IIW History 1948-1958

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF WELDING

I'

1958

1948

~.

,~ I

INSTITUT INTERNATIONAL DE LA SOUDURE

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF WELDING

1948

1958

INSTITUT INTERNATIONAL DE LA SOUDURE

IIW

IIS

General Secretariat

Secretariat General

54 PRINCES GATE EXHIBITION ROAD LONDON S.W.7. - ENGLAND

Scientific and Technical Secretariat

Secretariat Scientifique et Technique

32, BOULEVARD DE LA CHAPELLE PARIS XVIIJe - FRANCE

Composition du Comite de Direction 1957 Composition of the Governing Council 1957

COUNTRY

DELEGATES-DELEGUES

PAYS

w. BERNARD I.J. FERRIS J .W . RODERICK

A ustralia

Australie

Austria

Autriche

R . MAREK F. RAPATZ A . SCHMIDT

Belgiitm

Belgique

C. CITO

P. GOLDSCHMIDT-CLERMONT P .V. J. MARCHAL

Canada

Canada

R .A. DUN r

R .M. GOODERHAM H . THOMASSON

Czechoslovakia

T checoslovaquie

]. CABELKA

A. ZAPJ_,ETALEK

Demna·rk

Danemark

K. CHRISTENSEN

G. H ANSEN H. V INTER

0. BRANDERS 0 . E rno R . ] ARNEFELT L . BLOSSET A . L EROY A. PoRTEVIN

Finland

Finlande

France

France

Gennany

A llemagne

R. D UMPELlVIA.NN E . H OUDREMONT H . KOCH

Italy

I talie

D. A v A)l'ZINI A. CUTTICA. U . GUERRERA.

J apan

J apan

H. KIHARA T. NAKA M. OKADA

COUNTRY

DELEGATES - DELEGuES

PAYS

Netherlands

Pays-Bas

H.G. GEERLINGS H.E. JAEGER W.P. KERKHOF A .H. BARLTROP J. CARROLL B. W EAVER K.O. LAMP J . NORDBY G. VEDELER J. PILARCZYK B. SzUPP A. Iv ANCENCO C . MIKLOS! s. ..[ ADASAN • J. KAZMIERCZAK

New Z ealand

Nouvelle-Zelande

Norvege

Norway

Pologne

Poland

Roumanie

Rumania

Afrique du Sitd

R .M. DALL

South Africa

R.L. GRAHAM H.W. SHACKLOCK

M. DE '1:rn6

E spagne

Spain

A. VILANOVA y

CUYAS

Suede

Sweden

W . EDSTROM 0 . FORSMAN A. H ARLIN

Suisse

Switzerland

A. B ESSON K . GLOOR C.G. KEEL

S. ANIK

Turquie

Turkey

N.~AR M. SAGISMAN • A .R. JENKINS G. PARSLOE R. WECK J.J. CHYLE F. PLUMMER w. SPRARAGEN C .A. BOCES M. RADOJKOVIC A. SAHNAZAROV D. URAN

Royaume-Uni

United Kingdom

E tats-Unis

United States

Uruguay Y ougoslavie

Uruguay Yugoslavia

The Executive Council of the IIW 1957

Bureau de l'I I S 1957

President (Italy)

(Italie) President

U. GUERRERA

Founder President P. GOLDSCHMIDT-CLERMONT President fondateur (Belgium) (Belgique)

Past Presidents

A nciens Presidents (Pays-Bas) (E.-U. A.) Vice-President f ondateur (France)

(Netherlands) (U.S.A.)

H.E. JAEGER H. BIERS

Founder Vice-President (France)

A. PORTEVIN

Vice-Presidents

Vice-Presidents

(Germany) (U.K.) (Yugoslavia) (Austria)

E. HOUDREMONT A.R. JENKINS M. RADOJKOVIC F. RAPATZ

(Allemagne) (Royaume-Uni) (Yougoslavie) (Autriche)

w. EDSTROM

Treasurer (Sweden)

Tresorier

(Suede)

Secretary- General

Secretaire General (Royaume-Uni)

(U.K.)

G. PARSLOE

Assistant

Assistant

(U.K.)

P.D. BOYD

(Royaume-Uni)

Scientific and Technical Secretary (France)

Secretaire scientifique et technique (France)

A.LEROY

Assistante (France)

(France) Assistante

L. BLOSSET

CONTENTS

Part I. Foreword

8

The foundation and objects of the IIW .

Chapter I.

IO

Organisation and Working Methods of the IIW Influence of the IIW at an international level and liaisons with other international organisations The impact of the work of the IIW on the different member countries The public sessions held at annual assem– blies .

Chapter II.

r8

Chapter III .

Chapter IV.

44 50 58

Chapter V.

Chapter VI. - The past, the present and the future

Part II.

Commission I. Commission II. Commission III.

- Gas ·welding and Allied Processes .

64 Bo

- Arc Welding . . .

- Resistance Welding . . . . . . .

lOO rr4 126 144 150 160 168

Commission IV. - Documentation . . . . . . . . .

Commission V.

- Testing, Measurement and Control of Welds .

Commission VI. - Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission VII. - Standardisation . . . . . . . . . . . Commission VIII. - H ygiene and Safet y. . . . . . . . . . Commission I X . - Behaviour of Metals Subjected to Welding

Commission X.

- Residual Stresses and Stress Relieving

180

Commission XI. - Pressure Vessels, Boilers and Pipelines

190

Commission X II . - Special Arc ·welding Processes. Commission XII I. - Fatigue Testing . . . . . . Commission XIV. - Welding Instruction . . . .

202

206 218

Commission XV. - Fundamentals of Design and Fabrication for Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

224

Part III.

234 235 238 243

Appendi.x I

Past and present officers. . . . . . . . . . .

Appendix II : Member Societies of the II\V . Appendi.x III : List of documents recommended for publication Appendix IV : List of the papers presented at the public sessions of the II"W .

TABLE DES MATIERES

Premiere partie. Avant-propos

9

Chapitre I. - Presentation de l'IIS. Sa creation, ses buts.

II

Chapitre II. - Fonctionnement et methodes de travail de l 'IIS . Chapitre III. - Rayonnement international de l'IIS et liaisons avec les autres organisations inter- nationales. Chapitre IV. - Repercussion des travaux de l' IIS sur les plans nationaux Chapitre V. - Les seances publiques des assemblees an- nuelles . Chapitre VI. - Synthese et perspectives d 'avenir .

19

39

45

51 59

Deuxieme partie. Commission I .

- Soudage aux gaz et t echniques connexes

65

- Soudage a l'arc

Commission II.

8 I

Commission III. - oudage par resist ance . . . . . . . Comm'.ssion n -. - D'ocumentation . . . . . . . . . .

I OI rr5 I 2 7 I 45 I5I I 6I

Commission V. Commission \ I

- Essais, mesures et contr6le des soudures

- Terminologie

Commission VII - No rmalisation . . . . . . . . . . . Commission VIII. - Hygiene et securite . . . . . . . . Commission I X . - Comportement des metaux du point de vue du sondage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission X I. - Recip ients a pression, chaudieres et tuyau- t eries . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission X II. - Procecles speciaux de soudage a l'arc Commission X III. - Essais de fatigue . . . . . . . . Commission X IV. - Enseignement en soudure . . . . . Commission XV. - Conception et execution des construct ions souclees et calcul des assemblages. . . . . . Commission X. - Contraint es ·residuelles et relaxation des con- traint es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I 69

I8 I

I 9I 203 2 07 2I 9

225

Troisieme partie. Annexe I

: l\Iembres p asses et presents d u Bureau . . . . . . .

234 235 238 243

Annexe II : Societes membres de l'IIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annexe I II : Liste des documents recommaudes pour p ublication Annexe I V : L iste des communications presentees au x seances p n bliques de l'IIS

FOREWORD

After ten years of activity, the International Institute of Welding believes it necessary to provide circles interested in welding with a general report on its work. Based on principles which, if not entirely new , are at least ve1 1 y different from those traditionally associated with international learned or industrial bodies, the I nstitide has benefitted both from a climate of opinion exceptionally favourable to the stitdy of the scientific and technical matters inclitded in its progra11i11ie of investigations and also from individual contributions of the highest order. This is, no doubt, amply proved by the resitlts described in the present volume; that they were achieved at a time when, in all countries, welding was being intensively and sitccessfully developed is perhaps not entirely a coincidence.

The Institute wishes to place on record its gratitude to all those whose work has made its achievements possible.

AVANT-PROPOS

A pres dix annees d' activite, l' I nstitut International de la Soudure eprouve la necessite de presenter a11tX milieux interesses a la construc– tion soudee, la synthese de ses travaux . F onde sur des bases sinon entierement noiwelles, du mains tres differentes de celles qui sont traditionnellement celles des societis savantes ou industrielles organisees internationalement, l' I nstitut a beneficie d' un climat exceptionnellement favorable a l' etude des questions scientifiques et techniques inscrites dans le champ de ses investigations, en meme temps que de concours personnels de premier plan. Sans doute, les resultats atteints, et qui seront decrits ci-apres, en font-ils foi; ils sont en tout cas contemporains, dans tous les pays, de progres evidents et de developpements intenses de la branche indus– trielle qui lui est propre, et peut-etre n'y a-t-il pas la itne simple coincidence. L' I nstitut desire timoigner sa reconnaissance envers toutes les personnalites dont le concours lui: a permis d' atteindre ces resultats.

PART I

CHAPTER I THE FOUNDATION AND OBJECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF WELDING The fou ndati on of the I nterna tional I nstitute of \Velding in 1948 was t he r esult of st riking successes in the application of \Yelding. Confronted with the t echnical problems raised at each stage in its development, which was rich in discoveries and from which many lessons were t o be learned , sp ecialist s in the different countries concerned felt t he need t o excha nge information and t o meet fo r discussion ; many personal contacts had already shown that there \Vas a ma rked desire t o \York t ogether at a n international level so as t o link and coo r– dinate exertions which , though often resulting in b rillia nt successes within the diffe rent countries, were being made quite independently of each other. F or a long time, rema rkable examples of welded construction a nd a consi– derable t echnical literature had shown that welding, t ogether with ma ny allied processes such as oxygen cutting, allowed the engineer t o achieve b older solutions a nd opened up fresh possibilities t o him. Welding enabled him to think out new a nd simplified designs, to make the best use of the properties of the metals em– ployed and of sections ; what h e designed was lighter a nd more elegant , easily satisfying the requirements of eco nomy in the use of materials, of logic in design a nd of speed in fabrication ; welded product s oft en proved t h emselves more functional - vehicles , for inst ance, t h rough the reduction in their dead weight , or ships through their lesser res ist a nce to the wat er. These new developments had favourable effect s on the eco nomy of industry in general, leading t o an appreciable decrease in the amount s which had to be invest ed in construction and equipment and to a fast er flow of work through the shops : these in turn necessitat ed far-re aching cha nges in the structure of en– gineering. In ma ny countries, industrial and public undertakings h ad carried out pioneer work and h ad sifted out much data on these problems, the syst ematic st udy of which they had entrust ed to « Institut es of Welding >l or simila r learned

PREMIERE PARTIE

CHAPITRE I PRESENTATION DE L'INSTITUT INTERNATIONAL DE LA SOUDURE

SA CREATION

SES BUTS

L'Institut International de la Soucl ure est ne en 1948 des succes frappants de la construction souclee. Devant les problemes t echniques souleves a chaque phase de cette croissance fe rtile en enseignement s et en clecouvertes, le besoin etait ressenti cl'une informatio n reciproque et de rencontres entre specialist es des clifferents pays qui s'y etaient engages; de nombreux contact s personnels avaient fait ressortir une aspiration marquee a un travail cl'equipe au plan inter– national, propre a unir et a coorclonner des efforts clej a souvent couronnes de brillantes reussites clans les cadres nationaux , mais singulierement disperses quant a leur ensemble. De longue elate, de remarquables constructions et ouvrages soucles, autant qu'une litterature abonclante, avaient revele que la t echnique du souclage, comple– t ee par de multiples t echniques connexes tel 1' oxycoupage, autorisaient l'ingenieur a une hardiesse plus grancle et lui offraient un nouveau champ de possibilites. Il pouvait repenser, pour les siniplifier, la conception de ses ensembles, appro– prier cl'une fa<;on plus precise les caracteristiques des metaux a employer ainsi que leurs profils; ses constructions s'averaient plus harmonieuses et plus legeres, satisfaisant avec aisance aux imperatifs cl'economie clans l'usage des materiaux comme de logique constructive et de rapiclite clans l'execution ; les ouvrages ainsi realises t emoignaient souvent cl' une aptitude fonctionnelle plus grancle, tels le cas des vehicules par l 'abaissement de leur poicls mart et celui des navires par la reduction de la resist ance a l'avancement. Le renouveau qui se manifestait de la sort e avait d 'heureuses repercussions sur l'economie de l'industrie en general, par une diminution sensible des investis– sements en constructions et en equipements, et par l' acceleration de la rotation du travail clans les ateliers : pareille evolution evoquait une veritable reforme de structure clans la construction. Dans nombre de pays, des entreprises inclustrielles et des administrations publiques, faisant ceuvre de pionniers, avaient clegage maintes donnees de ces problemes, dont elles avaient confere l'etude syst ematique a des « Instituts de

-12-

societies. These had been generally equipped to carry our research and stan– dardization work, to inspect welded constructions and to give specialised instruction to welding operators and technicians, and even to engineers. Thus much progress had already been made at a national level. The establishment of an international body met a Dutch-inspired suggestion put forward at the symposium held at Utrecht in 1947· A first meeting, convened by the (British) Institute of Welding, of which Mr. J. L. ADAM was President, took place the same year in London. A provisional committee was then set up to draft the constitution of the proposed institute and to define its structure. The committee was able to complete quickly its difficult task , meetings being held successively in Paris on the invitation of the (French) « Institut de Soudure »and in Bale on that of the « Societe Suisse de !'Acetylene ». On 9 June 1948, at the end of a t wo-day international meeting convened by the « Institut Belge de la Soudure » and held in Brussels under the auspices of the Belgian Minister of Economic Affairs, the International Institute of ·welding was founded at the offices of the« Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique » by the representatives of the following thirteen countries : - Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States; such was the original nucleus which, through the work of the General Secretariat, so many more mem– bers were later to join. Immediately afterwards, on II June 1948, the first Governing Council meeting was held at the offices of the« Institut Belge de la Soudure )). Composed of delegates previously nominated by the member societies, it then appointed the first officers, electing a President, three Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer and a Secretary General ; it drew up the annual budget and organised the initial series of technical commissions. These newly set up Commissions were placed under the direction of the emi– nent persons who were appointed their Chairmen. A detailed study having been made of the ground to be covered, the Commissions were made responsible for dealing with, respectively, the technology of the various welding and allied processes, standardization, the concordance between the relevant t erms in the different languages, testing and measurement and with metallurgical and con– structional problems. As regards documentation, on which a Commission was also set up, the Council was able then and there, thanks to the valuable support of the French delegation, to establish a quarterly bulletin of references to works published in all countries. Finally, the Governing Council made a series of arrangements to enable the International Institute to tackle immediately the activities defined in its Constitution. The experience acquired in the national institutions made it possible to lay dovvn precisely the objectives which might usefully be aimed at, and the means of attaining them. In article z of the Constitution it is stated that an objective of the Institute shall be, either by itself or in collaboration with other bodies, « to promote the development of welding by all processes ». To this end, it is first laid down that the Institute shall promote and encou– rage the development of welding, both as regards equipment and raw materials and the application of welding and provide for the exchange of scientific and technical information relating to welding research and education. This implies the three requirements which the scientist distinguishes as necessary for the development of a discipline : knowledge, explanation, anticipation; but these requirements are explicitly linked with a concrete policy for meeting them, a

- 13 - soudure » ou a des societes savantes similaires. Elles les avaient generalement equipes pour la recherche, les travaux de normalisation, le controle des ouvrages soudes et 1'enseignement specialise a l'usage des ouvriers et des techniciens sou– deurs, meme des ingenieurs. Ainsi, beaucoup de chemin avait ete parcouru aux echelons nationaux. La creation d'un organisme de caractere international repondit en fait a une suggestion d'initiative hollandaise, formulee au symposium tenu a Utrecht en 1947· Une premiere reunion eut lieu la meme annee a Landres, convoquee par les soins de 1' « Institute of Welding » britannique, sous la presidence de M.J.L. ADAM. Un comite provisoire y fut constitue avec mission d'elaborer les statuts de !'institution projetee et d'en definir la structure. En peu de temps, le Comite mena a bien cette etude delicate, a laquelle i1 proceda au cours de seances qui furent tenues successivement a Paris a l'invita– tion de l' « Institut de Soudure » de France et a Bale a celle de la « Societe Suisse de l'Acetylene ». Le 9 juin 1948, au terme de deux journees internationales de contact convo– quees par les soins de 1'« Institut Belge de la Soudure »et tenues a Bruxelles, sous les auspices du Ministre des Affaires economiques de Belgique, l' acte de constitu– tion fut acquis au siege du « Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique >> par l'adhesion des representants de treize pays qui furent : l'Afrique du Sud, 1' Autriche, la Belgique, le Danemark, l'Espagne, les Etats-Unis, la France, le Royaume-Uni, l'Italie, la Norvege, les Pays-Bas, la Suede et la Suisse; tel fut le premier noyau, qui, par les soins du Secretariat general, devait prendre une grande extension par la suite. Des le lendemain, II juin 1948, le premier Comite de Direction se reunissait au siege de l'Institut Belge de la Soudure. I1 etait forme de delegues designes au prealable par les societes adherentes. En cette journee, procedant aux pre– mieres designations, il nomma un Presi

14 -

policy justifying ·and necessitating a broadly-based international organisation to spread throughout the \\·orld the new techniques through which "·elding opens up wider po sibilities for the applied sciences. That such an expansion \YOuld lead to a natural, but also fruitful , rivalry bet\Yeen the different welding proce es was clearly foreseen by the founders, as were the difficulties which might re ult from it. For this reason it was stated in article 3 of the Constitution that « the Institute shall not engage in commercial or trade activities and in particular hall not concern itself with prices, wage rates, markets or agencies». Indeed, the action of the Institute cannot be other than disinterested. In the course of its work difficult problems may a rise, in particular " ·hen new proce es appear, because the Institute's duty is simulta– neously to promote progress and to prevent competitive advantages being aained from its support. As will later appear, the Institute has laid dovm its policy clearly ancl firmly in this connexion. Article 3 also st a t es that the « Institute shall assist in the formu lation of international standards for "IWlding in collaboration with the International Standards Organization » : this it has been able to do effectively as a result of its close participation in the work of I O/TC 44. Finally, it is laid dom1 that it shall « organise periodical congresses » : as regards this last point, the traditional pattern of congress was adopted, but \Yith variations designed to promote team work a t an international level. The most prominent and characteristic feature of the Institute is, in fact, the permanent work of the Commissions which meet regularly at, and also between, the annual assemblies. For each group of problems, they have brought together the appropriate experts from the most authoritati,-e circles : from tmivPrsities, from resea rch centres and in pection authorities, from the t echnical departments of important administrations and public services, from technical and profe sional education and, especially, from industry properly speaking - producers of metals, manufacturers, makers of welding supplies and users of welded products ; the enior technical staff from the design office , the work– shops and the laboratories of each of these branches play their part. Because it brought together ex.pert in all these subjects the II\V had access to a field of observation and of studies which \\'a to become, as it were, universal and it could put the experimental method into practice \Yherever "·ork within its terms of reference was beincr done. · Further on in thi book, details " ·ill be found of the technical structure which, in course of time, gre"· from these first foundations; of the outstanding contribution made by the cientific and Technical ecretariat which was soon aftenvards esta– blished in Paris; and of the most valuable support which resulted from the organisation of public sessions for the presentation of papers on special subjects . Readers will also be able to appreciate the outstanding quality of the contri– butions made by a large number of individuals who have supported the Institute and to \\·horn it is indebted for man) results already achieved. When, from a greater distance in time, the true scope of these results can be seen , it may be confidently predicted that they will constitute an encyclopaedia of welding and allied subj ects, the principles of which will thus be permanently defined, \Yhatever changes the constant process of evolution may bring; it would not be an exao-geration to see the II\~ 's \\'Ork as con isting of univer al and con– tinuous scientific investigation. , to " ·hich all the ressources of pure and applied science are constantly called upon to contribute. :\.t the plenary session of the II\ " ·hich was held in Paris, Professor P oRTEvr:; emphasised in striking terms the many-sidedness of welding, in which the majority of the scientific discipline· play a part, often an unaccustomed one:

-15-

citement liees a un principe cl'action concrete, qui justifie et nece site une orga– nisation internationale sur les bases les t)lus larges : car il s'agit en l'espece de sciences appliquees, l'intention etant de repanclre cle par le moncle le t echniques nouvelles clont le soudage les enrichit. Que pareille expansion exalt e entre les clifferents procedes cle soudure une emulation naturelle, et d'ailleurs feconcle, c'e t ce que les fondateurs ont aperc;u tres clairement, comme aussi les difficulte qui pouvaient en naltre. C'est pourquoi les st atuts disposent en leur article 3 que « l'Institut s'interclit toute activite· cl'orclre commercial ou inclustriel et en particulicr nc s'occupe pas de question de prix, cle salaires, cle marches ou cle representations ». L 'action de l'Institut International ne peut etre, en effet, que clesinteressee. Des problemes clelicats peuvent done se po er pour lui en cours de route, notarnment lors cle !'apparition de procecles nouveaux : car il a le devoir a la fois cle favoriser t ons les progres et d'eviter que son appui n'apporte a quiconque des avantages concurrentiels. On verra plus loin que l'Institut a tres nettement et fermement fi:s:e sa politique ace suj et. L 'article 3 clit encore que 1' « Institut participe a l'etablissement de norme internationales relatives a la souclure en collaboration avec !'organisation inter– nationale de normalisation )) : ce a quoi, grace a une etroite participation aux travaux cle l'ISO/TC44, il a pu proceder efficacement. Enfin, qu'il « organise des congres periocliques n : sur ce dernier point, Ja forme classique des congres a ete effectivement acloptee, mais avec des variantes propres a pr6mouvoir le travail cl'equipe clans le cadre international. C'est, en effet, le traYail permanent des commissions techniques et de leurs mem br ", regulierement reunis au cours des sessions annuelles et merne dans leurs intervall es, qui deYait donner sa physionomie propre a l'institution. Leur reseau allait perrnettre, pour chaque groupe de problemes, de reunir des competences ressortissant aux milieux les plus autorises : a 1' enseignement superieur, aux labo– rat oires et centres de recherches et de contr6le, aux Departements t echniques des grancles administrations et des grands services publics, a l'enseignement technique et professionnel et, en particu1ier, a l'inclustrie proprement dite, qu 'il s'aglt de producteurs de metau:s:, de constructeurs, de fabricant s de materiel de souclage ou des usagers des ouvrages soucles; chacu ne de ces branches intervenant avec le haut personnel specialise de ses bureaux: cl'etucle, de ses ateliers et de ses labora– toires propres. Par la reunion de pareilles competences, le domaine de l' observa– tion et des etudes qui fut mis a la disposition de l'II , devait devenir en quelque sorte universel et la methode experimentale y avoir pour theatre tout ce qui s'effectue en quelque endroit du moncle clans le cadre de ses disciplines. On trouvera plus loin des precisions sur la structure t echnique qui, avec le temps, est issue de cette premiere formation; sur l'appui remarquable que lui apporta bient6t apres le Secretariat scientifique et technique clout le siege fut etabli a Paris; sur l'appoint important qui resulta de l' organisation de seances publiques consacrees a des communi cations portant sur des objets particuli ers. On appreciera la qualite eminente des concours individuels nombreux: qui furent acqui s a l'institution et auxquels elle est redevable de tant de resultats deja atteints. Lorsqu 'apres une periocle de gestation plus longue, !'ensemble de ces resul– tats apparaitra clans toute leur envergure, il constituera, on pent l'escompter, une yeritable encyclopedie des technique impliquees, et celles-ci se trouveront clesormais definies clan. leu rs principe , iuelque rnouvantes qu 'elles soient clans leur constante evolution : il n'est pas exagere de les envisage r comme de vastes enquetes scientifiques permanentes et universelle faisant un appel constant et feconcl a toutes les ressources de la -cience pure et de la science appliquee. En t errnes frappants, a l' occasion cl'une seance pleniere de l'IIS t enue a Paris, le Professeur PORTEVI::-< a souli gn · la polyva lence de la branche de la sou– clure, 0 1'.1 la plupart des disciplin es scientifi ques trom·ent leur place avec origina-

-16 -

thermodynamics, electrotechnology, electronics, the mechanics of fluids, mecha– nography , the strength and properties of materials, the physics of matter and even physiology and medicine. « Furthermore, ince welding is the most modern means of construction, its development is unquestionably bound up with its innumerable applications which touch in their turn upon all human activities in which weldable materials are used ». Through the variety of its applications and achievements as well as through the calculated enterprise of those who create and use wel

P. GOLDSCHMIDT-CT,ER '.l:ONT.

H . BIERS U . S . A . Pres ident 19S4 - 19.'i7

W EDSTROM Sweden - Suede Treasurer - T r eso ri e r 1948.

P . GOLDSCHMIDT-CLERMONT Belg ique - Belg ium Pres iden t -fonda teu r Founder President 1948- 19.'il

GUERRERA

Jta li e - Italy President I 9S7- I 960.

S. BANSE Denmark - Danemark Vice-Pres id e nt 19S2- 19S5 .

E. HO DREMO T i\ ll em ag n e - Germa n y Vice-Pres ide nt 19.56 -19.58 .

L . I SAAC Belg ique - B elg ium Pres id ent du Comite prov iso ire C ha irma n of th e Prov is ion a l Committee 19.J.7 .

H . E . J AEGER Neth e r la nd s - P ays -Bas

P1·es id ent 195 1- 19:14 .

A. R. J ENKI 1 S Unite d Kin g d om - Roya ume-lJ ni Vi ce-Pres ident 1956- 1959 .

C . G . KEEL

S wi tze rl a n d

S ui sse

\° ice - P r es ide n t 19.=i4 - 19.'i 7

A . B . KI 1 ZEL U . S . A . Vice-P r es id en t 1948 - 195 1.

A. LEROY France Secrcta ire sc ie ntifi q u c et tech!1ique S c ien t ifi c a n d t ec hni ca l Sec r eta r y 19.'iO.

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lite : thermodynamique, thermique, electrotechnique, electronique, mecanique des fluides, mecanographie, resistance et propriete des materiaux, physique de la matiere, faisant meme appel a la physiologie et a la medecine. « Mieux, la soudure n offrant le moyen le plus moderne de construire, le developpement de sa tech– n nique se trouve indiscutablement lie a ses innombrables applications, qui se )) rapportent a !'ensemble des activites humaines qui font usage de tout ce qui )) peut se souder )). C'est ainsi que cette branche entre toutes, par la variete de ses applications et de ses realisations, comme aussi par l'audace sagement mesuree de ceux qui consomment et executent, met en evidence la grande loi du progres : si la pensee scientifique conc;oit, l'industrie est la matrice qui la fertilise; c'est grace a l'indus– trie que les chemins frayes par la science sont ouverts a une large circulation; en livrant a l'usage et a la consommation les applications de disciplines nouvelles, elle enrichit a son tour celles-ci du fruit de ses trouvailles. Parses developpements brillants, l'IIS fournit encore un autre enseignement. Les liens d'estime reciproque et d'amitie qui unissent tous ceux qui, plus nombreux d'annee en annee, participent a ses sessions toujours remarquablement organi– sees pour le travail d'equipe, leur deviennent aussi de plus en plus precieux au plan humain. Graces en soient rendues aux pays invitants qui ont su y faire regner le charme de l'accueil et l'attrait de leurs hauts-lieux historiques. D'heureuses et multiples rencontres individuelles ont attache a ces contacts, a ces sites et a cette collaboration, des souvenirs durables. Si les ideologies divisent les peuples, la science et le travail technique les unissent : comprise dans son sens large, la technique, qui plonge ses racines au plus profond de la pensee humaine, repre– sente une forme elevee de culture et d'humanisme. Elle est un gage de sagesse et de paix.

P. GOLDSCHMIDT-CLERMONT.

CHAPTER II

ORGANISATION AND WORKING METHODS OF THE IIW

r. ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANISATION.

• 1 1 1 ~1~ 'Int~rn ational Ins.titute of \ Velcling is governed by a body called t he Gover/ling Council, on whi ch each member country is represented by a delegation of t}ijee and has one vote. The Council meet s, normally , t wice a year at the beginning and encl of the Annual Assembly. Th e first meeting deals with admin– ist rative matters, such as the election of new members, the approval of the accounts and the budget and the annual report of t he act ion taken by t he Exe– cutive Council and the Secret a ri at s. The second meeting, to \\'hich t he Cha ir– men of the Commissions are invited, is mainl y concerned with t he reports a ncl recommendations of the Commissions. From among its own members , the Governing Council elect s the H onorary Officers who, with the Founder President and Vice-President and two last Pre– sidents, constitute the Executive Council. This body is empower ed t o act fo r the Governing Council bet ween meetings of the latter and it normally meet s h vo or three times bet ween Annual Assemblies . The p resent composition o[ this body is as foll ows : The P resident, The four Vice-P residents, The Treasurer, The Secret ary-General and the Scientific and Technical Secret ary, The Founder President - P . GOLDSCHMIDT-CLERMONT, The Founder \'ice-P resident - A. PORTEVIN, The two last P residents - H . E . J AEGER (1951-1954), H . BIERS (1954-195.7). The t erm of offi ce of all H onorary Offi cers is three years but the Treasurer and the two Secret aries are indefinitely re-eligible. The Secret ary-Generalship h as been held, since the fo undati on of the Institute in 1948, by the United Kin gdom and the legal seat of the Institute is therefore in London. Origin all y , the whole of the secret arial organisation r est ed on the Secretary-Gen eral, but, with the development of }he t echnical acti v ities, it be– came necessary t o divide the work in 1950. While the Scientific and Technical Secretary's functions are sufficiently defined by his title, the duti es of the Secre– tary-General are primarily concerned with the membership and finances of the Institute and with the organisation of the Annual Assembli es and meetings of

CHAPITRE II

FONCTIONNEMENT ET METHODES DE TRAVAIL DE L'llS

l. ORGANISATION ADMINISTRATIVE.

L'IIS est dirige par un organe denomme le Comite cle Direction, oi.1 chaque pays membre detient une voix et se fait representer par trois delegues. Le Comite se reunit generalement cleux fois par an, au debut et a la fin de l' assemblee annuelle. Au cours de la premiere reunion, il traite cl'affaires aclministratives, t elles que l'election cle nouveaux membres, l'approbation des comptes, du budget et du rapport annuel relatif aux decisions prises par le Bureau et les Secretariats, .tandis qu'il consacre la cleuxieme seance, a laqucllc sont invites les presidents des commissions, principalement aux rapports et aux recom– mandations de ces commissions. Le Comite de Direction elit parmi ses membres, les clelegues qui , avec le Pre– sident fondat eur, le Vice-President fo ndateur etles deux derniers presidents, consti– tueront le Bureau, lequel pent agir a la place du Comite de Direction lorsque celui-ci n 'est pas reuni. Le Bureau se rencontre habituellement deux ou trois fois entre les assemblees annuelles; il se compose actuellement comme suit : le President, les quatre Vice-Presidents, le Tresorier, le Secretaire general et le Secretaire. scientifi que et technique, le President-fondateur : P. GOLDSCHllHDT-CLERMONT, le Vice-President fondateur : A. PoRTEVIN, lesdeu:x derniers Presidents sortants: H . E. JAEGER (1951-1954), H . BIERS (1954-1957). Le mandat des clelegues est de trois ans, mais le Tresorier et les deux Secre– taires sont toujours reeligibles. Depuis la fondation de l'Institut en 1948, le siege du Secretariat general est etabli au Royaume-Uni, de sort e que le siege de l'Institut se trouve fixe a Londres. Initialement, toute 1' organisation administrative Hait confiee au Secretaire general, mais le developpement des activites techniques rendit neces– saire en 1950 le partage des travaux. La mission du Secretaire scientifique et t echnique est suffisamment definie par son titre ; celle du Secretaire general comprend principalement Jes adhesions, le service financier de l' Institut, l' organisation des assemblees annuelles et des

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the two Councils. In practice, the General Secretariat shares with the Scientific and Technical Secretariat in the translation of all documents, including the re– ports of the Commissions and material distributed for publication by the mem– ber societies. Though the work of the Commissions and Sub-Commissions continues through– out the year, it is through its Annual Assemblies that the activity of the Institute as a whole is organised. On the invitation of different national delegations, these Assemblies have so far been held in a different country each year; they last for a week and, in the course of ten years, the standard programme has undergone many adjust– n1ents. The constituent elements are always two meetings of the Executive Council, two meetings of the Governing Council and meetings of all the Com– missions, organised in two groups, A and B . Each Commission normally meets daily in the morning or afternoon over four clays; this arrangement makes it possible for the Commissions to approve at each daily session the minutes of the previous clay's meeting, these having been prepared in the interim by a Drafting Committee composed of rnembers of the Commissions. In addition to the meetings of the different constituent bodies of the Instit– ute, the Annual Assemblies may, and normally do, include : a Public Session for the presentation and discussion of technical papers on a theme determined by the Executive Council between two years and eighteen months in advance (r) ; technical film shows, the films for which are lent from different member countries, an exhibition of publications on welding, constituted by the permanent collec– tion of the IlvV,to which is annually added welding literature which has appeared in the different member countries since the previous year's exhibition. These latter items need not, under the constitution, be included in the programmes of Annual Assemblies, but they have been added to them over the years with the result that the programmes of Assemblies have become increas– ingly elaborate. These programmes are formulated in consultation between the governing bodies of the Institute and the member societies which are acting as host and they normally include provision for appropriate organisations in the host country to offer hospitality to delegates. The increasing importance of IIW has naturally been reflected in an increased attendance at Annual Assemblies, as the following table will show : - List of Annual Assemblies with approximate number of t hose participating.

1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1 957

Brussels

III 130 180 307 276 270 470 535 503 493

Delft Paris

London and Oxford

Goteborg

Copenhagen

Florence Zurich Madrid Essen

Most of the host countries have, in recent years, arranged for a series of tours, p artly industrial and partly historical and artistic, in the week following the Annual Assembly. The number taking part in these tours is naturally smaller than at the Assembly itself.

(1) See Chapter V.

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reunions du Comite de Direction et du Bureau . En outre, les deux Secretariats collaborent a la traduction de tous les documents, y compris celle des rapports des commissions et des documents distribues aux societes membres pour publi– cation par leurs soins. Bien que le travail des commissions et des sous-commissions se poursuive an cours de l'annee, c'est par l'intermediaire des assemblees annuelles que s'or– ganise l'ensemble de l'activ ite de l'Institut. A !'invitation des diverses delegations nationales, ces assemblees se sont t enues jnsqu'a present dans un pays different chaque annee; elles durent une semaine. Au cours des dix annees ecoulees, le programme-type a subi maints rernaniements; toutefois il cornporte toujours deux reunions du Bureau , deux reunions du Comite de Direction, des reunions de toutes les commissions sub– divisees en deux groupes, A et B. Normalement, chaque commission se reunit journellement le matin ou l'apres-midi pendant quatre jours; cet arrangement pennet aux commissions d'approuver les proces-verbaux de la veille qu'ont prepa~es . entretemps les comites de redaction composes par des rnembres de ces com1111ss10ns . Outre les reunions des differents organes constituant l'Institut, l'assemblee annuelle peut inclure, et c'est generalement le cas, une seance publique reservee a la p resentation et a la discussion des memoires, dont le theme est determine par le Bureau de 24 a 18 mois a l' avance (1), la projection de films techniques pretes par les divers pays membres, une exposition de publications sur le soudage comprenant la collection permanente de l'IIS a laquelle s'ajoute chaque annee la litterature traitant de la soudure et parue dans les differents pays membres depuis l' exposition de 1' annee anterieure. Les statuts n'imposent pas ces derniers points, mais ceux-ci ont ete inclus aux programmes des assemblees annuelles des annees ecoulees ainsi singuliere– ment renforcees. Ces programmes sont elabores en commun par les organismes dirigeants de l'Institut et les societes invitantes; ils developpent 1' organisation prevue par celles-ci en vue de la reception des delegues. L es effectifs croissants de · participants aux assemblees refletent l' impor– tance grandissante de l'IIS, comme l'indique le tableau ci-d essous.

Liste des assemblees annuelles et nombre approximatif des participants.

Bruxelles Delft Paris Londres et Oxford Goteborg Copenhague Florence Zurich 1\fadricl E ssen

1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957

III 130 180 307 276 270 470 535 503 493

La plupart des pays invitants ont prevu ces dernieres annees une serie d' excursions, partiellement industrielles, partiellement historiques et artis– tiques, durant la semaine qui suit l'assemblee generale. Le nombre de personnes y prenant part est naturellement inferieur a celui de l'assemblee elle-rneme.

( 1) \"oir ch apitre \ ' .

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Although representation on the Governing Council and the Commissions is by countries and subscriptions fixed by agreement between the national delega– tions and the Governing Council are also on this basis, it is the individual socie– ties concerned with welding which can become members. One result of this has been to stimulate the formation of welding societies in countries where no such body previously existed, in order that the welding interests could enter into a fruitful relationship with IIW. Another res ult has been to bring into exis– t ance central organisations in those countries where several bodies concerned with welcliug had liecome memliers of the International Institute of \i\Telding. Examples of the formation of a welding society where none previously existed are afforded by Italy, Spain, Yugoslavia and Uruguay. Countries in which a central organisation has been created to handle the relations between its several welding societies and IIW are the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Canada. The founder members of IIvV, which adhered to the constitution on its establishment in 1948, number twenty-one, and are dra\vn from thirteen separate countries. Every year has seen the addition of some new member society and normally of some new member country, so that, at the present time, there are fifty societies drawn from bventy five separate countries (r). Communication with and between members is an inherent difficulty of all international organisations. The official languages of the IIW are English and French, both of which are used at meetings of its constituent bodies and for all official documents. rrw documents which are approved for publication are made available in E nglish or French or both to the member societies for issue by them, after translation, if necessary . This means that the most important re– sults of the Institute's work can be readily available to engineers and techni– cians of the countries represented on it in their own languages. The InV may therefore claim to have had some success in dealing with this particular problem of international collaboration. G. PARSLOE. The activity of the IIW as a whole depends essentiall y on the work of its technical commissions. Unlike many international organisations whose principal activity t akes the form of holding, at regular or irregula r intervals, congresses at which papers on certain previously chosen themes are presented, the II\V has tried to obtain its results from the continuous cooperative work of a limited number of members and experts who constitute working technical commissions. The advantages of this formul a, which was deliberately chosen on the foundation of the IIvV, seem today to have been proved by expe rience. It is, of course, more impressive to hold congresses at which many papers are presented; but at such congresses, deference or inertia may prevent useful discussions taking place on the opinions expressed by the authors of the papers; the less striking but more discreet working sessions of the II\V commissions, on the other hand , enable detailed and practically uninterrupted work to be carried out since, between meetings, the members of a commission correspond \Nith each other and, if necessary, with the members and chairmen of the other commissions. In these conditions it is possible not only to compare different opinions and to draw worthwhile conclusions from such comparisons but also to prepare pro– grammes of work, to allocat e this work between the participants, to collect experimental results, to carry out investigations, etc. The commissions, in fact, work as t eams and this is the essential basis for true international collaboration. 2 . TECHNICAL STRUCTURE.

(r) A list of the present member societies is set out in Appendix II.

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Quoique la representation au sein du Comite de Direction et des commissions se fasse par pays, et que les cotisations soient fixees par accord entre les dele– gations nationales et le Comite de Direction, seules les societes memes, interes– sees aux problemes du souclage, peuvent clevenir membres de l'Institut. Un des effets de cette politique a ete de stimuler la creation de societes de souclage clans des pays oil de t elles institutions n 'existaient pas encore, afin de permettre une collaboration fructueuse avec l'IIS. Un autre resultat fut l'etablissement cl' organisations centrales clans les pays oil plusieurs instituts s'occupant de souclure s'etaient faits membres de l'IIS. Des exemples de fonclation cl'instituts de souclure, oil riep. n 'etait prevu auparavant, sont clonnes par l'It~lie, l'Espagne, la Yougo– slavie et l'Uruguay ; par ailleurs le Royaume-Uni, les Etats-Unis cl 'Amerique et le Canada mettaient sur pied un comite de contact, charge d'assurer les relations entre leurs diverse3 institutions de soudure et l'IIS. Les membres fonclateurs de l'IIS, qui ant adhere a la constitution lors de sa promulgation en 1948, etaient au nombre de vingt et un et appartenaient a treize pays clifferents. Chaque annee a vu !'affiliation de l'une ou l'autre nouvelle societe membre et eventuellement l' adjonction d'un nouveau pays, de sorte qu'actuellement l'IIS groupe cinquante instituts issus de vingt cinq pays (r) . Les relations entre les membres presentent les clifficultes inherentes a tout organisme international. Les langues choisies par l'IIS sont le franc;ais et l'anglais; toutes cleux sont utilisees lors des reunions des organes constituants et clans tous les documents officiels. D'autre pa rt, les documents de l 'IIS approuves pour publication sont clistribues aux societes membres soit en franc;ais, soit en anglais, soit clans les cleux langues, pour publication par leurs soins apres tracluction au besoin. I1 s'en suit que les resultats les plus importants de l'activite de l'Institut sont mis a la disposition des ingenieurs et des techniciens des pays mernbres clans leur propre la ngue. Ainsi l'IIS peut se feliciter d'avoir resolu avec succes ce pro– bleme propre a la collaboration internationale. G. PARSLOE. Le travail de l'IIS repose essentiellement sur l' activite de ses commissions t echniques. Contrairement a beaucoup cl'organisations internationales, dont 1' activite se manifest e surtout par les congres qu' elles tiennent a intervalles, r eguliers ou non, et au cours clesquels sont exposees des communications se rap– portant a certains themes choisis a l'avance, l'IIS a cherche a tirer parti d'un travail continu s'appuyant sur la collaboration d'un nombre limite de membres et cl'experts groupes au sein de commissions t echniques de travail. Cette formule, choisie cleliberement des la creation de l'IIS, semble aujourd'hui consacree par !'experience qui en a ete faite . Certes, cette formule est mains spectaculaire que celle des congres au cours clesquels beaucoup de communications peuvent etre presentees; mai , alors que, clurant les congres, les opini ons emises par les auteurs ne clonnent pas toujours lieu, soit par deference, soit par negligence, a des echanges de vues profitables, les reunions de travail des commissio ns de l'IIS, plus modestes et plus discretes, permettent reellement cl'accomplir llll travail en profoncleur et pratiquement ininterrompu, d'ailleurs prepare et nourri par une importante correspondance entre membres cl'une meme commission et, si necessaire, entre rn embres ou pre– sidents de commissions differentes. Non settlement il devient alors possible de confronter des avis differents en degageant des conclusions solides, rnais aussi d' elaborer des programmes de travail, de repartir les t aches correspondantes entre les participants, de reunir les resultat s experimentaux, de procecler a des enquetes, etc.. . I1 s'agit clone cl'un veritable travail d'equipe qui constitue une 2 . STRUCTURE TECHNIQUE.

(r) \"oir a !'annexe II, la liste actueUe des societes membrcs.

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