MS Spanish Map

Curriculum Map 2021-2022

SPANISH MIDDLE SCHOOL

CSD CURRICULUM MAPS Tools for Curriculum Coherence and Equity

Curriculum Map Purpose

Canyons School District’s curriculum maps are standards-based maps driven by the Utah Core Standards and implemented using materials adopted by the Canyons’ Board of Education. The maps and materials are coordinated vertically within feeder systems and horizontally within grade-levels. Student achievement is increased when both teachers and students know where they are going, why they are going there, and what is required of them to get there.

Curriculum Mapping are a Tool for:

• ALIGNMENT: Provides support and coordination between concepts, skills, standards, curriculum, and assessments. • COMMUNICATION: Articulates expectations and learning goals for students. • PLANNING: Focuses instructional decisions and targets critical information for instructional tasks. • COLLABORATION: Promotes professionalism and fosters dialogue between colleagues about best practices pertaining to sequencing, unit emphasis, length, integration, and review strategies.

Curriculum Mapping Collaboration

Canyon School District Curriculum maps were collaboratively developed and refined by teacher committees, achievement coaches, building administrators, and the Instructional Supports Department.

Canyons School District 2021-2022 School Calendar K-12

August

September

October

Teachers at School

Aug 9-13

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S

First Day of School

Aug 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4

1 2

First Day of School for Kindergarten

Aug 19

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Labor Day Recess

Sept 6

Midterm Quarter Grades 6-12

Sept 15

Parent/Teacher Conferences High Schools

Sept 20, 21

29 30 31

26 27 28 29 30

24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Parent/Teacher Conferences Middle Schools

Sept. 21, 22

31

Parent/Teacher Conferences Elementary Schools

Sept. 22, 23

November

December

January

Early Out Elementary

Sept 23

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S

No Student Day (Compensatory Day)

Sept 24

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 2 3 4

1

K-5 Trimester Midterms

Sept 28

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Fall Recess

Oct 14, 15

End of 1st Quarter Grades 6-12

Oct 22

End of 1st Trimester K-5

Nov 11

28 29 30

26 27 28 29 30 31

23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Midterm Quarter Grades 6-12

Nov 23

30 31

Thanksgiving Recess

Nov 24-26

February

March

April

Winter Recess

Dec 20-31

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S

K-5 Trimester Midterms

Jan 11

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2

End of 2nd Quarter Grades 6-12

Jan 13

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Grading Day Grades K-12

Jan 14

Martin Luther King Jr. Day Recess

Jan 17

Midterm Quarter Grades 6-12

Feb 16

27 28

27 28 29 30 31

24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Presidents' Day Recess

Feb 21

May

June

End of 2nd Trimester K-5

Feb 25

Note: The Board may determine an alternative option, i.e., Digital Learning Day, Presidents' Day, Independent Learning Day, for instructional time lost due to emergency school closure(s)

S M T W T F S S M T W T F S

Parent/Teacher Conferences Middle Schools

Feb 28, Mar 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4

Parent/Teacher Conferences High Schools

Mar 1, 2

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Parent/Teacher Conferences Elementary Schools

Mar 2, 3

Early Out Elementary

Mar 3

No Student Day (Compensatory Day)

Mar 4

29 30 31

26 27 28 29 30

End of 3rd Quarter Grades 6-12

Mar 18

Spring Recess

Apr 4-8 Apr 18 Apr 26 May 26

Teachers at School

No Student Days

K-5 Trimester Midterms

Start and End of School Year

Parent/Teacher Conferences

Midterm Quarter Grades 6-12

First Day of School for Kindergarten

End of School

Red A Day Black B Day

K-5 Trimester Midterms

*Every Friday is an Elementary Student Early Out Day **Elementary early out Sept 23 and March 3

K-5 Trimester End Midterm Quarters

Grades 6-12 Grades 6-12

***This calendar is not for Brighton Students

Quarter End

CSD Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) Framework

MTSS Critical Components

High Quality Academic and Behavioral Instruction and Intervention

Data for Decision Making

Team-based Problem Solving

• Building a positive school climate involves actively promoting building positive relationships, setting high expectations, and committing to every student’s success. • Equitable education ensures equal access regardless of race, color, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, age, religion, disability, language, or socioeconomic status. • Ongoing, targeted, quality professional development and coaching supports effective instruction for ALL students. • Leadership at all levels is vital. • ALL CSD students, parents, and educators are part of ONE proactive educational system that is committed to equitable outcomes. • Evidence-based instruction and interventions are aligned with rigorous standards. • CSD educators use assessments that are reliable, valid, and aligned to standards. • CSD educators use data to measure student progress and implementation of system supports

• CSD educators use data to guide instructional decisions, and allocate resources. • CSD educators problem solve collaboratively to meet student needs.

Student Achievement Principles for Academics and Behavior

MTSS Practices for ALL Educators

Evidence-Based Instructional Priorities: ACADEMIC Planning, instructing, and assessing techniques are implemented to increase student engagement and learning. Teacher clarity (ES: 0.75) Explicit instruction (ES: 0.59) (I, We, Y’all, You) Instructional hierarchy (ES: 0.58): Acquisition, Automaticity, Application (AAA) Feedback cycle (ES: 0.75) Systematic vocabulary (ES: 0.67) Structured classroom discussion (ES: 0.82) Maximizing Opportunities to Respond (OTR) (ES: 0.60) Scaffolded Instruction & Grouping (SIG) structures (ES: 0.49)

Evidence-Based Instructional Priorities: BEHAVIOR Classroom PBIS expectations are aligned to schoolwide PBIS expectations and implemented to prevent and decrease behavioral disruptions. 1. Establish and post rules/ routines 2. Teach rules/routines 3. Monitor rules/routines 4. Reinforce rules/routines 5. Correct behavior errors 6. Use data for decision making Positive teacher-student relationships (ES: 0.75) Active supervision (ES: 0.62) Pre-correction (ES: 0.83) High ratio of positive to corrective feedback (ideally 4:1 or higher) (ES: 0.75) Precision requests Differential reinforcement (ES: 0.95) De-escalation Strategies: Help, Prompt, Wait PBIS Toolbox: Self-monitoring (ES: 0.97) Group contingencies (ES: 1.02) Token economy (ES: 0.90) Classroom PBIS (ES: 0.68)

Standards for Instruction

Time Allocation for Instruction

Teacher and Team Learning Data

Student Performance Data

Continuous Problem Solving for Improvement

Teaming Structures

Standards clarify what students are expected to learn and do.

School culture ensures that instructional time is maximized to increase student growth.

Supporting teacher learning and professional growth is fostered through public practice and ongoing feedback. Annual setting of goals and documentation of progress (e.g. TSSP, LANDTrust, CTESS) Public practice applications: • Coaching cycles with peer coaches, teacher specialist, achievement coach, and/or new teacher coach • Learning walkthroughs and targeted observations • Lesson study • Video analysis Formalized classroom and system protocols and checklists to monitor and support implementation

Student academic and behavioral performance is assessed using a variety of reliable and valid methods. Effective assessment practices: • Increase instructional agility • Provide feedback about learning to students, parents, and teachers • Build student efficacy • Monitor student academic and behavioral growth • Celebrate teaching and learning successes (ACADIENCE, RI, MI) • Classroom Assessing • Team and School-wide Assessments • District-wide Standards-based Assessments • Comprehensive Assessments (e.g. RISE, ACT, ACT Aspire) • Specialized Assessments CSD Assessment System: • Screening Assessments

Structures in all schools that provide comprehensive support for academic and behavior monitoring. Building Leadership Teams (BLT) use data to: • Design a tiered system of academic and social/emotional supports • Plan professional development • Develop CSIP goals and monitor progress • Monitor implementation effectiveness across tiers Instructional Professional Learning Communities (IPLC) use data to: • Design instructional adjustments needed to ensure success for all students • Plan for increasing the intensity of core scaffolds to address social emotional needs of students as needed • Refer students for consideration of more intensive standardized interventions as need arises Student Support Teams (SST) use data to: • Design, implement, and monitor intervention plans for individual students whose social/ emotional needs require more intensive, individualized supports

Multiple data sources are used for ongoing problem solving and equitable decision making across tiers. Standardized problem solving process is used by teams to identify, analyze, plan, and evaluate relevant data in a timely and consistent manner to: • Identify academic and behavioral risk • Analyze relevant data in teams (e.g. BLT, IPLC, SST) • Plan implementation of academic and behavioral interventions as student needs indicate effectiveness of academic and behavioral instruction across tiers using valid and reliable data (student and teacher data) • Monitor and evaluate

Instructional content aligned with the Utah Core Standards School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) Curriculum maps with common pacing guides Scientifically research-based programs Standards-based instruction and reporting Cognitive Rigor (Depth of Knowledge—DOK) International Society for Technology in Education Standards (ISTE) World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA) Federal and state requirements (IEP, 504, ELs)

Classroom instructional time prioritized for instruction of standards Individual and team planning time intentionally increases the application of evidence-based instructional priorities and standards for instruction Master schedule considers the learning needs of the student population Scheduling ensured for: • Intervention and skill-based instruction • Special Education services • English Language Development (ELD)

(WIDA, IDEA eligibility assessments, Phonics Surveys)

P UBLIC P RACTICE AND C OACHING S UPPORTS

March 2019 - V.8.2

All students will graduate from Canyons School District college-, career-, and citizenship- ready.

Major Academic Commitments: 1. Promote school and community engagement that supports students in becoming college-, career-, and citizenship-ready. 2. Implement a comprehensive educational system that aligns quality curriculum, instruction, and assessment resulting in students becoming college-, career-, and citizenship-ready. 3. Recruit, develop, support and retain quality educators who are committed to preparing students for college, career, and citizenship.

March 2019 - V.8.2

Our time with students is limited and valuable. Every minute should be spent using the practices that are most likely to be successful. This requires us to shift our perspective from focusing on instructional practices that work, to focusing on what instructional practices work BEST. INSTRUCTIONAL PRIORITIES High Yielding Strategies to increase Student Achievement and Engagement

What Works Best? Meta-analysis offers the strongest evidence base for determining what works best. “A Meta-analysis is a summary, or synthesis of relevant research findings. It looks at all of the individual studies done on a particular topic and summarizes them.” (Marzano, 2000). A meta-analysis is simply a study of studies. A meta-analysis explains the results across studies using effect size (ES). Average effect sizes for one year of instruction are 0.20 to 0.40 (Hattie, 2009). Thus, the hinge point for determining what works best is 0.40. Instructional practices above 0.40 have a higher likelihood of increasing learning beyond typical growth than those practices below the hinge-point (Hattie, 2009).

INSTRUCTIONAL PRIORITIES FOR ACADEMICS High Yielding Strategies to increase Student Achievement and Engagement

Effect Size

Priority

Critical Actions for Educators

*Provide clear learning intentions for students daily. *Share rubrics, exemplars, models prior to student work time. *Assess to identify who needs further support.

0.75 1

Teacher Clarity

*Give clear, straightforward, and unequivocal directions. *Explain, demonstrate and model. Introduce skills in a specific and logical order. Supporting sequence of instruction in lesson plans. *Break skills down into manageable steps. Review frequently. *Demonstrate the skills for students and give opportunity to practice skills independently. *Explicitly teach a skill to students by explaining, demonstrating, and modeling. *Build the skill through practice and use, to gain automaticity. *Provide students with multiple opportunities to apply the skill. *Explicitly teach critical vocabulary before students are expected to use it in context. *Teach students to say, define, and use critical vocabulary in discreet steps. *Explicitly teach common academic vocabulary across all content areas. * Create norms for classroom discussions. *Use prompts and cues to help students zero in on new learning, remember critical points, and connect to previous learning.

Explicit Instruction (I do, We do, Y’all do, You do) Instructional Hierarchy: Acquisition Automaticity Application (AAA)

0.59 1

0.58 1

Systematic Vocabulary Development

0.67 1

Structured Classroom Discussion

0.82 1

*Scaffold discussion by using structured discussion frames. *Provide opportunities for verbal and written practice. *Use academic language.

*Actively engage ALL students in learning; students are active when they are saying, writing, or doing.

Maximizing Opportunities to Respond (OTR)

0.60 2

*Pace instruction to allow for frequent student responses. *Call on a wide variety of students throughout each period.

*Provide timely prompts that indicate when students have done something correctly or incorrectly. *Give students the opportunity to use the feedback to continue their learning process. *End feedback cycles with the student performing the skill correctly and receiving positive acknowledgement. *Present information at various levels of difficulty. *Use data to identify needs and create small groups to target specific skills. *Frequently analyze current data and move students within groups depending on their changing needs.

0.75 1

Feedback

Scaffolded Instruction and Grouping Structures

0.49 1

1 Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning . New York, NY: Routledge. 2 Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement . New York, NY: Routledge.

INSTRUCTIONAL AGILITY Intentional Maneuvers to Make in Response to Evidence of Student Learning

Teacher agility, as defined by Tom Schimmer (2014), is an intentional maneuver that a teacher makes in response to evidence of student learning. In order to make these intentional maneuvers, teachers must teach and assess simultaneously. As teachers gather evidence from informal assessments, they make flexible and precise decisions about which maneuvers to make and where to spend more instructional time. The instructional priorities are the tools teachers use to become agile when moving students through the instructional hierarchy (acquisition, automaticity, application.) Teachers utilize Opportunities To Respond (OTRs) to check for student understanding often, and to provide feedback to students. The information obtained through OTRs allows teachers to determine where a student is in the instructional hierarchy, and what strategies to employ for student success. Do students need more explicit instruction so they can acquire or become automatic at a skill? Should a different scaffold be used during explicit instruction since most students aren’t understanding? Which students have become automatic and are ready to go to the application phase? etc.

Critical Actions for Educators *Incorporate informal assessment (OTRs) regularly. *Feedback from students determine teachers’ next instructional steps.

TEACHER CLARITY Effect Size 0.75 Implementation Tools & Resources

When teachers are clear in the expectations and instruction, students learn more. Fedick (1990) defined teacher clarity as “a measure of the clarity of communication between teachers and students in both directions” and further described it across four dimensions: 1. Clarity of organization, such that lesson tasks, assignments, and activities include links to the objectives and outcomes of learning. 2. Clarity of explanation, such that information is relevant, accurate, and comprehensible to students. 3. Clarity of examples and guided practice, such that the lesson, such that the lesson includes information that is illustrative and illuminating as students gradually move to independence, making progress with less support from the teacher. 4. Clarity of assessment of student learning, such that the teacher is regularly seeking out the acting upon the feedback he or she receives from student, especially through their verbal and written responses. Teacher Expectations have a powerful influence on student achievement, with an effect size of 0.43 (Hattie 2009). Establishing and communicating learning intentions is an important way that teachers share their expectations with students. Analyzing Success Criteria is another way of determining the expectations a teacher has for students. A given learning intention could have multiple success criteria. Additionally, teachers that plan and create assessments also communicate expectations to students. Teachers with higher expectations tend to talk less, supporting students to talk more and allow for assessing students at deeper levels of understanding.

Critical Actions for Educators Unpack standards by: *Read Standard *Identify concepts & skills *Sequence learning progressions *Elaborate learning intentions *Craft success criteria *Modify for language form & function *Determine Relevance *Design Assessment *Create meaningful learning experiences *Establish mastery

AQUISITION An efficient and effect way to plan for teacher clarity is within an IPLC. Each of the 4 questions of an IPLC is answered as teachers engage in work around Teacher Clarity. The figure below provides an overview of how teacher clarity is linked within an IPLC. IPLC Question What is it we expect our students to learn? How will we know if they have learned it? How will we respond when some students do not learn/learn? AUTOMATICITY APPLICATION

Able to Apply Skill? • If no, teach application. • If yes, move to higher level/concept or repeat cycle with new knowledge.

Accurate at Skill? • If no, teach skill. • If yes, move to automaticity.

Automatic at Skill? • If no, teach automaticity. • If yes, move to application.

Teacher Clarity Component(s)

Teachers analyze standards to determine what students need to know and sequence learning such that it is logical and allows for both content and language development. Key components include: • Identify concepts & skills • Sequence learning progressions • Identify learning intentions • Include language expectations • Determine the relevance of the learning

Teachers are focused on how they will know if students are successful in learning. This requires that teachers first identify what success looks like, and identify summative assessment tools that can be used to determine mastery of the standard. Key components include: • Craft success criteria • Establish mastery of standards

Teachers must identify monitoring tools that can be used to adjust instruction and provide supplemental support for

students. In addition, teachers need to create meaningful learning experiences for students to help them practice new skills. Key components include: • Design assessment • Create meaningful learning experiences Adapted from Fisher & Frey, Teacher Clarity Playbook, 2019

TEACHER CLARITY Unpacking a Standard Implementation Tools & Resources

What Does it Mean to Unpack a Standard?

Begin by looking at a grade level standard and take it apart to understand what skills and concepts students need in order to master the standard. Unpacking a standard is thinking through all of the concepts and all of the skills in order to design the learning progressions and learning intentions and success criteria. The process involves analyzing the language of the standard and extracting clues that describe what students need to know. Nouns (concepts): represent what it is the student needs to know. Verbs (skills): speak to the skills students must acquire in order to make the concepts, and content useful. Example Standard: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Nouns: Textual Evidence

Verbs: Cite Support Draw from

Analysis of explicit text Analysis of inferences

Learning Progressions While studying standards and planning for instructional units, ask the question, “How

might the concepts and skills in each standard be taught in a logical way?” Although standards represent the end knowledge that students gain through interaction with the content, learning progressions help teachers plan out a pathway to student proficiency of each standard. Learning progressions are not individual, daily lessons; instead, they are the intermediate steps that students take to ensure they are

learning the concepts and skills in a logical manner. “…Learning Progressions detail the logical order of students’ learning, and teachers decide where to start and what to include, based on their knowledge of their students” (Teacher Clarity Playbook, pg 11).

Example Standard: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Nouns: Textual Evidence Learning Progressions: 1. Determine the major themes, plot, characters, and setting of the text. 2. Make inferences about the text 3. Create a logical claim based on the text. 4. Use evidence to support an analysis of what the text explicitly says. 5. Use evidence to support inferences drawn from the text. 6. Use formal reasoning to explain how the evidence supports your claim. 7. Use MLA format for citations. Analysis of explicit text Analysis of inferences Verbs: Cite Support Draw from

Learning Intentions

Learning Intentions communicate, in student friendly language, the learning that will take place in the lesson. Learning Intentions should be revisited and referred to often over the course of the lesson and contribute to student success. “When students do not know what they are expected to learn, the chance that they actually learn is reduced” (Fisher, Frey, 2019). Evidence indicates when students know what they are supposed to be learning they are three times more likely to learn it (Hattie, 2012). Teachers invite students to explain what they learned and compare with the learning intention stated at the beginning of the lesson (Teacher Clarity Playbook, pg. 21).

Example Standard: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Nouns: Textual Evidence

Verbs: Cite Support Draw from

Analysis of explicit text Analysis of inferences

Learning Progressions: 1. Determine the major themes, plot, characters, and setting of the text. 2. Make inferences about the text. 3. Create a logical claim based on the text. 4. Use evidence to support an analysis of what the text explicitly says. 5. Use evidence to support inferences drawn from the text. 6. Use formal reasoning to explain how the evidence supports your claim. 7. Use MLA format for citations. Learning Intentions: • I am learning how to identify important details in the text and how to share my thinking with a partner using complete sentences

Success Criteria & Relevance

Success criteria provide a means for the students and teacher to monitor progress toward learning, making learning visible to both the teacher and the students. Success criteria are not simply tasks to be completed, but focused on the success level to be achieved. They are the end product of careful planning (Teacher Clarity Playbook pg 54). Learners need to have some insight into why they are learning something. Taking the time to address relevancy fosters motivation and deepens learning. Understanding the relevancy of their learning moves students forward. Taking the time to address relevancy fosters motivation and deepens learning as students begin to make connections to larger concept (Teacher Clarity Playbook pg 54).

Example Standard: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Nouns: Textual Evidence

Verbs: Cite Support Draw from

Analysis of explicit text Analysis of inferences

Learning Progressions: 1. Determine the major themes, plot, characters, and setting of the text. 2. Make inferences about the text 3. Create a logical claim based on the text. 4. Use evidence to support an analysis of what the text explicitly says. 5. Use evidence to support inferences drawn from the text. 6. Use formal reasoning to explain how the evidence supports your claim. 7. Use MLA format for citations. Learning Intentions: • I am learning how to identify important details in the text and how to Success Criteria: 1. I can list important details in the text. 2. I can rephrase important details in my own words.

Relevance: 1. Understanding the important details helps you make sense of what you read. 2. Writers need to present ideas logically so their readers understand.

share my thinking with a partner using complete sentences

EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION Effect Size 0.59 Implementation Tools & Resources

Explicit instruction is a systematic method of teaching in small chunks, checking for student understanding, and achieving active and successful participation by all students. Student Feedback/Checks for Understanding

Critical Actions for Educators

*Give clear,

straightforward, and unequivocal directions. *Explain, demonstrate and model. Introduce skills in a specific and logical order. Supporting sequence of instruction in lesson plans. *Break skills down into manageable steps. Review frequently. *Demonstrate the skills for students and then give the opportunity to practice skills independently. * I do, We Do, Y’all Do,

I Do Teacher Modeling

We Do Guided Practice

Y’all Do Group Practice

You Do Individual Practice

Explicit Instruction is generally characterized with the following components: I Do, We Do, Y’all Do, and You Do. This model allows for instructional agility as teachers use student feedback to determine how to progress through instruction. For instance, if students are in the “We Do” phase, and the teacher has determined through checks for understanding that students are not understanding, the teacher moves back to the “I Do” phase to provide more modeling and examples.

Teacher Responsibility

Student Responsibility

Demonstrate & describe Use Think-Alouds Involve students Provide frequent feedback

Listen attentively Respond to OTRs Take notes (Cornell Notes) Ask questions

I Do (Teacher Modeling)

Heavily scaffold with prompts • Tell them what to do. • Ask them what to do. • Remind them what to do. Continual checks for understanding Provide feedback Reteach when necessary Set up small/groups and partners intentionally Continual checks for understanding Use precision partnering Provide feedback Reteach when necessary

Group practice with teacher feedback Ask questions for clarity Respond to OTRs

We Do (Guided Practice)

Practice skill(s) in small groups/partners Partner practice with teacher and peer feedback Ask questions for clarity Respond to OTRs

Y’all Do (Group Practice)

Monitor individual practice Provide feedback Reteach when necessary

Show mastery of skill Ask questions for clarity Respond to feedback

You Do (Individual Practice)

INSTRUCTIONAL HIERARCHY Effect Size 0.58 Implementation Tools & Resources

Acquisition, automaticity, and application are progressive stages of the instructional hierarchy. Each stage requires its own set of pedagogical approaches and assessment strategies. Learners follow predictable stages. To begin, the learner is usually uncertain and tentative as they try to use a new skill. With feedback and practice, the learner becomes increasingly accurate, then automatic (fluent), and confident in using the skill. Once fluency is obtained, the learner is now ready to be given opportunities to apply the skill in varied real-life experiences. Not all learners advance through these stages of instruction at the same pace. Some students need more time in the acquisition phase, while others will advance quickly to the application phase. Teachers utilize formal and informal assessments to help determine which phase learners are in. This feedback from students allows teachers to be agile in their instructional response in order to meet students’ needs.

Critical Actions for Educators *Explicitly teach a skill to students by explaining, through practice and use, to gain automaticity. *Provide students with multiple opportunities to apply the skill. demonstrating, and modeling. *Build the skill

APPLICATION

AQUISITION

AUTOMATICITY

Able to Apply Skill? • If no, teach application. • If yes, move to higher level/concept or repeat cycle with new knowledge.

Accurate at Skill? • If no, teach skill. • If yes, move to automaticity.

Automatic at Skill? • If no, teach automaticity with • If yes, move to application.

increased practice.

INSTRUCTIONAL HIERARCHY Effect Size 0.58 Implementation Tools & Resources

Learning Stage Goal

Action

Teacher and Student Actions

The student can perform the skill accurately with little adult support.

If goal met, proceed to Automaticity stage; if not, re- teach skill.

• Teacher actively demonstrates target skill • Teacher uses ‘think-aloud’ strategy-- especially for thinking skills that are otherwise covert • Student has models of correct performance to consult as needed (e.g., correctly completed math problems on board) • Student receives feedback about correct performance • Student receives encouragement and praise for effort • Students take notes, outlines, points • Teacher structures learning activities to give student opportunity for active (observable) responding • Student has frequent opportunities to drill (direct repetition of target skill) and practice (blending target skill with other skills to solve problems) • Student receives feedback on fluency and accuracy of performance • Student receives encouragement and praise for increased fluency • Teacher structures academic tasks to require that the student use the target skill regularly in assignments • Student receives encouragement and praise for using skill in new settings, situations • Teacher works with parents to identify tasks that the student can do outside of school to practice target skill • Teacher helps student to articulate the ‘big ideas’ or core element(s) of target skill that the student can modify to apply to novel tasks and situations • Teacher encourages student to set own goals for adapting skill to new and challenging situations

Acquisition • First learning stage • Teacher feedback to increase accuracy • Typically associated with DOK 1 Automaticity • Building habits and fluent skills through repetition and deliberate practice with timely and descriptive feedback • Typically associated with DOK 2 Application • Applying knowledge or skills to relevant application • Typically associated with DOK 3 & 4

The student has learned skill well enough to retain, to combine with other skills, and is as fluent as peers.

If observed, proceed to Application stage; if not, continue or move back to Acquisition stage.

The student uses the skill across situations and settings solving real life problems.

If observed, move to new skills and knowledge or move to a higher level concept; if not observed, try again or go back to building Automaticity.

STRUCTURED CLASSROOM DISCUSSION Effect Size 0.83 Implementation Tools & Resources

Structured Classroom Discussions are frequent and sustained back and forth dialogues in which students focus on an academic topic and explore it by building, challenging, and negotiating relevant ideas to build new meaning using academic language (Zwiers & Crawford, 2011). Classroom discussion is vital for academic language development, comprehension, and critical thinking across all content areas. • Intentionally planned discussions that target standards are essential for deep understanding of complex texts and academic content. • Discussion allows for students to co-construct knowledge through interaction between reader and text, teacher and students, as well as student to student. • Dialogue during reading includes the interaction between text and reader, but also the critical thinking and writing necessary to engage in the comparison, explication, reasoning, and contextualization of ideas, while increasing communicative competence. Academic Language is the formal words, phrases, sentences, and discourse features that students need to use and understand in order to succeed at academic tasks including content area specific language needed to speak, listen, read, and write for academic purpose and audience. Building academic language is critical across ALL subject areas, and is included in the speaking and listening standards in ELA, the math practice standards, the science and technical subject literacy standards, the social studies literacy standards, and in world language standards.

Critical Actions for Educators *Create and teach norms for classroom discussions. *Expect academic language during discussion. *Set a clear purpose for discussion. *Plan content (task/text context) that requires thinking demonstrated through class discussion *Model and teach examples of academic language use and structures. *Scaffold discussion by using structured discussion frames. *Use prompts and cues to help students engage in new content, recall critical points, elaborate, and construct meaning. *Provide opportunities for verbal and written practice. *Evaluate understanding and assess language use. *Provide feedback with purposeful questions that check, build and deepen understanding.

Participation Moves for Students

• Follow norms and expectations • Come prepared for discussion • Use discussion frames and language tools • Listen to others with care in order to: • Pose and respond to questions

• Elaborate, clarify, question, and persuade • Draw conclusions • Support ideas with examples • Build on and/or respectfully challenge another’s ideas • Paraphrase • Synthesize discussion points

K-12 Talk Moves Building Communicative Competencies with Talk Moves

Talk Move

Frames for Prompting

Frames for Responding

Re-Voicing Teacher repeats what students have said and ask for clarification Purpose: Students clarify their own thinking so ideas are available to others. Repeating (Paraphrasing) Restating what another student has said in one’s own words. Purpose: Orients students to listen carefully to the thinking and/or reasoning of other students.

• Is that what you were saying? • Tell me if I am understanding you correctly. You are saying . . . ? • Tell me more about that . . . • What do you mean when you say. . . ? • Give me an example of what you mean by . . . ? • What was _____’s idea/opinion/ statement? • Please tell us what _____ said in your own words. • What did your partner say?

• Yes, that’s right/correct. • No. What I (meant/said) was . . . • So you are saying . . . • I hear . . . Is that correct? • I think/believe/know . . . • My (idea, answer, opinion) is . . .

• I hear ____ say ______. • My partner said . . .

• What do you mean by . . . ? • I didn’t hear you. Will you say that louder? • Will you repeat that? • Can you explain that in another way?

Teacher Facilitated Discussion Moves

Adopted, Fisher and Frey (2014, Close Reading and Writing From Sources; p. 99) Discussion Move

Purpose

Example

Restating critical points to ensure the targeted information is sufficiently emphasized. Instead of simply responding to the question, teacher reposes the question to the student/group.

That’s an important point!

Marking

Redirecting students to do the thinking and responding Keep the speaking and listening opportunities going?

_____, what do you think?

Assisting students to build on one another’s comments.

Did everyone hear that? ____, can you add on?

Help others to recall points made by the group to build connections.

Can you repeat what ____ said? Can you add on to what ____ said? Can you clarify?

Link contributions

Ask for evidence and reasoning.

Verify and clarify

Refocus students on the text.

Where can you find that?

Press for accuracy

Build on prior knowledge

Link ideas from other texts and discussions to the current text.

How does this connect?

Cite textual evidence.

Why do you think that?

Press for reasoning

Expand reasoning with questioning and wait time

Press for elaboration of detail and further examples and evidence.

Take your time and say more.

Summarizing and highlighting statements to help students remember key ideas.

What have we discussed so far?

Recapping

STRUCTURED CLASSROOM DISCUSSION ROOM ARRANGEMENTS

ACADEMIC DISCUSSION FRAMES

State Opinion/Claim • In my opinion _____. • I believe that _____. • From my perspective ____. • From my point of view_____. • My opinion on this is ____.

Support Ideas with Examples • I think ____ because ____. • ____ is important because ____. • Based on the ideas from ____, ____, and ____, I think that _____. • For example, ____. • One complexing reason is that ____. • A relevant example is ____.

Building on or Challenging Others Ideas • I agree with what ____ said because ____. • You bring up an interesting point, and I also think____.

Paraphrase • What I heard you say was____. • So , you said that ____. • So, you think that____. • So, your idea is that____. • So, your opinion is that____. • So, You’re saying that ____.

• Please give me an example of ____. • Can you give more details on____? • How did you come up with that answer? • Why do you think that_____? • May I add something here? • I don’t really agree because ____? • My idea is different. I think that____? Clarify • I don’t quite understand your ____. • In other words, you are saying that ____.

Elaborate • For example, ____. • A relevant example I heard/read was____. • I have observed that____. • One convincing reason is that____. • A compelling reason is that____. • I experienced this when ____. Synthesize • It is my understanding that ____. • Based on the information, I think that ____. • I learned that ____. • My new thinking is____. • This makes me think of ____. Draw Conclusions • Based on the evidence, ____ is ____. • The data suggests that ____. • After reading ____ I assume that ____. • My analysis of ____ leads me to believe that ____.

• What do you mean by ____? • So, you think we should ____? • Are you suggesting ____?

Comparing Ideas • My idea is similar to ____.

• My response is similar to____. • My stance is comparable to____. • My response is different from____. • My approach is different from ____. • How does this connect to ____? Persuade • The evidence shows that ____. • ____is the best way to ____. • I don’t really agree with you because____. • I see it another way. I think ____. • I have a different perspective ____. • My ideas is slightly different from yours. I believe that____. • I have a different answer than you.

SYSTEMATIC VOCABULARY Effect Size 0.67 Implementation Tools & Resources

Systematic vocabulary instruction is clear, concise vocabulary instruction presenting the meaning and contextual examples of a word through multiple exposures. It is not the traditional procedure of having students copy a list of words, look up words, copy definitions, or memorize definitions. Systematic vocabulary instruction increases reading comprehension, allows for greater access to content material, increases growth in vocabulary knowledge, and supports struggling readers. Effective vocabulary/academic language instruction is: • Connection: Connect the new word to what the student knows, which helps to build the “semantic network” in the brain. • Use: Academic speaking and writing is constructed as we apply it, not by simply memorizing. Teachers explicitly teach words and their meanings that are: • Based on essential concepts • Unknown to the learner • Critical to future learning • Difficult to obtain independently (or through context) clues)

Critical Actions for Educators *Explicitly teach critical vocabulary before students are expected to use it in context. define, and use critical vocabulary in discreet steps. *Explicitly teach common academic vocabulary across all content areas. *Teach students to say,

Basic Instructional Protocol

1. Introduce the word 2. Provide student-friendly definition of the word 3. Identify word parts, families, and origin 4. Illustrate word with examples

5. Check students’ understanding 6. Deepen students’ understanding 7. Recheck students’ understanding 8. Review and coach use (possible extensions)

OPPORTUNITIES TO RESPOND Effect Size 0.60 Implementation Tools & Resources

Maximizing the opportunities to respond (OTRs) in a classroom increases student engagement. This allows for positive interactions between teachers and students, creates opportunities for teachers to provide authentic feedback on learning, and decreases inappropriate student behavior. Students are engaged through opportunities to respond when they are saying, writing, or doing (Feldman). When tied to specific learning objectives, increased opportunities to respond give teachers more opportunities to give students specific positive and corrective feedback on their learning and understanding. Increasing OTR rates also allows for greater feedback from the student to the teacher. This increased feedback leads to greater instructional agility by providing the teacher with specific knowledge as to which skill set, or content deficit, a student or class might have, thus allowing the teacher to determine if the class needs further instruction and feedback, or if only a small group of students needs more targeted instruction. As teachers move through the instructional sequence of acquisition, automaticity, and application, appropriate target rates of OTRs change. For instance, when students are acquiring new knowledge, OTR rates should be high, and primarily DOK level 1. As teachers move into the automaticity and application stages of instruction, OTR rates may decrease while the DOK level of the OTRs increase.

Critical Actions for Educators *Actively engage ALL students in learning; students are active if they are saying, writing, or doing. *Pace instruction to allow for frequent student responses.

*Call on a wide

variety of students throughout each period.

Structured Verbal

Structured Non-Verbal • Hand Signals • Point at Something • 4 Corners • Response Cards • White Boards • Student Response System

Structured Writing • Note-Taking: Cloze, Cornell • Graphic Organizer • Sentence Starter/ Quick Write

Structured Reading

• Cold Calling (Teacher Chosen) • Cold Calling (Random)

• Partner Reading w/ Comprehension Strategy • Choral Reading • Cloze Reading Guide • Model Reading Strategies • Task for each Reading Segment

• Choral Response • Think Pair Share • Precision Partner • Small Group Discussion

• White Boards • Summarizing • Technology

FEEDBACK BETWEEN TEACHERS & STUDENTS Effect Size 0.75 Implementation Tools & Resources

Feedback lets the learner know whether or not a task was performed correctly and how it might be improved. Feedback is most effective when it is specific, clear, purposeful, compatible with prior knowledge, immediate, and non-threatening. When teachers elicit feedback from students, and use that feedback to determine how to best help each student, a high degree of relational trust is built between teacher and student. This relational trust helps build a culture where students feel safe to answer incorrectly and receive corrective feedback without feeling embarrassed. Feedback from Students: Educational research indicates that feedback is one of the most powerful drivers of student achievement. John Hattie’s synthesis of the overall effect size of feedback is very high (ES = 0.75). He states that feedback from students as to what they understand, when they are not engaged, where they make errors, and when they have misconceptions, helps make student learning visible to the teacher. Feedback to Students: Specific positive academic and behavioral feedback, or teacher praise, has been statistically correlated with student on-task behavior (Apter, Arnold, & Stinson, 2010) and has strong empirical support for both increasing academic and behavioral performance and decreasing problem behaviors (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes, 2009). There is a continued assertion that teachers maintain a ratio of praise to correction at 3:1 or 4:1 (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes, 2009; Stichter, Lewis, & Wittaker, 2009). Feedback Types:

Critical Actions for Educators

*Provide timely

prompts that indicate when

students have done something correctly or incorrectly. opportunity to use the feedback to continue their learning process. performing the skill correctly and receiving positive acknowledgement.

*Give students the

*End feedback with the student

Type

Description

Example

Non-Example

Teacher indicates that a target academic or social behavior is correct. Teacher indicates that an academic or social behavior is incorrect (using a neutral tone and body language).

“Correct! 7 X 4 is 28”

“Johnny, pick up your pencil off the floor please “Try harder on your math worksheet; I know you can do better.”

Positive

"That's not quite right, let me give you another clue . . . “

Corrective

Example • Teacher provides an opportunity to respond • Student responds incorrectly • Teacher indicates that the response was not correct and provides an opportunity for correction • Student gives correct response • Teacher affirms that response was correct • Example: Teacher says, “Sam, tell me what 2+2 is.” (OTR) Sam gives an incorrect answer. Teacher says “No, that’s not quite right, let’s try again.” Sam tries again. Option A: If he gets it right, teacher says “Yes! 2+2 is 4. Good thinking!” Option B: If Sam still is incorrect, the teacher may move to other students to get to the correct answer. Once achieved, the teacher goes back to Sam. Teacher says, “Sam, what is 2+2? Sam gives the correct answer. Teacher says, “You got it! Excellent.” • Teacher provides an opportunity to respond • Student response is a partial response or could be expanded into a higher quality response • Teacher affirms response and provides guidance for expansion/ refinement • Student revises or elaborates upon previous response • Teacher acknowledges response as an improvement • Example: Teacher says, “Sam, tell me what 2+2 is.” (OTR) Sam says, “Oh, it’s 4.” Option A: Teacher says, “Perfect. Can you tell me what 4+5 is? Sam says “9.” Teacher says, “Yes! I knew you knew it!” Option B: Teacher says, “Perfect, can you tell me what 4+5 is?” “Sam shakes his head “No”, Teacher solicits ideas from other students then asks Sam to repeat the correct answer. Teacher says, “Yes, its 9. Good job.” • Teacher provides an opportunity to respond • Student response is fully correct • Teacher affirms student response and asks a more difficult question on the same topic as a follow up • Student answers • Teacher responds with positive or corrective feedback • Example: Teacher says, “Sam, tell me what 2+2 is.” (OTR) Sam says, “4.” Teacher says, “Correct, do you know what 20 + 20 is?” Sam says, "ummm, 40?” Teacher says, “You’re right, it is 40. Excellent!” FEEDBACK CYCLES Effect Size 0.75 Implementation Tools & Resources

Non-Example

• Teacher provides an opportunity to respond • Student responds incorrectly • Teacher indicates that the response was not correct, but does not provide another opportunity for the student to answer correctly • Teacher provides an opportunity to respond • Student response is a partial response or could be expanded into a higher quality response • Teacher affirms response, but does not provide guidance for expansion/ refinement • Teacher provides an opportunity to respond • Student response is fully correct • Teacher affirms student response, but does not ask a more difficult question on the same topic as a follow up

Corrective Sequence

Expansive Sequence

Challenge Sequence

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