was
a stalemate. After 20 minutes or so, a gentleman pulled up next to me, exited his truck, looked at me, and said, "put that thing (shotgun) away boy". Now he was thin and all of 5'4" tall and weighed 130 pounds. He wore a worn-out pair of jeans, a button up shirt, and a dirty cowboy hat. I was 6'1" tall, 190 pounds, and was dressed in my spit and polished uniform. What was this frail, small-in-stature gentleman going to do that I, a lean, mean United States Marine, couldn't do? Let me tell you, he jumped on the back of the alligator, looked at me, and said, "hold him for me." I looked around, hoping he was speaking to someone else but not wanting to be embarrassed and having way too much ego and pride to say no, I jumped down to hold the gator. This gentleman showed me how to hold the gator and clamp his jaws shut. When he was sure that I had things in control, he got up and left me there. I believe he knew I was scared to death, and he enjoyed watching me squirm and sweat. In just a few moments, he pulled out a roll of tape and taped the gator's jaws shut. We loaded the gator into the back of his truck and later released it in a preserve. Of course, I went to the residence and informed the elderly complainant that I had solved her issue. You may ask yourself, what does wrestling an alligator have to do with de-escalation? When someone calls the police, it's because they need assistance. They call with the expectation that the police will make the situation better – to help, not hurt! Every law enforcement organization exists to serve and protect the com munity. Every law enforcement officer entered the profession be cause they wanted to help people, make a difference, and serve. No one entered this profession because they wanted to escalate or to do harm. Serving your community could mean "wrangling an alligator" or de-escalating an intense situation. It's about com munity service and community expectations. It is why we are here and why we exist! What is de-escalation? De-escalation is simply reducing the intensity of a situation, slowing down or creating time, and decreasing the potential use of force by the officer. Thus, reducing injuries to both the officer and the community as a whole. De-escalation is not a dirty word, and it is not an officer safety issue. It is a community service issue. We can never assume de escalation will always be effective. There are incidents where de escalation may not be appropriate or will fail. Officer safety and sound tactical techniques should never be compromised. Force is always an option and may be necessary to obtain compliance. In the 1989 film Road House, Patrick Swayze said it best while instructing his bouncers about their assignment. He said, "Be
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SCOTT CLAUSE/USA TODAY NETWORK
Continued from "De-Escalation Through Community Service", on page 16
nice until it’s time not to be nice." Officers should always use their interpersonal communication skills first until it is ineffective or the situation warrants different actions. Law Enforcement Executives have a substantial role and responsibility to move the organization into the community-ser vice mindset. The responsibilities go beyond well-written vision, mission statements, and lofty social media marketing techniques. Executives must recognize the law enforcement culture, ego, and "I'm in charge and it is my way or the highway” mentality. Executives must embrace and require the service mentality from all organizational components. They must reward and promote officers who demonstrate this mentality and professionalism and implement systems to discourage those who don't. Executives must also staunchly defend officers who use the necessary force when de-escalation is ineffective or impractical, even when it is politically unpopular. The community expects law enforcement to provide community service and de-escalation as an essential community service component. It's why we are here! Officers also expect to be steadfastly supported when they use reasonable force. Socrates said, "The secret of change is to focus all of your energy not on fighting the old, but on building the new."
About the Author: David R. Thompson is a veteran of the United States Marine Corps and served the Saint Lucie County Sheriff’s Office (Florida) for over 30 years. He re tired as the Director (Chief) of Law Enforcement, holding command positions throughout the organization. David earned a Bachelor’s degree in 1997 from Barry University in Miami, Florida, and a Master of Public Administration Degree in 2001 from Troy State University in Troy, Ala bama. He is a February 1999 graduate of the University of Louisville Southern Police Institute Command Officers Development Course and Graduated from the FBI National Academy 230th Session in September of 2007.
David has been an adjunct faculty member of Indian River State College since 1989 and currently teaches at the Public Administration and Criminal Justice Programs. David is the President of Thompson Strategic Solutions, LLC, providing consulting and training services, allowing him to apply his extensive knowledge and experience to the private and public sectors.
FBINAA FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Strategic AMBASSADOR LEVEL Alliance 2022
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COMBATING GUN VIOLENCE IN YOUR COMMUNITY: HOW YOU CAN IMPLEMENT SMART TECHNOLOGY TO MAKE AN IMPACT
The United States experiences far higher rates of gun violence and deaths than any other wealthy country in the world. In fact, U.S. gun violence deaths are more than 8 times more common than Canadian gun violence deaths, and more than 100 times more likely than U.K. gun violence deaths. A nd although the narrative portrays gun violence as an urban and inner city issue, the truth is much more complicated: shootings harm every corner of the United States, from cities to suburban communities to rural towns. As law enforcement officers, the public depends on us to stall these rising numbers, but the root causes of gun violence are far too complex to tackle with a single solution. Though there is not one single solution to eliminate the prob lem, there are proven and effective technologies that can help combat the harmful effects of gun violence. Technologies like Automated License Plate Recognition (ALPR) help law enforcement fight gun violence proactively and reactively, solve gun crimes faster, and get guns out of the hands of people who should not have them. Throughout my time as a captain at Vallejo Police Depart ment in California and my current position as Director and Chief for the Las Vegas Department of Public Safety, I’ve seen our officers experience success combating gun violence with data, technology and community relationships.
Here are several tactics to apply at your agency: USE CONTEXTUAL DATA TO UNDERSTAND WHY SHOOTINGS ARE OCCURRING IN YOUR JURISDICTION Before establishing a plan of action to combat firearm crime, it’s critical to understand the why behind the shooting events in your area. Only after proper environmental scanning and analyzing can officers truly equip themselves with the knowledge needed to intervene accordingly. For example, at Vallejo Police Department, we used social media monitoring to key in on a rise in shootings initiated by online disputes, gang activity and street racing events. Jurisdictions that pinpoint organized street crime and social media conflict as the main motivators behind gun violence often find that witnesses are unwilling to provide critical information to law enforcement out of fear of retaliation or personal connection, which can significantly impede case clearance. FOCUS ON COLLABORATION AND TRUST WITHIN YOUR COMMUNITY In an effort to reduce gun violence and increase witness cooperation, it is absolutely imperative for law enforcement agen cies to build strong relationships with their community. It is a long and dynamic process, especially in historically high-crime neighborhoods, but putting forth the effort to remain transparent, objective, and ethical pays dividends when it comes to preventing gun violence in the long run. At Vallejo PD, we saw success with a few different approaches: • We established an Operation P.E.A.C.E. initiative (Predictive Enforcement And Community Engagement) to focus on proactive community engagement and crime reduction. Even simple community improvement initiatives like installing lighting and planting trees in vacant lots can impact crime. • We invested in Flock Safety ALPR technology to remain ethical and unbiased in our policing efforts, which helped foster a collaborative community environment.
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