Associate Magazine FBINAA Q2-2023

2023 Q2 FBINAA Associate digital magazine

FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Academy Building 8-102 Quantico, VA 22135


FBINAA.ORG | Q2 2023

F EATURE S 08 First Amendment Audits: How To Prepare Your Officers – Christopher D. Distel 12 Recruiting the Unrecruited – Tameca West 15 Meet the Section I Candidate 18 Mobile Tech Spotlight: Wichita Kansas Police Department – Dale Stockton 24 The Alcoholic Officer, Part Two: Substance Abuse Disorders, Treatment Options, and Expected Outcomes – Dr. Patrick Kenny 30 Addressing Organized Retail Crime With License Plate Reader Technology – Gregory M. Laurain 32 You Don't Know What You Don't Know Until You Have To Know – John Neal 39 FBINAA 59th National Annual Training Conference COLUMNS



04 Association Perspective 17 National Academy Update 23 Historian’s Spotlight 27 A Message from Our Chaplain 28 FBINAA Charitable Foundation EACH ISSUE 06 Strategic / Academic Alliances AD INDEX – 5.11

7 T-Mobile 61 CRI-TAC – JFCU


NATIONAL BOARD Association President / TIM BRANIFF Manager-Emergency Management Sound Transit (WA), Past President / KENNETH M. TRUVER Chief, Borough of Castle Shannon (PA),

Representative, Section II / LARRY DYESS Captain, Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office (LA),

Representative, Section III / TIM CANNON Special Agent Supervisor, Florida Lottery (FL),

Representative, Section IV / STEPHEN HRYTZIK Chief, Powell Police Department (OH),

1st Vice President / SCOTT RHOAD Chief/Director of Public SafetyUniversity of Central Missouri (MO) (Ret.), 2nd Vice President / CRAIG PETERSEN Sales Account Manager, ProLogic ITS (MS), 3rd Vice President / WILLIAM J. CARBONE Detective (OSI) NYS. Attorney General's Office, New York City Police Department (Ret.), Representative, Section I / JIM GALLAGHER Public Safety Advisor, Fusus, Phoenix Police Department (Ret.),

Chaplain / MIKE HARDEE Senior Manager, Covert Investigations Group (FL), Historian / CINDY REED Special Agent (Ret.), Washington State Gambling Commission,

FBI Assistant Director / TIMOTHY DUNHAM Assistant Director, FBI Training Division (VA)



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Q2 2023 | Volume 25/Number 2 The National Academy Associate is a publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc.

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CALL FOR ASSOCIATE MAGAZINE ARTICLE SUBMISSIONS Call for Article Submissions on 21st Century contemporary trends, challenges, and issues facing the global law enforcement community. The National Academy Associate Magazine, the official publication of the FBI National Academy Associates, is seeking subject matter experts 21st Century Policing Topics for Consideration: LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT TRENDS COMMUNITY POLICING BODY-WORN CAMERAS LEGISLATION AND IMPLEMENTATION EXTREME RADICAL GROUPS AND INTERACTIONS ON BOTH LEFT AND RIGHT HOMEGROWN RACE = BASED VIOLENT EXTREMISM CIVIL UNREST AND PROTEST ISSUES: PROTEST PROCEDURES/ACTIONS TACTICAL RESPONSE RECRUITING MEDIA RELATIONS FINANCES/BUDGETS DURING TIMES OF CRISIS RECRUITING DIVERSITY OFFICER HEALTH AND WELLNESS RETIRED MEMBER FITNESS to write original, unpublished, continuing law enforcement-related education articles.

Angie Wier / Acting Executive Director John Kennedy / Publisher, Communications & Grants Advisor Bridget Ingebrigtsen / Editor Dave Myslinski / Design

© Copyright 2023, the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this magazine without express written permission is strictly prohibited.

The National Academy Associate is published quarterly by the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., National Office, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135.

The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. is a private, non-profit organization and is not part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or acting on the FBI’s behalf. Email editorial submissions to Submissions may vary in length from 500-2000 words, and shall not be submitted simultaneously to other publications. Please see our submission guidelines for more information. The FBI National Academy Associates, Inc., the National Board and the editors of the National Academy Associate neither endorse nor guarantee completeness or accuracy of material used that is obtained from sources considered reliable, nor accept liability resulting from the adoption or use of any methods, procedures, recommendations, or statements recommended or implied.

Photographs are obtained from stock for enhancement of editorial content, but do not necessarily represent the editorial content within.


















On the Cover: The Colorado Convention Center, site of the 2023 FBINAA National Annual Training Conference, with its iconic "big blue bear" statue, peering through its windows.

For submission guidelines, please visit



Tim Braniff


T his will be my final correspondence in the Associate as your FBINAA National President and before the upcoming National Annual Training Conference in Denver. I want to ex press my sincere appreciation to many of you for your thoughts, feedback, insights, support, graciousness, and hospitality over the past year during my chapter visits, and during the recent Chapter Leadership Summit (CLS). Our “Life Member” and “Legacy” initiative came to fruition. It was a great opportunity to recognize those who built our Association over the years, with more milestones to come. This past year has not gone without its challenges as the member ship renewals made great progress through the end of 2022 but a slower than expected membership renewal rate year-to-date. Please encourage your chapter members to continue their in volvement with our Association. I still have hope as we continue to move forward throughout the remainder of the year with our “ROAR” Campaign. Having an opportunity to bring chapter leaders together in our first-ever Virtual Engagement Meetings (VEM) was not only a great milestone for our Association, but a great segue to come together at CLS to be face-to-face, and see and hear firsthand about ideas and ways to garner membership support through out the world. As we closed out our CLS this past March, we identified even more commonalities, and ways to collectively capture our chapter-to-chapter support and efforts to forge new ideas, inno vative thoughts, and aligning our chapter goals with each other. Now we need to put those ideas and initiatives into tangible actions and results. It was also another opportunity to see those behind the scenes, dedicating their efforts to make everyone successful. Our dedicated FBINAA National Office Team provided us with another great summit, being engaged to make sure we had a return on our investment of time and information to serve our chapters. I cannot thank them enough for the versatility, resourcefulness, and their effort making things better for some whom they have never met, or even worked with. As Cindy Reed , our National Historian, finishes her four year term this summer, I want to personally recognize her for her work and long years of dedication to our Association. I appreciate the work she is doing to rebuild and strengthen our historical archive files and to categorize, log, and track the important historical aspects of our Association. As Ken Truver transitions off our National Board, I owe him a debt of gratitude for helping me, not only throughout my tenure on the board, but more for his help and friendship over this past year. Thank you, Ken! As I turn over the reins to another

good friend, Scott Rhoad , I have every bit of confidence that he will provide the necessary leadership and guidance to moving the needle north. As I have seen over the past 40 years of public service, change is inevitable. As we start the search process for a new Executive Director, I want to thank Executive Director Howard Cook for leading our Association over these past five years. You have built strength and stability in our Association and opened doors for greater opportunities as we intensify our footprint in training and education for law enforcement leaders. I wish you all the best! Finally, I am proud of our Association and the work that was done by so many to make it better than when we started 10 months ago. I will leave you with this quote from Coach John Wooden, “As long as you try your best, you are never a failure. That is unless you blame others.” I believe we tried our best, and we will continue to become better as time moves forward.

God Bless you, and be safe,

Tim Braniff FBINAA President FBINA 226

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Law enforcement agencies across the United States must develop and implement training around the topic of First Amendment audits now more than ever. With the prevalence of social media platforms and emerging technologies, officers cannot escape the reality that every action they take will fall under the scrutiny of the public. Providing training on this subject will allow staff to respond properly when faced with such incidents. I ndividuals, also known as auditors, within a community initiate these events, as compared to organized groups seeking to achieve a common outcome. The auditor’s agenda is quite easy to determine based on their persistent efforts to catch law enforcement officers in the act of violating their First Amendment rights. The subject(s) is typically armed with a video camera of sorts and sometimes a confrontational attitude primed for eliciting a negative response from a law enforcement officer. The subject(s) goes out of their way to ensure they do not cross the line of committing a crime, but rather flirts with it and hopes to solicit an unlawful response. This is where better officer education comes into play. The auditor has likely studied exactly what they are legally allowed to do and what would cause law enforcement officers to make an unlawful arrest. If the officers involved have not been educated on the topic at hand, they may find themselves making inappropriate decisions. Should the auditor be successful, they will now have video footage for use toward filing a lawsuit against the targeted agency. TRAINING FOR SUCCESS Law enforcement leaders must proactively create a training curriculum for their staff, as this phenomenon is spreading across the country. Law enforcement agencies can better arm and prepare their officers through training for these often-tense encounters, and not only bet ter protect their staff, but simultaneously reduce the agency’s vicarious liability. It only takes a cursory search of the internet to find examples of organizations (e.g., city councils) agreeing to pay settlements to these auditors in the tens of thousands of dollars to avoid suit.

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Agencies need to collaborate with their legal teams and decide if any case laws (e.g., Glik v. Cunniffe and Gericke v. Begin ) surrounding First Amendment audits exist, and what legal impera tives are derived from those Supreme Court findings. Information garnered from this collaboration will prove vital when updating or writing new policies that govern an officer’s response. This exercise also helps agencies in setting expectations for how their staff should handle themselves during these encounters. Educating staff on applicable federal, state, and city laws or ordinances will not only make them better at their jobs, but also help them in distinguishing when a law has been broken while dealing with an “auditor(s).” “Auditors” tend to thoroughly edu cate themselves. Staff must be as educated if they expect to have a positive encounter. When more knowledgeable, officers are also less likely to respond emotionally when faced with these tense encounters. Law enforcement leaders must determine and communi cate their expectations as they relate to First Amendment audit response. Officers should never guess as to what their leadership expects of them when faced with a contentious situation. Staff make bad decisions when uninformed and will be facing adminis trative discipline, or worse. Agencies can avoid this by setting clear expectations. While enforcing the law, officers must work in the grey area on occasion, and this requires officers being comfortable with the expectations set forth by agency leadership. Each of these training topics include elements of emotional deci sion making; however, it is critical to remind staff of the dangers that arise from making emotional decisions. Time and time again, examples arise of situations where police officers use force unlaw fully based on an emotional decision. Properly designed train ing curriculums can arm officers with the tools and knowledge

While training helps officers make better decisions and creates more effective agencies, it also has the opposite effect should the training be designed improperly. Training time is of ten at a premium and talking about adding more can be enough to dissuade the most ambitious law enforcement leaders. However, it is incumbent upon law enforcement leaders to find the time to protect their staff, agencies, and municipalities. This is accomplished by understanding the objectives of an effective training curriculum, and the minimum training requirements needed to meet those objectives. Effective training curriculums concerning First Amendment audits should include a few topics, at a minimum. These topics include: • an in-depth look at how the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution actually reads; • any applicable case law surrounding the response of police officers to a First Amendment audit; • applicable federal, state and city laws or ordinances; • the agency’s expectations as they relate to interacting and dealing with those choosing to conduct First Amendment audits; and • emotional decision making. The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution reads as fol lows: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a re dress of grievances.” The First Amendment protects citizens’ rights with respect to “freedom of speech;” it does not stop an officer from acting when a law or ordinance has been violated (e.g., incit ing violence, disturbing the peace, trespassing, traffic laws, etc.). Providing specific training on this topic can help officers draw lines of delineation between these two vital concepts.

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TAMECA WEST, NA Session 282

Many people have heard the saying, “The community is the police, and the police is the community.” There is no secret that there is vast disparity in law enforcement in relation to minority representation. The last two years have magnified the glowing inequity. For hundreds of years in this country specific groups could never even think to apply for a career in law enforcement. T herefore, those groups are hundreds of years behind the majority group and must play catch up. Of course, everyone should meet the same qualifications as traditionally required. However, if those qualifications and standards make it difficult for whole groups of people to compete maybe those standards will be reevaluated and considerations should be inclusive of all. A quick survey of any police department will reveal an aver age of 5 to 10 percent minority members within their ranks and even less in higher command. In 2023, we need to stop talking and start taking action. These unprecedented times have also made our recruiting efforts more difficult. However, we cannot use this as a way out of intentional recruiting of the unrepresented in our depart ments. Law enforcement leaders owe it to their members and communities to actively solicit those reluctant to enter this profession. I have spoken to many recruits who would love careers in law enforcement, yet never thought it possible with my agency. Instead, they opt to seek employment in the areas of

probation, juvenile justice, and corrections. These professional practitioners make a positive difference in the lives of those in need. But by the time the citizen encounters them it is too late. We need officers on the front lines at the initial call for service. Recruitment of underrepresented classes must be strategic and intentional. We cannot afford to sit back and wait for appli cants to come to us. If we do, we will employ from the same pool from which we have always employed. Police work is tradition ally planned and methodical. We must practice this method in recruiting as well. As leaders of departments and agencies we must create a welcome and fair atmosphere. Once the culture of the agency is defined specific staff members will be selected as recruiters. Ideally, the recruiters will mirror those who they are trying to recruit. This does not mean calling upon the only minority to recruit. Sometimes that is all agencies have which is revealing as well. No one wants to be the token trotted out when the cameras are rolling. I do not suggest that only minorities can recruit other minorities. There are certainly people within the agency from all races and backgrounds who are capable of recruiting those who do not look like them. However, I would suggest whomever you select for the team, that those folks have a shared interest and desire to recruit the best qualified candidates who happen to be minorities. Specific locations, institutions, events, and organizations are fertile ground for recruitment. Historically Black College and Universities (HBCUs) graduate hundreds of students each year who would be ideal candidates for the job. Contrary to what the name implies, these colleges are attended by all races. In addi tion, the world must understand the only reason these colleges exist is because Black people were prohibited from attending any other colleges and were forced to create their own. It was never a matter of segregation on their behalf. This may take a bit of effort on the part of your departments because not every city or state has HBCUs so employees may have to plan travel to attend the college job fair or recruitment seminars.

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Verizon Offers Support Where It Matters, When It Matters. For many years, Verizon has supported Public Safety and the families of law enforcement who have made the ultimate sacrifice. To date, Verizon has donated more than two million dollars to the surviving families. These funds are distributed through Verizon’s partnership with the FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. In many instances, members of the local FBINAA Chapter will present the donation to the family. Please contact the office of the FBI National Academy Associates with information on any sworn officer killed in the line of duty, feloniously or accidentally. The Association will coordinate with Verizon and The Verizon Fallen Officers Fund to distribute funds to that officer’s designated beneficiary. VERIZON’S PUBLIC SAFETY OUTREACH PROGRAM Verizon is committed to supporting the public safety community across the United States and takes pride in its partnership with federal, state and local agencies. Verizon sponsors numerous public safety events, associations and FBINAA Chapters throughout the country. Verizon is a proud partner and sponsor of the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and Museum and a proud alliance partner of the FBI National Academy Associates. BETTER MATTERS.


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H ello, my name is Bill Gardiner . I am a proud graduate of NA Session 238. It is an honor to introduce myself as a candi date for Section I representative of this great organization. In July 2009, I stepped onto the FBI Academy Campus for the first time. Little did I realize the life-changing impact that moment was going to have on me. Like many of you, those 10 weeks significantly changed my approach to leadership and they changed my approach to life! My membership in the FBI National Academy Associates has provided focus for my leadership jour ney. I have become a better husband, father, law enforcement officer, and leader. Throughout my National Academy experi ence, I have met exceptional professionals that were thirsty for advanced leadership training. Building upon one another’s strengths has always been a distinct advantage for NA graduates. In my professional capacity, I have worked for the Idaho State Police for 25 years. During that time, I have served in nu merous capacities across the organization, including Operations, Administration, Executive Protection and Criminal Investiga tions. I started as a patrol trooper and now serve as a Lieutenant Colonel/Deputy Director for the agency. Each step along the way was a leadership lesson and a leadership journey. My experience at the National Academy has only enhanced my career each step of the way. I have been an active Association member since 2009. At the Chapter level, I have served as the Second Vice, First Vice, Chap ter President, and currently serve as the Past President for the Montana/Idaho Chapter. On the National level, I currently serve on the Community Engagement Committee. In 2016, I began serving as a Youth Leadership Program (YLP) counselor and was privileged to serve as the YLP National Coordinator until 2022. YLP has been an enriching experience – one that has given me a global perspective. I have interacted with students, counselors, and staff from every section, including our worldwide part ners. Many of those students are the children of active FBINAA members. Sharing time with your students has motivated me to continue serving you–the membership. On a personal level, the FBI National Academy has made me a better human being. I have been blessed with a wonder ful wife and three magnificent children. Lessons learned while attending the academy have helped me separate work from family. Understanding the role family and loved ones play in the mental health of law enforcement officers is significant to me. Moving that agenda forward will be a priority should I be elected to serve as a member of the National Board. The emotional,

spiritual, and mental health of our membership should always be a significant point of discussion. Advocating for advances in wellness and ensuring the FBINAA is on the cutting edge of training and research will always be a primary consideration. Furthermore, education is important to me. Before joining the Idaho State Police, I worked to obtain a bachelor’s degree from Idaho State University. As with many of you, when I attended the National Academy, I took advantage of graduate-level course work. Utilizing the Associations Academic Alliance, I completed a Master’s Program through the University of Oklahoma. It is only through education partnerships like this that I was successful in completing an advanced degree at a significantly reduced rate and in less time. I’ve spoken to too many members who would not have been able to further their education had it not been for their membership in the FBINAA. Law enforcement leaders eager to further their formal education, should not be limited because of a lack of resources. The FBINAA’s commitment to education and the professional development of its members should remain a priority. Should I be elected as a member of the National Board, I would continue this great tradition. Graduates of the FBI National Academy are no doubt, a cut above the rest and deserve every option to further their study of leadership and management. Over the last year I have visited many chapter retrainers across Section I. On one visit, the President introduced me by stating, “Bill is an NA guy.” Between you and me, this is one of the greatest compliments I could earn. Being an NA individual defines one’s commitment to the mission, values, and purpose of the organization. I am proud to say that I am an “NA Guy!” I believe in this organization and the good work we as a collective body do for each other and our communities.

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Sherie Rebollo Unit Chief, FBI National Academy ACADEMY UPDATE

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D uring sessions, the FBI National Academy (NA) holds various events, including Inter national Night, Texas Night, Louisiana Night, and others. On March 7, 2023, NA Session 285 hosted the first-ever Veterans Night, formatted loosely upon the rules and regulations of a typi cal military “mess night.” This student-led event highlighted and celebrated members of the ses sion who have served in the U.S. armed forces. The evening featured a performance of the U.S. Army Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps. Stationed in Fort Myer, Virginia, it is the only unit of its kind in the armed forces. Members of the corps perform in uniforms patterned after those worn by the musicians of General

George Washington’s Continental Army. Dated circa 1784, the uniforms consist of black tricorn hats, white wigs, waistcoats, colonial coveralls, and distinct red regimental coats. Participant response was overwhelmingly positive. The event allowed veterans to share some of their branch’s customs and to form lasting bonds with nonmilitary students. Session 285 hopes that future sessions will continue to hold and benefit from Veter ans Night.



FBINAA FBI National Academy Associates, Inc. Strategic DIAMOND LEVEL Alliance 2023

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A growing trend in law enforcement is to equip officers with smartphones and it’s driven by the sheer utility and empowerment that these mobile devices can deliver. The Wichita, Kansas Police Department is the largest police agency in the state, and it began issuing smartphones in October 2020, deploying them to all field officers, inves tigators, sergeants, special assignments, command staff, and support personnel. The phones came at a good time because they provided an effective way for Wichita Police Department to provide quality service as agencies across the nation were coping with pandemic concerns and the advent of social distancing.

U ntil a couple of years ago, smartphone issuance at Wichita Police Department was, like many agencies, limited to select command staff and special assignments. Officers in the field were using iPods to manage body camera videos and do basic photo captures in the field. But the devices relied on Wi-Fi and were limited in their functionality and efficiency. According to Baird, that all changed in October 2020 when the agency utilized the Connecting Heroes ® program from T-Mobile® for Government to issue 650 smartphones to all field personnel. Launched in May 2020, Connecting Heroes provides free, subsidized, and low-cost smartphone connectivity and technology assistance to state and local first responder agencies. “Without much of a technology budget, we had to improvise,” said Baird, referring to the use of iPods. “But Connecting Heroes changed that, and I don’t think our officers would have cell phones today if it were not for the program – the cost would be too high.” The phones provide a wide range of functionality, including audio and video recording, crime scene documentation, and support for managing body camera videos.

“We were able to send an officer out to a person’s home, then they could call the citizen from their phone and handle most situations without personal contact,” said Officer Tim Baird, who manages the smart phone program for Wichita Police Department. “This was great because the person-to-person communica tion was there, but without physical proximity. In 2020, that was very important to everyone.”

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Before having issued phones, officers had to make calls from the station or from their personal phones, and the caller ID would show as blocked or restricted. Not surprisingly, many citizens were reluctant to answer those calls. But Baird says that with the issued phones, officers have reported citizens usually pick up when they see a local number. Connectivity has been key for improving efficiency because officers no longer have to return to the station to access Wi-Fi. Tasks like uploading videos or photos and communicating with victims and witnesses are regularly handled from the field, resulting in shorter response times and improved service levels. “It’s just a lot more efficient because we have constant connectiv ity,” Baird said. OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS AND MOBILE APPLICATIONS Smartphones are now integral to daily patrol operations and the ability to quickly share information has been immensely beneficial. “The phones have played a role in helping locate missing persons in a very timely manner,” Baird said. “An officer in the field gets the information and a photo of the missing person, then sends it to the PIO [public information officer]. Even when they [the PIO] are at home, they can immediately post it to social media. There have been multiple occasions of people being found soon after the information goes out because someone saw the post.” Working in conjunction with Wichita State University, the agency developed PD Share, an application that is specifically designed to support crime and abuse victims by providing easy access to support resources. “PD Share helps get the victim in touch with a shelter or advocate,” Baird said. “The officer can pull up a QR code and the citizen can either grab it with their phone or the officer can text them the resource. It also lets the reporting of ficer easily share the case number and their contact information. It’s much more effective than a page ripped out of a field notebook and it’s more professional.” Wichita Police Department uses Flock , a powerful license plate reader system, and officers can receive real time alerts (with photo) on their phones when a vehicle of interest is spotted. They can also access additional information from the system without having to go back to their car or get on the radio.

Axon body cameras are worn by all officers, and they can use Axon View on their phones to access videos as well as apply rel evant metadata, such as a case number or category. Another app, Axon Capture , facilitates using the smartphone for evidentiary photos and videos, as well as to record audio. Officers then cat egorize and upload the files to secure storage. This can all be done from the field without the need to go back to the station, saving a great deal of time and allowing an officer to perform these tasks when information is fresh and easily remembered. Officers can also provide a link to crime victims so that they can upload home security videos or other information directly. Once uploaded, the files can be immediately reviewed and, if desired, shared with other officers or detectives. MobileDetect is a drug detection platform that permits in field testing of suspected substances including heroin, fentanyl, cocaine, THC, methamphetamines, and more. An officer first uses a MobileDetect pouch that provides presumptive chemical re agent identification. The phone is then used to scan the resulting color reaction and the results are instantly available to the officer, providing a more accurate in-field presumptive test that does not require comparison with color charts or less accurate subjective analysis. IN-VEHICLE/IN-FIELD CONNECTIVITY All of Wichita Police Department’s marked units and some unmarked vehicles are equipped with mobile computer termi nals (MCTs) that rely on cellular backhaul connectivity. “We have more than 220 patrol vehicles equipped with laptop computers in our fleet,” said Baird. “Each of those MCTs has a T-Mobile SIM card installed, providing officers with connectivity to necessary data bases and criminal justice systems while in the field.” Investigators are issued laptops that also have cellular connectivity, allowing for in-field follow-up work that would otherwise require a return to the station. The road ahead – 5G and expanded mobile capabilities Baird says that the agency is going through a smartphone refresh cycle and the new phones are 5G. In addition, new laptops will all be 5G capable. The additional speed and capacity provided by 5G will result in operational benefit, according to Baird. continued on page 21

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“I’ve already heard officers talk about the noticeable speed im provement with video and multiple-photo data transfers,” he said. “This helps when an officer is using a phone for large data transfers because security policies associated with smartphones require the screen to lock when the device hasn’t had a certain type of activity during a specified period. When large video files are being trans ferred, officers have to tap the screen during the upload to avoid it being timed out. With 5G, that won’t be necessary.” At the time of this article, Sedgwick County Emergency Communications, Wichita Police Department’s computer aided dispatch (CAD) provider, was rolling out an updated system that will provide full CAD functionality on the smartphones. This will result in a “connected officer” capability, according to Baird. “Officers will be able to receive calls when they’re away from their vehicle, plus run plates and DLs [driver’s licenses] through CAD. Ba sically, they’ll have full access to the information they need on their smartphones, regardless of their proximity to the patrol vehicle,” he said. Perhaps more notable – Baird says that officer safety will be improved. “Geolocation will be at an officer level, in addition to knowing where their vehicle is. During foot pursuits or large area searches, this is critical.” CONCLUSION It’s now been well over two years since Wichita Police Depart ment went fully mobile with smartphones and the experience has been a good one. Operational effectiveness and situational awareness have improved, and the level of customer service has increased. In sum, smartphones have served as a solid tech foundation on which additional capabilities have been layered while providing a level of general utility that no other single piece of equipment can match. You can learn more about how public safety agencies are im proving operational effectiveness, the Connecting Heroes program designed specifically for first responders, and 5G device, coverage, and access details by visiting

About the Author: Dale Stockton is a 32-year-veteran of law enforcement and founder of Below 100, an award-winning officer-safety initiative designed to reduce police line-of-duty deaths. He is a retired police captain from Carlsbad, California, and taught criminal justice classes for over 20 years. Stockton is also an accomplished technology practitioner who has managed major projects, including personnel locate devices, license plate recognition systems, and regional smartphone deploy ments. He is a graduate of NA Session 201.




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A s my 4-year term as Historian comes to an end, I have chosen to highlight Connecticut member Pat Carroll , NA Session 65 (this session graduated in June 1960). Pat was previously highlighted by my predecessor, Pat Davis , in the March/April 2017 edition of the Associate, which is available on the National Academy website under the Associate Archives. When Pat Davis wrote the profile, Pat Carroll was getting ready to celebrate his 94th birthday. By the time that this edition of the Associate comes out, Pat will have had the opportunity to celebrate a full century on April 20, 2023. There will be many memories made on that day to honor such a faithful alumnus of our great association. I first learned of Pat when I was contacted by a California member of the 80th Session, Bert Seymour . Bert had reached out to me asking if he might be the oldest member of the As sociation. I was able to connect him with Pat so they could share their memories. Pat later told me that the two often exchanged stories in their emails connecting California with Connecticut, a strong theme with all National Academy graduates. When I learned of the impending 100th year celebration, I called Pat and enjoyed a lively conversation with lots of details that made me envious of his terrific memory. I asked the inevi table question of what he believes is the secret to his longevity and brain health. He mentioned a few: • A loving marriage that lasted 61 years until his wife died in 2007. • A supportive family who gather every Sunday for brunch (they all live close). • A Black Russian cocktail that he enjoys once a week. Pat recounted that he has four children, 5 grandchildren and 9 great-grands (the youngest is only 14 months old). In the interest of brevity, I will not recount the pre-law en forcement portion of Pat’s previous profile in the 2017 edition of The Associate since it is available to all online. I encourage that you read it as Pat is a gifted storyteller. Included below are the excerpts that specifically mention his Academy experience: I was appointed as a patrolman on July 1, 1948, assigned Badge Number 18. My son Greg, who was appointed some 25 years ago, was presented with Badge Number18. In early 1960, as a Ser geant in the Youth Bureau, I was invited to attend the 65th Session of the National Academy. Only one person in the department had attended before I received the invite. That was my Chief, James Kraynik. I was surprised and I was honored, questioning if I could I leave my wife, Millicent and four young children for three months. At the time my oldest, Millicent was 13, followed by Marilyn, Patrick and Greg. My wife said, "Go" so I did; and what a wonderful, excit ing, rewarding three months. There were fifty-nine members in our class. All were male, with one being from Puerto Rico and another from Canada. We lived at various locations in the city (DC), near the Department of Justice Building, where our classes were held. Everything was in one classroom which is so different from today. I, along with several other classmates, stayed at a small hotel near Union Station and walked daily to the DOJ building where we had breakfast, and sometimes lunch in the Department’s Cafeteria. I was surrounded by wonderful people. We had great Instructors, The Oldest National Academy Graduate Cindy Reed THE HISTORIAN'S SPOTLIGHT

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Inspector Jep Rogers, Doc Watson, Charlie Donelon, L.A. Francisco and Butch Meyers, our PT instructor. The gym was on the top floor of the building and we did our exercises to music. Butch said our class was the first to "exercise with music." I will never forget our NA Counselors, SA Robert Ross and SA Newel "Red" Irwin. The DOJ building housed Director J. Edgar Hoover and Associ ate Director Clyde Tolson. I think I saw Mr. Hoover twice during my time in D.C. Our class photograph was scheduled for twelve noon in the courtyard. We were in formation with an empty space to the left and right of our Class President, Glen King, who was Chief of the Dallas Police Department. At seconds before twelve, Mr. Hoover and Mr. Tolson walked from the building to the front of our class, nodded, shook hands with Glen, stepped into the waiting spaces and within a minute the photo was taken and they were gone. Millicent and I met Director Hoover at his favorite D.C. hotel, the Mayflower, during our Session's graduation party. What did I like the most and the least about the Academy experience? The most, Firearms - the least - naught! Firearms. We would take a bus out to the ranges at Quantico with the only building I can remember was the range house where we met the instructors, learned all about our Colt 38 revolver and safety on the range(s). Would you believe, there were a couple of members in our class who had never fired a weapon? What a time with S.A's. Hank Sloan, Hal Light, and Big George Ziess. All of us with our Colt revolvers! Hogan's Alley would be like a carnival's side show today. A shooter would move from one station to the next with the scenario generally being a shoot, no shoot situation. I remember Big George yelling at me after I had fired six shots at a subject holding a gun in his hand. "Nice shot Red, you just got yourself an FBI Agent." I had red hair which I wore in a crew cut. George often told the story of occasions when he would meet Mr. Hoover and Mr. Hoover would look at him and always say, "You're overweight." George would always respectfully respond, "Mr. Hoover sir, I'm not over weight, I'm just big boned!" George retired from the Bureau many years later. I last heard he was enjoying the warm weather in Florida. Upon returning to my department I served as chief Range Officer for many years, just as I did during my years in the reserve. All this knowledge derived from those wonderful days on the ranges at Quantico. And what are among my favorite memories of the NA? Early on in our session we were informed that we would be required to submit two papers, the subjects of which might be added to the current curriculum or used in some manner to enhance the overall program. For my first paper I chose "One Man Versus Two Man Pa

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In part one of this two-part series, "The Alcoholic Officer" was profiled. The emphasis in part one of the Alcoholic Officer discussed the agency's responsibility to identify officers who are functional alcoholics, as well as the duties and recommendations for an agency to manage the alcoholic employee including policy, practice, and fitness for duty recommendations. In part two, we will discuss in greater detail the substance abuse disorder, the treatment options, and the expected outcomes.

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D an is a 45-year-old detective. He served in the U.S. Army upon graduating high school and became a police officer af ter his service at the age of 23. Dan is on his second marriage with two teenage children from his first marriage. He began drinking in the Army because it was what everyone did. As a new officer, there were many parties and many good stories that he still can not repeat. Of course, alcohol was the ignitor of all the fun. As the parties faded over time, he was now busy raising children. He began to have a couple of beers after work and a six-pack on the weekend at home. As time passed, the couple of beers grew into a daily six-pack and then into nightly drinking of hard liquor, to the point of passing out. He would wake up hung over and needed a "shot" to take the edge off. He would always carry mouthwash and wear heavy cologne to mask the smell of alcohol. He would call in sick for his shift if it were a "bad" night. While working and at home, he isolated himself from everyone; he slowly became the person nobody wanted to be around. Do you know Dan? WHAT IS ALCOHOLISM? Many in the law enforcement community see drinking as a rite of passage and a deserved break from the ills of society they police. Drinking can be social and relaxing. Most people do not abuse alcohol, but unfortunately, a few use alcohol as a tool to numb their feelings and emotions and mask reality. Law enforcement officers often appear to be "functional alcoholics,” meaning they manage their alcoholism to a degree where they can perform basic tasks such as working, paying bills, and maintaining some family obligations. The profession also enables these officers until there is a work-related issue. Unfor tunately, law enforcement is one of the few professions where an officer's decisions can result in severe injury or death. A functional alcoholic law enforcement officer cannot operate at a minimal level; they must always be "ready-fit." As discussed in part one, a functioning alcoholic is not fully fit for duty due to physical and cognitive withdrawal effects. The officer may not be intoxicated at work, but sleepiness, headaches, blood pressure issues, and impaired mental processing are part of withdrawal, making the officer unfit. The term "functional alcoholic” is a misnomer because an "alcoholic is an alcoholic." Functional alcoholics do not believe they have a problem because they earn a paycheck, minimally take care of the children, and pay the bills. Unfortunately, the functional alcoholic fails to see that substance abuse has taken priority. Drinking becomes a priority over work and family. The mental health of the functioning alcoholic erodes into depression and anxiety, isolation, and poor self-care. It is no longer about enjoying a drink but about getting drunk as fast as possible and numbing the body and mind. Alcoholics will find ways to lessen their work, family, and life responsibilities to maintain their intoxication. Often, alcoholics will find "enablers" who accept the alcoholic's duties in the workplace and at home. Additionally, al coholics will call in sick frequently, do the minimum at work, and make excuses for work errors, blaming others for their mistakes; they malinger and create physical ailments to generate sympathy. At home, the spouse enables the alcoholic by accepting additional responsibilities of caring for the children and the house so the alcoholic can maintain their addiction.

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Continued from "The Alcoholic Officer", on page 25

WHAT TO EXPECT AFTER TREATMENT? In the substance abuse field, there are two types of alcohol ics: active alcoholics and recovering. The goal is to remain in the recovery phase. Residential treatment does not guarantee lifelong abstinence. A relapse can occur at any time. Substance recovery is not a one-and-done treatment. In a residential program, the client is taught to seek outside professional assistance with a therapist and to actively participate in programs such as Alcohol Anony mous (AA), having a sponsor, and living a substance-free lifestyle and psychological care. A law enforcement agency is not responsible for ensuring the officer maintains sobriety; this is the officer's responsibility. The agency should never mandate an officer to attend AA. or other treatments as a condition of employment. The agency is respon sible for a "ready and fit" officer for deployment. The agency must hold the officer accountable and responsible to be ready-fit. As discussed in part one, an agency must have policies reinforced by responsible supervision regarding "ready and fit" personnel. How ever, an agency executive is responsible for providing resources such as peer support, life & emotional survival training, Employee Assistance Programs, health insurance that covers mental health and wellness, and treatment for PTSD. These programs help with removing the stigma of seeking help. Agencies that fail to invest in employee wellness have higher turnover, higher absenteeism, and more significant loss of employee work production. Agencies should be proactive and not reactive. About the Author: Patrick Kenny is a retired law enforcement executive, serving 40 years as a law enforcement officer in South Florida. He has a Ph.D. in psychology and is a licensed therapist actively treating first responders and veterans with substance abuse and other mental health issues. Dr. Kenny created and administered the Behavioral Services Division for the Palm Beach Sheriff's Office, Florida, and oversaw the administration of Fitness for Duty evaluations for the agency. He is a graduate of Session 237, member of the FBI National Academy Associates, presenter, and author. He is president of Behavioral Consulting, LLC., providing consulting and training to law enforcement agencies regarding first responder mental health, PTSD, and sub stance abuse. Dr. Kenny can be reached at

Clinically, the DSM-V criteria identify alcoholism as alcohol taken in more significant amounts and over an extended period, with an inability to reduce consumption. Much time is spent acquiring alcohol and recovering from its effects. Many have a craving upon awakening or throughout the day, and social/occu pational functioning is decreased, leading to isolation. The term "denial" is observed until the alcoholic identifies the consequences of their addiction and seeks help. Usually, there are consequences such as a loss or separation, divorce, workplace discipline, termination, or an arrest for DUI or domestic battery. WHAT ARE THE FIRST STEPS TOWARD RECOVERY? An intervention. Not like you see on television; rather, it is a direct approach with the alcoholic from a family member or friend, who will no longer tolerate or enable the alcoholic. A new set of boundaries are established. The alcoholic must be held accountable for their alcoholism. Alcoholics seldom see that they need help or know how to get help; if they did, they would have long before now. Most alcoholics in law enforcement will tell you that it is unsafe for them to go to a treatment center because they will come into contact with the people they arrest, which is unlike ly. Treatment centers are very safe and are not jails. Also, officers mistakenly believe going to rehab will affect their certification or will be terminated. Rehabilitation is covered under the FMLA. It is not the recovery that an officer is disciplined; instead, the actions occurring before created the discipline. As an employer, an intervention is a touchy area to engage. It is not your responsibility to mandate an officer into treatment; rather, you are policing their behaviors and readiness for duty. Using standards and policies to dictate expectations and perfor mance can establish the boundaries and the consequences of failing to meet them. This serves as an intervention without call ing it an intervention, allowing you, the chief executive, to ensure a ready-fit officer. A Fitness for Duty evaluation is an excellent tool to provide physical and psychological fitness. The psychologist will identify readiness based on the agency's job description and policies, and make recommendations to the agency and the of ficer to follow, such as rehabilitation treatment. WHERE TO TURN AND WHAT TO EXPECT? First, insurance is the best option unless someone can af ford the out-of-pocket treatment that can cost $1000 a day or more. Most HMO types of insurance do not cover detoxification or residential treatment care. Consult with the insurance car rier to obtain the level of coverage. The next step is to locate a program. Fortunately, some rehabilitation treatment centers have public safety tracks specifically designed for law enforcement, firefighters, corrections, and the military population. A search of the internet can provide the availability of treatment centers. Active alcoholics need detoxification to ensure they are safely and medically detoxed from alcohol. This can take a week or more. Most treatment centers have detoxification units. After detoxifica tion, the "client" is admitted to residential treatment. Residential treatment is where the work begins. Most residential treatment programs are 30-45 days of in-patient care, meaning they will re side there. Treatment includes individual therapies, group therapy sessions, a 12-step program, trauma therapy, and other evidence based treatments. The treatment center is essential, allowing the "client" to find sobriety for the first time in a very long time. The client develops coping skills and a better understanding of addic tion and treatment.


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